Larousse - Larousse Concise Dictionary French English - English French-Larousse Kingfisher Chambers (1999) - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2024)

▲ DICTIONNAIRE COMPA r CON ISE DICTIONARY 120 000 traductions 120,000 translations FRANÇAIS ANGLAIS ENGLISH FRENCH k M ■?•••LAROUSSE

LAROUSSE DICTIONNAIRE COMPACT CONCISE DICTIONARY FRANÇAIS ANGLAIS ANGLAIS FRANÇAIS FRENCH ENGLISH ENGLISH FRENCH

LAROUSSE DICTIONNAIRE COMPACT FRANÇAIS ANGLAIS ANGLAIS FRANÇAIS \ *■ LAROliltSE 21, rue du Montparnasse 75283 Paris Cedex 06

Réalisé par / Produced by Larousse © Larousse-Bordas, 1999, pour la présente édition © Larousse, 1993, pour la première édition 21, rue du Montparnasse 75283 Paris Cedex 06, France Toute représentation ou reproduction intégrale ou partielle, par quelque procédé que ce soit, du texte et/ou de la nomenclature contenus dans le présent ouvrage, et qui sont la propriété de l'Éditeur, est strictement interdite. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a retrieval system, without the prior written permission of Larousse. ISBN 2-03-401644-0 Larousse-Bordas, Paris Distributeur exclusif au Québec : Messageries ADP, 1751 Richardson, Montréal (Québec) ISBN 2-03-420302-X (hardcover edition) ISBN 2-03-420502-2 (paperback edition) Diffusion/Sales : Larousse Kingfisher Chambers Inc., New York Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 98-75566

LAROUSSE CONCISE DICTIONARY FRENCH ENGLISH ENGLISH FRENCH k * l\ .♦■• • LAROUSSE 21, rue du Montparnasse 75283 Paris Cedex 06

Réalisé par / Produced by Larousse Direction de l'ouvrage General Editor Catherine E. Love Coordination éditoriale Coordinating Editors Wendy Lee Patrick Whiti Catherine Julia Rédaction Editors Florence Millar Sabine Citron Liliane Charrier Valérie Dupin Véronique Athukorala Jean Bertrand Françoise Fauchet Carine Lipski Carole Coen Harry Campbell Donald Watt Karen George Margaret Ross Huw Davies Sara Montgomery Calum Short Jane Goldie Charlotte Boynton Callum Brines Informatique éditoriale Data Management Gabino Alonso Claude Nimmo Maquette Design Frédérique Longuépée

AU LECTEUR La gamme compact offre l'outil de travail idéal pour un large éventail de situations, qui vont du travail scolaire ou en autoapprentissage au contexte quotidien du bureau. Le COMPACT anglais & français vise à répondre rapidement et efficacement au plus grand nombre des questions posées par la lecture de l'anglais d'aujourd'hui, et par la rédaction de travaux, de lettres, de rapports en anglais. Avec plus de 90 000 mots et expressions éclairés par plus de 120 000 traductions, ce dictionnaire permet de pleinement apprécier textes romanesques et documents, de mieux comprendre la presse quotidienne ou hebdomadaire, de déchiffrer prospectus et notices, de faire une traduction rapide ou une synthèse. De nombreux sigles et noms propres, les termes les plus courants des aftaires et de l'informatique en font une référence particulièrement actuelle. The Larousse CONCISE dictionary is the perfect companion for a wide variety of situations, from language learning at school and at home to everyday use in the office. This French dictionary is designed to provide fast and efficient solutions to the various problems encountered when reading present-day French. It will also be an invaluable aid in preparing written work of all kinds, from schoolwork to letters and reports. The concise has over 90,000 references and 120,000 translations. It enables the user to read and enjoy a wide range of fiction and journalism, to understand trade literature, brochures and manuals, and to summarize and translate from French quickly and accurately. This entirely new dictionary also features up-to-date coverPar le traitement clair et détaillé du vocabulaire fondamental, les exemples de constructions grammaticales, les tournures idiomatiques, les indications de sens soulignant la ou les traductions appropriées, il permet de rédiger dans la langue étrangère sans risque de contresens et sans hésitation. Une présentation et une typographie très étudiées concourent à rendre plus aisée la consultation. Pour l'usager qui n'est plus un vrai débutant sans prétendre être un spécialiste, le compact est la référence recommandée pour être à l'aise en anglais. N'hésitez pas à nous faire part de vos

observations, questions ou critiques éventuelles, vous contribuerez ainsi à rendre cet ouvrage encore meilleur. L'ÉDITEUR age of common abbreviations and acronyms, proper names, business terms and computing vocabulary. Writing French accurately and confidendy is no longer a problem thanks to the CONCiSE's detailed coverage of essential vocabulary, and helpful sensemarkers which guide the user to the most appropriate translation. Careful thought has gone into the presentation of the entries, both in terms of layout and typography. For the user who has moved beyond beginners' level but is not intending to pursue French at an academic level, the CONCISE is the ideal reference work. Send us your comments or queries - you will be helping us to make this dictionary an even better book in future. The Publisher TO OUR READERS

VIII Abbreviations Abréviations Grammatical, register and regional labels abbreviation adjective adverb American English slane article Australian English auxiliary before noun indicates that the translation is always used attributively, i.e. directly before the noun which it modifies abbr/abr adj adv Am arg art Austr aux avant n Étiquettes grammaticales, stylistiques et dialectales abréviation adjectif adverbe anglais américain argot article anglais australien auxiliaire avant le nom appliqué à la traduction d'un adjectif français, indique l'emploi d'un nom anglais avec valeur d'adjectif' ; souligne aussi les cas où la traduction d'un adjectif est nécessairement antéposée Belgian French Belg British English Br Canadian English/French Can compound comp a noun used to modify another noun, e.g. gardening in gardening book or airforce in airforce base belgicisme anglais britannique canadianisme nom anglais utilisé en apposition par exemple gardening dans gardening book ou airforce dans airforce base comparative conjunction

continuous definite demonstrative especially exclamation informal figurative formal inseparable shows that a phrasal verb is inseparable, e.g. object cannot come look after "fused", i.e. • where the ' between the verb and the particle, e.g. I looked after him but not *1 looked him i after compar conj cont def/déf dem/dém esp excl fam fig fml fus comparatif conjonction progressif défini démonstratif particulièrement interjection familier figuré soutenu non separable indique qu'un verbe anglais à particule ("phrasal verb") ne peut pas être séparé de sa particule, c'est-à-dire qu'un complément d'objet ne peut être inséré entre les deux, par exemple I looked after him (et non * I looked him after)

IX generally, in most cases identifies the most common translation of a word gen/gén généralement indique la traduction la plus courante d'un mot Swiss French humorous indefinite informal infinitive exclamation interrogative invariable applied to a noun to indicate that plural form same as singular, e.g. garde-boue m inv : les garde-boue, sheep pi inv : four sheep ; applied to a French adjective to indicate that feminine and plural forms same as masculine, e.g. vieux jeu inv : /7s sont/elle est vieux jeu ironic literal in conjunction with fig, shows that both a literal and figurative sense is being covered by the same translation Heh hum indef/indéf inf tnftn interj interr inv iro/iron litAitt helvétisme humoristique indéfini familier infinitif interjection interrogatif invariable avec un nom, signifie que la forme du pluriel est identique à la forme du singulier, par exemple garde-boue m inv : les garde-boue, sheep pi inv : four sheev ; avec un adjectif, signifie que la forme du féminin et celle du pluriel sont identiques à la forme du masculin, par exemple vieux jeu inv : its sont/elle est vieux jeu ironique littéral

conjointement à l'étiquette fig, indique que la traduction donnée couvre à la fois le sens littéral et le sens figuré phrase(s) adjectival phrase adverbial phrase conjunctival phrase prepositional phrase adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions and prepositions consisting of more than one word, e.g. d'affilée, par dépit, en dépit de, bien que noun feminine noun masculine noun masculine or feminine noun be be adj locadv be conj toc prép n »f nm nmf depending on gender, e.g. dentiste nmf where you would say "un dentiste" or "le dentiste" for a man and "une dentiste" or "la dentiste" for a woman locution(s) locution adjectivale locution adverbiale locution conjonctive locution prépositionnelle adjectifs, adverbes, conjonctions et prépositions composés de plusieurs mots, par exemple d'affilée, par dépit, en dépit de, bien que nom nom féminin nom masculin nom masculin ou féminin dentiste nmf pouvant être "un dentiste" ou "une dentiste", selon le sexe

X numeral oneself pejorative implies disapproval, e.g. bimbo, catty, macho personal phrase(s) plural possessive past participle present participle preposition pronoun past tense registered trademark words considered to be trademarks have been designated in this dictionary by the symbol ®. However, neither the presence nor the absence of such designation should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademark. relative someone, somebody Scottish English separable shows that a phrasal verb is separable, e.g. let in, help out where the object can come between the verb and the particle, I let her in, he helped me out num O.S. pej/péj pers phr vt poss W ppr prep/prép pron r* qqch qqn ® rel sb Scot sep numéral péjoratif implique une nuance dépréciative, par exemple accoutré personnel locution(s) pluriel possessif participe passé participe présent

préposition pronom passé quelque chose quelqu'un nom déposé les noms de marque sont désignés dans ce dictionnaire par le symbole ®. Néanmoins, ni ce symbole ni son absence éventuelle ne peuvent être considérés comme susceptibles d'avoir une incidence quelconque sur le statut légal d'une marque. relatif anglais écossais separable indique qu'un verbe anglais à postposition ("phrasal verb") peut être séparé de sa particule, c'est-à-dire qu'un complément d'objet peut être singular slang formai something subject superlative very informal % si sout sthg subj/suj superl tfam singulier argot soutenu sujet superlatif très familier

XI uncountable noun an English noun which is never t.e used in the plural or with "a"; used when the French word is or can be a plural, e.g. applause n (U) applaudissem*nts mpl, battement nm beat, beating (U) U substantif non comptable désigne en anglais les noms qui ne sont jamais utilisés au pluriel, lorsque le terme français est un pluriel ou peut être mis au pluriel, yar exemple applause n (U) applaudissem*nts mpl, battement nm beat, beating (U) usually link verb followed by a predicative adjective or noun verb intransitive verb impersonal verb (always used with the subject "it") very informal pronominal verb transitive verb vulgar, offensive cultural equivalent usu vattr vb/v vi v impers vinf vp vt vulg ^# habituellement verbe suivi d'un attribut verbe verbe intransitif verbe impersonnel très familier verbe pronominal verbe transitif vulgaire, susceptible de choquer équivalence culturelle introduces a new part of speech within an entry o introduit une nouvelle catégorie grammaticale dans une entrée introduces a sub-entry, such as a plural form with its own specific meaning or a set phrase containing

the headword (e.g. a phrasal verb or adverbial phrase) introduit une sous-entrée, par exemple une forme plurielle ayant un sens propre, ou une locution (locution adverbiale, verbe pronominal, etc.)

Field Labels Administration, administrative Aeronautics, aviation Agriculture, farming Anatomy Archaeology Architecture Astrology Astronomy Automobile, cars Biology Botany Chemistry Cinema, film-making Commerce, business Computers, computer science Construction, building trade Sewing Culinary, cooking Ecology Economics Electricity Electronics Finance, financial Soccer Geography, geographical Geology, geological Geometry Grammar History Industry Computers, computer science Juridical, legal Linguistics Mathematics Medicine Weather, meteorology, climatology Military, armed forces, armaments Music Mythology Nautical, maritime Pharmacology, pharmaceutics Philosophy ADMIN AERON/AÉRON AGR(IQ ANAT ARCHAEOIVARCHÉOL ARCHTT ASTROL ASTRON AUT(OM) BIOL BOT CHEM/CHIM CIN(EMA)

COMM COMPLU CONSTR COUT CULIN ÉCOL ECON/ÉCON ELEC/ÉLECTR ELECmON/ÉLECTRON FIN FTBL GEOGR/GÉOGR GEOI7GÉOL GEOM/GEOM GRAM(M) HIST IND INFORM JUR LING MAIH(S) MED/MED METEOR/METEOR MIL MUS MYTH NAUT/NAVIG PHARM PHILO .DOMAINES Administration Aéronautique Agriculture Anatomie Archéologie Architecture Astrologie Astronomie Automobile Biologie Botanique Chimie Cinéma Commerce Informatique Construction, bâtiment Couture Cuisine, art culinaire Écologie Économie Électricité Électronique Finances Football Géographie Géologie Géométrie Grammaire

Histoire Industrie Informatique Juridique Linguistique Mathématiques Médecine Météorologie Domaine militaire Musique Mythologie Navigation Pharmacologie Philosophie

xm Photography Physics Politics Psychology, psychiatry Railways Religion School Sociology Stock Exchange Technology, technical Telecommunications Television Printing, typography University Veterinary science Zoology PHOT PHYS POL(IT) PSYCH(OL) RAIL RELIG SCH/SCOL SOCIOL ST EX TECH(NOL) f * TELEC/TELECOM TvTTÉLÉ TYPO UNIV VETER ZOOL Photographie Physique Politique Psychologie Rail Religion Scolarité Sociologie Bourse Domaine technique et technologique Télécommunications Télévision Typographie Université Médecine vétérinaire Zoologie A Note on French Verbs Verbes français French verbs have a number (from [1] to [116]) which refers to the conjugation table given at the back of the dictionary. This number is not repeated for reflexive verbs when these are sub-entries. Les verbes français comportent une

numérotation (de [1] à [116]) qui renvoie aux conjugaisons fournies en fin d'ouvrage. Ce chiffre n'est pas répété après les verbes pronominaux lorsqu'ils apparaissent comme sous-libellés. A Note on English Compounds Mots composés anglais A compound is a word or expression which has a single meaning but is made up of more than one word, e.g. point of order, kiss of life, virtual reality, World Series and International Monetary Fund. It is a feature of this dictionary that English compounds appear in the A-Z list in strict alphabetical order. The compound blood pressure will therefore come after bloodless which itself follows blood group. On désigne par composés des entités lexicales ayant un sens autonome mais qui sont composées de plus d'un mot. Nous avons pris le parti de faire figurer les composés anglais dans l'ordre alphabétique général. Le composé blood pressure est ainsi présenté après bloodless, qui suit blood group.

Phonetic Transcription Transcription phonétique English Vowels i] pit, big, nd e ] pet, tend ae ] pat, bag, mad a] putt, cut d] pot, log u ] put, full 3 ] mother, suppose i: ] bean, weed a: ] bam, car, laugh y. ] born, lawn u: ] loop, loose 3: ] burn, learn, bird Voyelles françaises [i] fille,île [ e ] pays, année [ £ ] oec, aime [ a ] lac, papillon [a] âme [o] hotte [ o ] drôle, aube [u] outil, goût [y] usage, lune [ 0 ] aveu, jeu [ oe ] peuple, boeuf [3] le, je English Diphthongs [ ei ] bay, late, great [ ai ] buy, light, aisle [ di ] boy, foil [ au] no, road, blow [au] now, shout, town [13] peer, fierce, idea [es] pair, bear, share [ us] poor, sure, tour Nasales françaises [ è ] limbe, main [ a ] champ, ennui [5] ongle, mon [ce] parfum, brun Semi-vowels you, spaniel wet, why, twin Consonants pop, people bottle, bib train, tip dog, did come, kitchen loch gag, great chain, wretched jig, fridge fib, physical vine, livid think, fifth this, with

m [w] [Hi [Pi [b] [t] [d] [k] [x] [g] [tf] [d3] [f] [v] [6] [»] Semi-voyelles yeux, lieu ouest, oui lui, nuit Consonnes prendre, grippe bateau, rosbif théâtre, temps dalle, ronde coq, quatre garder, épilogue physique, fort voir, rive

XV seal, peace zip, his sheep, machine usual, measure how, perhaps metal, comb night, dinner sung, parking little, help right, carry [s] [z] [J] [3] [h] [m] [n] [«]] [*] [1] [r] The symbol [ ' ] has been used to represent the French "h aspire", e.g. hachis The symbol [ ' ] indicates that the following syllable carries primary stress and the symbol [ 1 ] that the following syllable carries secondary stress. The symbol [r ] in English phonetics indicates that the final V is pronounced only when followed by a word beginning with a vowel. Note that it is nearly always pronounced in American English. A phonetic transcription has been given where appropriate after every French headword (the main word which starts an entry). All one-word English headwords similarly have phonetics. For English compound headwords, whether hyphenated or of two or more words, phonetics are given for any element which does not appear elsewhere in the dictionary as a headword in its own right. cela, savant fraise, zéro charrue, schéma rouge, jabot mât, drame nager, trône dancing, smoking agneau, peigner halle, lit arracher, sabre Le symbole [ ' ] représente le uh aspiré" français, p. ex. hachis [ 'aji]. Les symboles [ ' ] et [ 1 ] indiquent respectivement un accent primaire et un accent secondaire sur la syllabe suivante. Le symbole [r ] indique que le V final

d'un mot anglais ne se prononce que lorsqu'il forme une liaison avec la voyelle du mot suivant; le V final est presque toujours prononcé en anglais américain. Une transcription phonétique - quand elle a été jugée nécessaire - suit chaque libellé (terme-vedette de l'entrée) français, ainsi que chaque libellé anglais écrit en un seul mot. Pour les mots composés anglais (avec ou sans trait d'union, et composés de deux éléments ou plus), la phonétique est présente pour ceux des éléments qui n'apparaissent pas dans le dictionnaire en tant que libellés à part entière.

FRANÇAIS-ANGLAIS FRENCH-ENGLISH a1, A [a] nm inv a, A; prouver par a + b to prove conclusively; de A à Z from beginning to end. ♦ A -1. abr de anticyclone. -2. {abr de ampere) A, amp. -3. {abr de autoroute) M. a2 O —> avoir. O {abr de are) a. à [a] prép {contraction de à + le = au, contraction de à + les = aux) -1. [introduisant un complément d'objet indirect] to; parler à qqn to speak to sb; donner qqch à qqn to give sthg to sb, to give sb sthg; penser à qqch to think about sthg. -2. [introduisant un complément de lieu - situation] at, in; [direction] to; être à la maison/au bureau to be at home/at the office; il habite à Paris/à la campagne he lives in Paris/in the country; il vit au Pérou he lives in Peru; aller à Paris/à la campagne/au Pérou to go to Paris/to the country/to Peru; un voyage à Londres/aux Seychelles a journey to London/to the Seychelles. -3. [introduisant un complément de temps]: à onze heures at eleven o'clock; au mois de février in the month of February; à lundi! see you (on) Monday!; à plus tard! see you later!; de huit à dix heures from eight to ten o'clock; se situer à une heure de l'aéroport to be situated an hour (away) from the airport. -4. [introduisant un complément de manière, de moyen]: à haute voix out loud, aloud; rire aux éclats to roar with laughter; agir à son gré to do as one pleases; acheter à crédit to buy on credit; à pied/cheval on foot/ horseback. -5. [indiquant une caractéristique] with; l'homme à l'imperméable the man with the raincoat. -6. [introduisant un chiffre]: ils sont venus à dix ten of them came; un livre à 30 francs a 30-franc book, a book costing 30 francs; la vitesse est limitée à 50 km à l'heure the speed limit is 50 km per OU an hour; un groupe de 10 à 12 personnes a group of 10 to 12 people, a group of between 10 and 12 people; deux à deux two by two. -7. [marque l'appartenance]: c'est à moi/toi/lui/elle it's mine/ yours/his/hers; ce vélo est à ma soeur this bike is my sister's OU belongs to my sister; une amie à moi a friend of mine. -8. [introduit le but]: coupe à champagne champagne goblet; le courrier à poster the mail to be posted; appartement à vendre apartment Am OU flat Br for sale. AB {abr de assez bien) fair grade (as assessment ofschoolwork). abaisser [abese] [4] vt -1. [rideau, voile] to lower; [levier, manette] to push OU pull down. -2. [diminuer] to reduce, to lower.

-3. sout [avilir] to debase. ♦ s'abaisser vp -1. [descendre - rideau] to fall, to come down; [- terrain] to fall away. -2. [s'humilier] to demean o.s.; s'~ à faire qqch to lower o.s. to do sthg. abandon [abôd5] nm -1. [désertion, délaissem*nt] desertion; à l'~ [jardin, maison] neglected, in a state of neglect. -2. [renonciation] abandoning, giving up. -3. [cession] renunciation, giving up; faire ~ de qqch (au profit de qqn) to make sthg over (to sb). -4. [nonchalance, confiance] abandon. abandonner [abôdone] [3] vt -1. [quitter femme, enfants] to abandon, to desert; [- voiture, propriété] to abandon; ~ son poste to desert one's post. -2. [renoncer à] to give up, to abandon. -3. [se retirer de course, concours] to withdraw from. -4. [céder]: ~ qqch à qqn to leave sthg to sb, to leave sb sthg.

abasourdi 2 ♦ s'abandonner vp> -1. [se laisser aller]: s'~ à qqch to give o.s. up to sthg. -2. [s'épancher] to pour out one's feelings. abasourdi, -e [abazurdi] adj stunned. abasourdir [abazurdir] [32] vt to stun. abat-jour [aba3ur] nm inv lampshade. abats [aba] nmpl [d'animal] offal (l/); [de volaille] giblets. abattage [abata3] nm [d'arbre] felling. abattement [abatmâ] nm -1. [faiblesse physique] weakness. -2. [désespoir] dejection. -3. [déduction] reduction; ~ fiscal tax allowance. abattis [abati] nmpl giblets. abattoir [abatwar] nm abattoir, slaughterhouse. abattre [abatr] [83] w -1. [faire tomber - mur] to knock down; [- arbre] to cut down, to fell; [- avion] to bring down. -2. [tuer - gén] to kill; [- dans un abattoir] to slaughter. -3. [épuiser] to wear out; [démoraliser] to demoralize. ♦ s'abattre vp\ s'~ (sur) [toit, arbre] to crash down (on); [pluie] to beat down (on); [avion, insectes, rapaces] to swoop down (on); [maladie, fléau] to descend (on). abattu, -e [abaty] O pp —> abattre. O adj -1. [déprimé] demoralized, dejected. -2. [affaibli] very weak. abbaye [abei] «/"abbey. abbé [abe] nm -1. [prêtre] priest. -2. [de couvent] abbot. abc nm basics {yt). abcès [apse] nm abscess; crever l'~ fig to root out the problem. abdication [abdikasj5] ///abdication. abdiquer [abdike] [3] O vt -1. [renoncer à] to renounce. -2. [suj: roi] to abdicate. O vi -1. [roi] to abdicate. -2. [renoncer] to give up. abdomen [abdomen] nm abdomen. abdominal, -e, -aux [abdominal, o] adj abdominal. ♦ abdominaux nmpl -1. [muscles] abdominal OU stomach muscles. -2. [exercices]: faire des abdominaux to do exercises for the stomach muscles. abécédaire [abeseder] nm ABC (book). abeille [abej] «/"bee. aberrant, -e [aberâ, ât] adj absurd. aberration [aberasj5] «/"aberration. abhorrer [abore] [3] vt sout to abhor. Abidjan [abid3â] « Abidjan. abîme [abim] nm abyss, gulf. abîmer [abime] [3] vt [détériorer - objet] to damage; [- partie du corps, vue] to ruin. ♦ s'abîmer vp -1. [gén] to be damaged; [- fruits] to go bad. -2. fig [personne]: s'~

dans [lecture] to bury o.s. in; [pensées] to lose o.s. in. abject, -e [ab3ekt] adj despicable, contemptible. abjurer [ab3yre] [3] vt RELIG to renounce. ablatif [ablatif] nm ablative. ablation [ablasj5] «/"MÉD removal. ablutions [ablysjô] nfpl: faire ses ~ to perform one's ablutions. abnégation [abnegasj5] «/"selflessness. aboie, aboies etc —> aboyer. aboiement [abwamô] nm bark, barking abois [abwa] nmpl: être aux ~ fig to be in dire straits. abolir [abolir] [32] vt to abolish. abolition [abolisjô] «/"abolition. abominable [abominabl] adj appalling, awful. abominablement [abominabbmâ] adv -1. [très mal] abominably. -2. [extrêmement] awfully. abomination [abominasjô] «^abomination. abondamment [ab5damâ] adv -1. [beaucoup] plentifully. -2. [largement] extensively. abondance [ab5dâs] nf -1. [profusion] abundance; en ~ in abundance. -2. [opulence] affluence; vivre dans P~ to live in affluence. abondant, -e adj [ab5dâ, ât] [gén] plentiful; [végétation, chevelure] luxuriant; [pluie] heavy. abonder [ab5de] [3] vi to abound, to be abundant; ~ en qqch to be rich in sthg; ~ dans le sens de qqn to be entirely of sb's opinion. abonné, -e [abone] nm, f -1. [à un journal, à une chaîne de télé] subscriber; [à un théâtre] season-ticket holder. -2. [à un service public] consumer. abonnement [abonmâ] nm -1. [à un journal, à une chaîne de télé] subscription; [à un théâtre] season ticket. -2. [au téléphone] rental; [au gaz, à l'électricité] standing charge. abonner [abone] [3] ♦ s'abonner vp: s'~ à qqch [journal, chaîne de télé] to take out a subscription to sthg; [service public] to get connected to sthg; [théâtre] to buy a season ticket for sthg. abord [abor] nm: être d'un ~ facile/difficile to be very/not very approachable; au premier ~, de prime ~ at first sight; dès l'~ from the outset.

5> abstrait ♦ abords nmpl [gén] surrounding area (sg); [de ville] outskirts. ♦ d'abord loc adv -1. [en premier lieu] first. -2. [avant tout]: (tout) d'~ first (of all), in the first place. abordable [absrdabl] adj [lieu] accessible; [personne] approachable; [de prix modéré] affordable. abordage [aborda3] nm boarding. aborder [aborde] [3] O vi to land. O vt -1. [personne, lieu] to approach. -2. [question] to tackle. aborigène [abDri3en] adj aboriginal. ♦ Aborigène «/«/"(Australian) aborigine. abouti, -e [abuti] adj -1. [projet, démarche] successful. -2. [œuvre] accomplished. aboutir [abutir] [32] vi -1. [chemin]: ~ à OU dans to end up in. -2. [négociation] to be successful; ~ à qqch to result in sthg. aboutissem*nt [abutismà] nm outcome. aboyer [abwaje] [13] vi to bark. abracadabrant, -e [abrakadabrâ, ât] adj preposterous. abrasif, -ive [abrazif, iv] adj abrasive. ♦ abrasif nm abrasive. abrégé, -e [abre3e] adj abridged. ♦ abrégé nm résumé, summary; en ~ in abbreviated form. abréger [abre3e] [22] vt [visite, réunion] to cut short; [discours] to shorten; [mot] to abbreviate. abreuver [abrœve] [5] vt [animal] to water; ~ qqn de fig to shower sb with. ♦ s'abreuver vp to drink. abreuvoir [abroevwar] nm [lieu] watering place; [installation] drinking trough. abréviation [abrevjasj5] nf abbreviation. abri [abri] nm shelter; à P~ de sheltered from; fig safe from; se mettre à l'~ (de) to shelter (from), to take shelter (from); ~ antiatomique nuclear fallout shelter. abricot [abriko] nm 62 adj inv apricot. abricotier [abrikotje] nm apricot tree. abriter [abrite] [3] vt -1. [protéger]: ~ qqn/ qqch (de) to shelter sb/sthg (from). -2. [héberger] to accommodate. ♦ s'abriter vp: s'~ (de) to shelter (from). abroger [abrD3e] [17] vt to repeal. abrupt, -e [abrypt] adj -1. [raide] steep. -2. [rude] abrupt, brusque. abruti, -e [abryti] fam O adj moronic. O nm, /"moron. abrutir [abrytir] [32] vt -1. [abêtir]: ~ qqn to deaden sb's mind. -2. [accabler]: ~ qqn de travail to work sb silly. -3. [étourdir] to daze. ♦ s'abrutir vp -1. [s'épuiser]: s'~ de travail

to work o.s. stupid. -2. [s'abêtir] to become moronic. abrutissant, -e [abrytisâ, ât] adj-1. [bruit, travail] stupefying. -2. [jeu, feuilleton] moronic. abrutissem*nt [abrytismâ] nm -1. [épuisem*nt] exhaustion. -2. [intellectuel] mindless state. ABS (abr de Antiblockiersystem) nm ABS. absence [apsâs] nf -1. [de personne] absence; en P~ de in the absence of. -2. [carence] lack. absent, -e [apsâ, ât] O adj -1. [personne]: ~ (de) [gén] away (from); [pour maladie] absent (from). -2. [regard, air] vacant, absent. -3. [manquant] lacking. O nm, /"absentee. absentéisme [apsâteism] nm absenteeism. absenter [apsâte] [3] ♦ s'absenter vp: s'~ (de la pièce) to leave (the room). abside [apsid] nf apse. absinthe [apsêt] nf [plante] wormwood; [boisson] absinth.' absolu, -e [apsoly] adj [gén] absolute; [décision, jugement] uncompromising. ♦ absolu nm: l'~ the Absolute; dans P~ in isolation. absolument [apsolymâ] adv absolutely. absolution [absolysjo] nf absolution. absolutisme [apsolytism] nm absolutism. absorbant, -e [apsorbâ, ât] adj -1. [matière] absorbent. -2. [occupation] absorbing. absorber [apsorbe] [3] vt -1. [gén] to absorb. -2. [manger] to take. -3. [entreprise] to take over. ♦ s'absorber vp: s'~ dans qqch to get OU become absorbed in sthg. absorption [apsDrpsj5] nf -1. [gén] absorption. -2. ÉCON takeover. abstenir [apstanir] [40] ♦ s'abstenir vp -1. [ne rien faire]: s'~ (de qqch/de faire qqch) to refrain (from sthg/ from doing sthg). -2. [ne pas voter] to abstain. abstention [apstàsp] nf abstention. abstentionnisme [apstâspnism] nm abstaining. abstenu, -e [abstany] pp —► abstenir. abstiendrai, abstiendras etc —► abstenir. abstinence [apstinâs] nf abstinence; faire ~ to abstain (from eating meat). abstraction [abstraksjS] «/"abstraction; faire ~ de to disregard. abstrait, -e [abstre, et] adj abstract. ♦ abstrait nm: l'~ the abstract.

absurde ♦ absurde [apsyrd] O adj absurd. O nm: l'~ the absurd; raisonnement par l'~ reductio ad absurdum. absurdité [apsyrdite] nf absurdity; dire des —s to talk nonsense (U). abus [aby] nm abuse; ~ de confiance breach of trust; ~ de pouvoir abuse of power. abuser [abyze] [3] O vi -1. [dépasser les bornes] to go too far. -2. [user]: ~ de [autorité, pouvoir] to overstep the bounds of; [femme] to take advantage of; [temps] to take up too much of; ~ de ses forces to overexert o.s. o vt sout to mislead. ♦ s'abuser vp: s'~ sur to delude o.s. about. abusif, -ive [abyzif, iv] adj -1. [excessif] excessive. -2. [fautif] improper. AC (abr de appellation contrôlée) nf label guaranteeing quality of wine. acabit [akabi] nm: du même ~ péj of the same type. acacia [akasja] nm acacia. académicien, -ienne [akademisjê, jcn] nm, f academician; [de l'Académie française] member of the French Academy. académie [akademi] nf -1. SCOL & UNIV = school district Am, — regional education authority Br. -2. [institut] academy; l'Académie française the French Academy (learned society of leading men and women of letters); l'Académie Goncourt literary society whose members choose the winner of the Prix Goncourt. académique [akademik] adj -1. UNIV academic. -2. [conventionnel] conventional. acajou [aka3u] nm & adj inv mahogany. acariâtre [akarjatr] adj bad-tempered, cantankerous. acarien [akarjê] nm [gén] acarid; [de poussière] dust mite. accablant, -e [akablô, 5t] adj -1. [soleil, chaleur] oppressive. -2. [preuve, témoignage] overwhelming. accabler [akable] [3] vt -1. [surcharger]: ~ qqn de [travail] to overwhelm sb with; ~ qqn d'injures to shower sb with abuse. -2. [accuser] to condemn. accalmie [akalmi] nflitt & fig lull. accaparer [akapare] [3] vt to monopolize; son travail l'accapare his work takes up all his time. ♦ s'accaparer vp: s'~ qqch to seize sthg. accéder [aksede] [18] ♦ accéder à vt -1. [pénétrer dans] to reach, to get to. -2. [parvenir à] to attain. -3. [consentir à] to comply with. accélérateur [akseleratcer] nm accelerator.

accélération [akselerasjS] nf [de voiture, machine] acceleration; [de projet] speeding up. accélérer [akselere] [18] o vt to accelerate, to speed up. o vi AUTOM to accelerate. accent [aksâ] nm -1. [gén] accent; ~ aigu/ grave/circonflexe acute/grave/circumflex (accent). -2. [intonation] tone; ~ tonique stress; mettre l'~ sur to stress, to emphasize. accentuation [aksâtqasj5] nf -\. [à l'écrit] accenting; [en parlant] stress. -2. [intensification] intensification. accentuer [aksâtqe] [7] vt -1. [insister sur, souligner] to emphasize, to accentuate. -2. [intensifier] to intensify. -3. [à l'écrit] to put the accents on; [en parlant] to stress. ♦ s'accentuer vp to become more pronounced. acceptable [akseptabl] adj satisfactory, acceptable. acceptation [akseptasjS] «/"acceptance. accepter [aksepte] [4] vt to accept; ~ de faire qqch to agree to do sthg; ~ que (+ subjonctif): ~ que qqn fasse qqch to agree to sb doing sthg; je n'accepte pas qu'il me parle ainsi I won't have him talking to me like that. acception [akscpsj5] nf sense. accès [akse] nm -1. [entrée] entry; avoir/ donner ~ à to have/to give access to; «~ interdit» "no entry ; «~ réservé aux riverains» "residents only". -2. [voie d'entrée] entrance. -3. [abord]: être d'un ~ facile/ difficile [personne] to be approachable/ unapproachable; [livre] to be easy/difficult (to read). -4. [crise] bout; ~ de colère fit of anger. accessible [aksesibl] adj -1. [lieu, livre] accessible; [personne] approachable; [prix, équipement] affordable. -2. [sensible]: ~ à susceptible to. accession [aksesjS] nf: ~ à [trône, présidence] accession to; [indépendance] attainment of. accessoire [akseswar] O nm -1. [gén] accessory. -2. [de théâtre, cinéma] prop. O adj secondary. accessoirement [akseswarmâ] adv if need be. accident [aksidâ] nm accident; par ~ by chance, by accident; ~ de parcours hiccup; ~ de la route/de voiture/du travail road/ car/industrial accident; ~ de terrain bump. accidenté, -e [aksidâte] o adj -1. [terrain, surface] uneven. -2. [voiture] damaged. -3. [vie] eventful. O nm, f {gén pi): ~ de la route accident victim.

9 accidentel, -elle [aksidâtcl] adj accidentai. accidentellement [aksidâtdmô] adv [rencontrer] by chance, accidentally; [mourir] in an accident. acclamation [aklamasj'5] nf (gén pi) cheers (pî), cheering (U). acclamer [aklame] [3] vt to cheer. acclimatation [aklimatasjS] nf acclimatization. acclimater [aklimate] [3] vt to acclimatize; fig to introduce. ♦ s'acclimater vp: s'~ à to become acclimatized to. accointances [akwêtâs] nfpl: avoir des ~ dans/avec péj to have contacts in/with. accolade [akslad] nf-1. TYPO brace. -2. [embrassade] embrace; donner P~ à qqn to embrace sb. accoler [aksle] [3] vt -1. [par accolade] to bracket together. -2. [adjoindre]: ~ qqch à to add sthg to. accommodant, -e [akomodâ, àt] adj obliging. accommodement [akamadmâ] nm compromise. accommoder [akomnde] [3] vt -1. CULIN to prepare. -2. [mettre en accord]: ~ qqch à to adapt sthg to. ♦ s'accommoder vp: s'~ de to put up with; s'~ à to adapt to. accompagnateur, -trice [akSpajiatcer, tris] nm, f-\. MUS accompanist. -2. [guide] guide. accompagnement [akôpajimâ] nm -1. MUS accompaniment. -2. CULIN side dish. accompagner [ak5pajie] [3] vt -1. [personne] to go with, to accompany. -2. [agrémenter]: ~ qqch de to accompany sthg with; elle accompagna sa réponse d'un sourire she answered with a smile. -3. MUS to accompany; — qqn au piano/à la guitare to accompany sb on the piano/guitar. accompli, -e [akSpli] adj accomplished. accomplir [akSplir] [32] vt to carry out. ♦ s'accomplir vp to come about. accomplissem*nt [akôplismâ] nm [d'apprentissage] completion; [de travail] fulfilment. accord [aksr] nm -1. [gén & LING] agreement; en ~ avec in harmony with; d'un commun ~ with one accord; ~ à l'amiable COMM out-of-court settlement, mutual agreement. -2. MUS chord. -3. [acceptation] approval; donner son ~ à qqch to approve sthg. ♦ d'accord o be adv OK, all right, o be adj: être d'~ (avec) to agree (with); tomber accréditation OU se mettre d'~ to come to an agreement, to agree.

accordéon [akordeô] nm accordion; avoir les chaussettes en ~ to have one's socks down around one's ankles. accorder [akorde] [3] vt -1. [donner]: ~ qqch à qqn to grant sb sthg. -2. [attribuer]: ~ qqch à qqch to accord sthg to sthg; ~ de l'importance à to attach importance to. -3. [harmoniser] to match. -4. GRAM: ~ qqch avec qqch to make sthg agree with sthg. -5. MUS to tune. ♦ s'accorder vp -1. [gén]: s'~ (pour Caire qqch) to agree (to do sthg); s'~ à faire qqch to be unanimous in doing sthg. -2. [être assorti] to match. -3. GRAM to agree. accordeur [akordoer] nm tuner. accoster [akoste] [3] o vt -1. NAVIG to come alongside. -2. [personne] to accost. O vi NAVIG to dock. accotement [akotmô] nm [de route] shoulder; ~ stabilisé hard shoulder; ~ non stabilisé soft shoulder Am, soft verge Br. accouchement [aku/mô] nm childbirth; ~ sans douleur natural childbirth. accoucher [aku/e] [3] vi: ~ (de) to give birth (to). accouder [akude] [3] ♦ s'accouder vp to lean on one's elbows; s'~ à to lean one's elbows on. accoudoir [akudwar] nm armrest. accouplement [akuplsmâ] nm mating, coupling. accourir [akurir] [45] vi to run up, to rush up. accours, accourt etc —> accourir. accouru, -e [akury] pp -* accourir. accoutré, -e [akutre] adj péj: être bizarrement ~ to be oddly got up. accoutrement [akutrsmâ] nm péj getup. accoutrer [akutre] [3] ♦ s'accoutrer vp péj: s'~ bizarrement to get o.s. up very strangely. accoutumance [akutymâs] nf [adaptation] adaptation; MÉD addiction. accoutumé, -e [akutyme] adj usual. ♦ comme à l'accoutumée be adv sout as usual. accoutumer [akutyme] [3] vt: ~ qqn à qqn qqch to get sb used to sb/sthg; ~ qqn à faire qqch to get sb used to doing sthg. ♦ s'accoutumer vp: s'~ à qqn/qqch to get used to sb/sthg; s'~ à faire qqch to get used to doing sthg. accréditation [akreditasjS] nf FIN accreditation.

accréditer *> accréditer [akredite] [3] vt [rumeur] to substantiate; ~ qqn auprès de to accredit sb to. ♦ s'accréditer vp to gain substance. accro [akro] fam o adj: ~ à hooked on. o nmf: c'est une ~ de la planche she's hooked on windsurfing. accroc [akro] nm -1. [déchirure] tear; Caire un ~ à to tear. -2. [incident] hitch; sans ~ without a hitch. accrochage [akn>Ja3] nm -1. [accident] collision. -2. fam [dispute] row. -3. [mise en place] hanging; [- d'oeuvres d'art] private viewing. accroche [akroj] «/"COMM catch Une. accrocher [akroje] [3] vt -1. [suspendre]: ~ qqch (à) to hang sthg up (on). -2. [déchirer]: ~ qqch (à) to catch sthg (on). -3. [attacher]: ~ qqch (à) to hitch sthg (to). -4. [heurter] to bump into. -5. [retenir l'attention de] to attract. ♦ s'accrocher vp -1. [s'agripper]: s'~ (à) to hang on (to); s'~ à qqn fig to cling to sb. -2. fam [se disputer] to row, to have a row. -3. fam [persévérer] to stick at it. accrocheur, -euse [akrnjoer, az] adj -1. [qui retient l'attention] eye-catching. -2. [opiniâtre] tenacious. accroire [akrwar] vt sout: en faire — à qqn to take sb in. accroissem*nt [akrwasmâ] nm increase, growth. accroître [akrwatr] [94] vt to increase. ♦ s'accroître vp to increase, to grow. accroupir [akrupir] [32] ♦ s'accroupir vp to squat. accru, -e [akry] pp —► accroître. accu [aky] nm: recharger ses ~s fam fig to recharge one's batteries. accueil [akcej] nm -1. [lieu] reception. -2. [action] welcome, reception. accueillant, -e [akœjâ, àt] adj welcoming, friendly. accueillir [akœjir] [41] vt -1. [gén] to welcome. -2. [loger] to accommodate. acculer [akyle] [3] vt -1. [repousser]: ~ qqn contre/à to drive sb up against/into. -2. fig: ~ qqn à [ruine, désespoir] to drive sb to; [faute] to force sb into. accumulateur [akymylatœr] nm accumulator, battery. accumulation [akymylasp] nf accumulation. accumuler [akymyle] [3] vt to accumulate; fig to store up. ♦ s'accumuler vp to pile up. accusateur, -trice [akyzatœr, tris] o adj

accusing, o nm, /"accuser. accusation [akyzasj5] nf -\. [reproche] accusation. -2. JUR charge; mettre en ~ to indict; l'~ the prosecution. accusé, -e [akyze] nm, f accused, defendant. ♦ accusé de réception nm acknowledgment (of receipt). accuser [akyze] [3] vt -1. [porter une accusation contre]: ~ qqn (de qqch) to accuse sb (of sthg). -2. JUR: ~ qqn de qqch to charge sb with sthg. -3. [mettre en relief] to emphasize. acerbe [aserb] adj acerbic. acéré, -e [asere] adj sharp. acériculture [aserikyltyr] nf maple sugar production. acétate [asetat] nm acetate. acétone [asetDn] nf acetone. achalandé, -e [ajalâde] adj [en marchandises]: bien ~ well-stocked. acharné, -e [ajame] adj [combat] fierce; [travail] unremitting. acharnement [ajarnsmâ] nm relentlessness. acharner [ajarne] [3] ♦ s'acharner vp -1. [combattre]: s'~ contre OU après OU sur qqn [ennemi, victime] to hound sb; [suj: malheur] to dog sb. -2. [s'obstiner]: s'~ (à faire qqch) to persist (in doing sthg). achat [aja] nm purchase; faire des —s to go shopping. acheminer [a/mine] [3] vt to dispatch. ♦ s'acheminer vp: s'~ vers [lieu, désastre] to head for; [solution, paix] to move toward Am OU towards Br. acheter [ajte] [28] vt litt & fig to buy; ~ qqch à OU pour qqn to buy sthg for sb, to buy sb sthg; ~ qqch à qqn [commerçant] to buy sthg from sb. acheteur, -euse [ajtoer, oz] nm, f buyer, purchaser. achevé, -e [ajve] adj sout: d'un ridicule ~ utterly ridiculous. achèvement [ajevmâ] nm completion. achever [ajve] [19] vt -1. [terminer] to complete, to finish (off). -2. [tuer, accabler] to finish off. ♦ s'achever vp to (come to an) end. achoppement [ajbpmâ] —► pierre. acide [asid] O adj -1. [saveur] sour. -2. [propos] sharp, acid. -3. CH1M acid. O nm -1. CHLM acid; ~ acétique chlorhydrique/sul-

-î furique acetic/hydrochloric/sulphuric acid; ~ aminé amino acid. -2. arg drogue acid. acidité [asidite] nf -1. CHIM acidity. -2. [saveur] sourness. -3. [de propos] sharpness. acidulé, -e [asidyle] adj slightly acid. acier [asje] nm steel; ~ inoxydable stainless steel. aciérie [asjeri] «f steelworks (sg). acné [akne] nf acne; ~ juvénile teenage acne. acolyte [akolit] nm péj henchman. acompte [ak5t] nm deposit; verser un ~ to put down OU pay a deposit. acoquiner [alokine] [3] ♦ s'acoquiner vp: s'~ avec qqn to gang up with sb. à-côté [akote] {pi à-côtés) nm -1. [point accessoire] side issue. -2. [gain d'appoint] extra. à-coup [aku] {pi à-coups) nm jerk; par ~s in fits and starts. acoustique [akustik] o nf -1. [science] acoustics (U). -2. [d'une salle] acoustics {pi). O adj acoustic. acquéreur [akerœr] nm buyer. acquérir [akerir] [39] vt -1. [gén] to acquire. -2. [conquérir] to win. ♦ s'acquérir vp: s'~ qqch to win sthg, to gain sthg. acquiers, acquiert etc —► acquérir. acquiescement [akjesmâ] nm approval. acquiescer [akjese] [21] vi to acquiesce; ~ à to agree to. acquis, -e [aki, iz] O pp —> acquérir. O adj -1. [caractère] acquired. -2. [droit, avantage] established. ♦ acquis nmpl [connaissances] knowledge (U). # # ^ acquisition [akizisp] «f acquisition. acquit [aki] nm receipt; pour ~ COMM received; faire qqch par ~ de conscience fig to do sthg to set one's mind at rest. acquittement [akitmâ] nm -1. [d'obligation] settlement. -2. JUR acquittal. acquitter [akite] [3] w -1. JUR to acquit. -2. [régler] to pay. -3. [libérer]: ~ qqn de to release sb from. ♦ s'acquitter vp: s'~ de qqch [payer] to settle stng; fig to carry sthg out. acre [akr] adj -1. [saveur] bitter. -2. [fumée] acrid. acrimonie [akomoni] «/"acrimony. acrobate [akrsbat] «/«/"acrobat. acrobatie [akrobasi] nf acrobatics (I/); ~s aériennes aerobatics (pi). acrobatique [akrobatik] adj acrobatic. acuité acronyme [akronim] nm acronym. acrylique [akrilik] adj & nm acrylic.

acte [akt] nm -1. [action] act, action; faire ~ d'autorité to exercise one's authority; faire ~ de bonne volonté to make a gesture of goodwill; faire ~ de candidature to submit an application. -2. THÉÂTRE act. -3. JUR deed; ~ d'accusation charge; ~ de naissance/de mariage birth/marriage certificate; ~ notarié deed executed by a notary; ~ de vente bill of sale. -4. RELIG certificate; ~ de baptême baptismal certificate. -5. he. faire ~ de présence to put in an appearance; prendre ~ de to note, to take note of. ♦ actes nmpl [de colloque] proceedings. acteur, -trice [aktoer, tris] nm, /"actor (/"actress). actif, -ive [aktif, iv] adj [gén] active; la population active the working population. ♦ actif nm -1. FIN assets (pi). -2. be: avoir qqch à son ~ to have sthg to one's credit. action [aksj5] nf -1. [gén] action; passer à l'~ to go into action; MIL to go into battle; sous l'~ de under the effect of. -2. [acte] action, act; bonne/mauvaise ~ good/bad deed. -3. JUR action, lawsuit. -4. FIN share. -5. RELIG: ~ de grâces thanksgiving. actionnaire [aksjoner] «m/" FIN shareholder. actionner [aksjone] [3] vt to work, to activate. activement [aktivmâ] adv actively. activer [aktive] [3] vt to speed up. ♦ s'activer vp to bustle about. activisme [aktivism] nm activism. activiste [aktivist] adj 62 ««//"activist. activité [aktivite] «/"[gén] activity; en ~ [volcan] active; ~ d'éveil early learning experience; ~ professionnelle job, profession. actuaire [aktqer] «w/" actuary. actualisation [aktqalizasjS] nf [d'un texte] updating. actualiser [aktqaiize] [3] vt to bring up to date. actualité [aktqalite] «/"-l. [d'un sujet] topicality; être d'~ to be topical. -2. [événements]: l'~ sportive/politique/littéraire the current sports/political/literary scene. ♦ actualités nfpl: les —s the news (sg). actuel, -elle [aktqel] adj -1. [contemporain, présent] current, present; à l'heure —le at the present time. -2. [d'actualité] topical. actuellement [aktqelmà] adv at present, currently. acuité [akqite] nf acuteness; ~ visuelle keenness of sight.

acupuncture acupuncture, acuponcture [akypôktyr] nf acupuncture. adage [ada3] nm adage, saying. adaptable [adaptabl] adj adaptable. adaptateur, -trice [adaptatœr, tris] nm, f adapter. ♦ adaptateur nm ÉLECTR adapter. adaptation [adaptasj5] «/"adaptation. adapter [adapte] [3] vt -1. [gén] to adapt. -2. [fixer] to fit; ~ qqch à qqch to fit sthg to sthg. ♦ s'adapter vp: s'~ (à) to adapt (to). ADD (abr de analogique/digital/digital) ADD. additif [aditif] nm -1. [supplément] rider, additional clause. -2. [substance] additive. addition [adisj5] nf -1. [ajout, calcul] addition. -2. [note] check Am, bill Br. additionnel, -elle [adispnel] adj extra, additional. additionner [adispne] [3] vt -1. [mélanger]: ~ une poudre d'eau to add water to a powder. -2. [chiffres] to add up. ♦ s'additionner vp to add up. adduction [adyksj'5] nf [des eaux, du gaz] supply. adepte [adept] nmf follower. adéquat, -e [adekwa, at] adj suitable, appropriate. adhérence [aderâs] nf [de pneu] grip. adhérent, -e [aderâ, ât] o adj: ~ à which adheres OU sticks to. O nm, f. ~ (de) member (of). adhérer [adere] [18] vi -1. [coller] to stick, to adhere; ~ à [se fixer sur] to stick OU adhere to; [être d'accord avec] /?g to support, to adhere to. -2. [être membre]: ~ à to become a member of, to join. adhésif, -ive [adezif, iv] adj sticky, adhesive. ♦ adhésif nm adhesive. adhésion [adezjS] nf -1. [à idée]: ~ (à) support (for). -2. [de pneu]: une bonne ~ à la route good road-holding (U). -3. [à parti]: ~ (à) membership (of). adieu [adjo] o interj goodbye!, farewell!; dire ~ à qqch fig to say goodbye to sthg. O nm (gén pt) farewell; faire ses ~x à qqn to say one's farewells to sb. adipeux, -euse [adipo, 02] adj [tissu] adipose; [personne] fat. adjacent, -e [ad3asâ, ât] adj adjoining, adjacent. adjectif [ad3ektif] nm GRAM adjective; ~ attribut predicative adjective; ~ épithète attributive adjective. adjoindre [ad3wêdr] [82] vt: ~ qqch à qqch to add sthg to sthg.

♦ s'adjoindre vp to appoint, to take on. adjoint, -e [ad3wê, et] O adj deputy (avant n), assistant (avant n). O nm, f deputy, assistant; ~ au maire deputy mayor. adjonction [ad35ksj5] nf addition; sans ~ de seL sucre conservateurs with no added salt/sugar/preservatives. adjudant [ad3ydâ] nm [dans la marine] warrant officer; [dans l'armée] company sergeant major; ~ chef [dans la marine] chief warrant officer Am, warrant officer 1st class Br; [dans l'armée] regimental sergeant major. adjudicataire [ad3ydikatcr] nmf successful bidder. adjudication [ad3ydikasj5] nf-t. [vente aux enchères] sale by auction. -2. ADMIN awarding. adjuger [ad3y3e] [17] vt: ~ qqch (à qqn) [aux enchères] to auction sthg (to sb); [décerner] to award sthg (to sb); adjugé! sold! ♦ s'adjuger vp: s'~ qqch to give o.s. sthg. adjurer [ad3yre] [3] vt sout to implore, to beg. adjuvant [ad3yvà] nm -1. [médicament] adjuvant. -2. [stimulant] stimulant. admets etc —> admettre. admettre [admetr] [84] vt -1. [tolérer, accepter] to allow, to accept. -2. [supposer] to suppose, to assume; admettons que (+ subjonctif) supposing OU assuming (that). -3. [autoriser] to allow; être admis à faire qqch to be allowed to do sthg. -4. [accueillir, reconnaître] to admit. administrateur, -trice [administratcer, tris] nm, f -1. [gérant] administrator; ~ de biens administrator of an estate; ~ judiciaire receiver. -2. [de conseil d'administration] director. administratif, -ive [administratif, iv] adj administrative. administration [administrasp] nf -\. [service public]: l'Administration — the Civil Service. -2. [gestion] administration. administrer [administre] [3] vt -1. [gérer] to manage, to administer. -2. [médicament, sacrement] to administer. admirable [admirabl] adj -1. [personne, comportement] admirable. -2. [paysage, spectacle] wonderful.

V aérobic admirablement [admirablamâ] adv admirably. admirateur, -trice [admiratœr, tris] nm, f admirer. admiratif, -ive [admiratif, iv] adj admiring. admiration [admirasj 5] nf admiration; être en ~ devant qqn/qqch to be filled with admiration for sb/sthg. admirer [admire] [3] vt to admire. admis, -e [admi, iz] pp —► admettre. admissible [admisibl] o adj -1. [attitude] acceptable. -2. SCOL eligible. O nmf SCOL eligible candidate. admission [admisj5] nf admission. admonester [admoneste] [3] vt sout to admonish. ADN (abr de acide désoxyribonucléique) nm DNA. ado [ado] (abr de adolescent) nmf fam teenager. adolescence [acblesâs] «f adolescence. adolescent, -e [adolesa, 5t] o adj adolescent, o nm, f adolescent, teenager. adonis [adonis] nm Adonis. adonner [adone] [3] ♦ s'adonner vp: s'~ à [sport, activité] to devote o.s. to; [vice] to take to. adopter [adopte] [3] vt -1. [gén] to adopt. -2. [loi] to pass. adoptif, -ive [adoptif, iv] adj [famille] adoptive; [pays, enfant] adopted. adoption [adopsjS] nf adoption; d'~ [pays, ville] adopted; [famille] adoptive. adorable [adorabl] adj adorable, delightful. adorateur, -trice [adoratcer, tris] O adj adoring, worshiping Am, worshipping Br. O nm, f-1. [de personne] admirer. -2. RELIC worshiper Am, worshipper Br. adoration [adorasj'5] nf -1. [amour] adoration; être en ~ devant qqn to worship sb. -2. RELIC worship. adorer [adore] [3] vt -1. [personne, chose] to adore. -2. RELIC to worship. adosser [adose] [3] w: ~ qqch à qqch to place sthg against sthg. ♦ s'adosser vp: s'~ à qqch to lean against sthg. adoucir [adusir] [32] vt -1. [gén] to soften. -2. [chagrin, peine] to ease, to soothe. ♦ s'adoucir vp -1. [temps] to become OU get milder. -2. [personne] to mellow. adoucissant, -e [adusisâ, ât] adj soothing. ♦ adoucissant nm softener. adoucissem*nt [adusismâ] nm -1. METEOR: il y a eu un ~ de la température the weather has become milder. -2. [de peine] soothing, easing. -3. [de l'eau] softening.

adoucisseur [adusisoer] nm: ~ d'eau water softener. adrénaline [adrenalin] nf adrenalin. adresse [adres] nf -1. [gén & INFORM] address; ce restaurant est une bonne ~ this restaurant is a good place to go; à l'~ de fig for the benefit of. -2. [habileté] skill. -3. [mot] headword. adresser [adrese] [4] vt -1. [faire parvenir]: ~ qqch à qqn to address sthg to sb. -2. [envoyer]: ~ qqn à qqn to refer sb to sb. ♦ s'adresser vp: s'~ à [parler à] to speak to; [être destiné à] to be aimed at, to be intended for. Adriatique [adriatik] nf l'~ the Adriatic. adroit, -e [adrwa, at] adj skilful. adroitement [adrwatmâ] adv skilfully. aduler [adyle] [3] vt to adulate. adulte [adylt] nmf d? adj adult. adultère [adylter] o nm [acte] adultery, o adj adulterous. adultérin, -e [adylterê, in] adj illegitimate. advenir [advonir] [40] v impers to happen; qu'advient-il de ..A what is happening to ...£; qu'est-il advenu de ...£ what has happened to OU become of ...£; advienne que pourra come what may. advenu [advony] pp —► advenir. adverbe [adverb] nm adverb. adversaire [adverser] nmf adversary, opponent. adverse [advers] adj [opposé] opposing; —> partie. adversité [adversité] «/"adversity. advient —► advenir. advint —> advenir. AE (abr de adjoint d'enseignement) nm non-certified teacher. AELE (abr de Association européenne de libre-échange) nf EFTA. AEN (abr de Agence pour l'énergie nucléaire) nf French nuclear energy agency, ^ AEC Am, = AEA Br. aération [aerasjS] nf [circulation d'air] ventilation; [action] airing. aérer [aère] [18] vt -1. [pièce, chose] to air. -2. fig [présentation, mise en page] to Lighten. ♦ s'aérer vp [sortir] to get some fresh air. aérien, -ienne [aerjê, jen] adj -1. [grâce] ethereal; [démarche] light. -2. [câble] overhead (avant n). -3. [transports, attaque] air (avant n). aérobic [aersbik] nm aerobics (U).

aérodrome 10 aérodrome [aerodrom] nm aerodrome. aérodynamique [aerodinamik] O nf aerodynamics (U). O adj streamlined, aerodynamic. aérogare [aerogar] nf -1. [aéroport] airport. -2. [gare] air terminal. aéroglisseur [aerogliscer] nm hovercraft. aérogramme [aerogram] nm aérogramme. aéromodélisme [aeromodelism] nm model aircraft making. aéronautique [aeronotik] o nf aeronautics (U). o adj aeronautical. aéronaval, -e, -als [aéronaval] adj air and sea {avant n). aérophagie [aerofa3i] nf abdominal wind. aéroport [aeropor] nm airport. aéroporté, -e [aéroporté] adj airborne. aérosol [aerosol] nm d2 adj inv aerosol. aérospatial, -e, -iaux [aerospasjal, jo] adj aerospace (avant n). ♦ aérospatiale nf aerospace industry. AF O nfyl abr de allocations familiales. O nf (abr de Assemblée fédérale) (Swiss) Federal Assembly. affabilité [afabilite] «/"affability. affable [afabl] adj -1. [personne] affable, agreeable. -2. [parole] kind. affabulation [afabylasjô] «f fabrication. affaiblir [afeblir] [32] vt litt & fig to weaken. ♦ s'affaiblir vp litt & fig to weaken, to become weaker. affaiblissem*nt [afeblismâ] nm weakening. affaire [afer] nf-1. [question] matter. -2. [situation, polémique] affair. -3. [marché] deal; faire une ~ to get a bargain OU a good deal; une ~ en or a real bargain. -4. [entreprise] business. -5. [procès] case. -6. be: avoir ~ à qqn to deal with sb; vous aurez ~ à moi! you'll have me to deal with!; c'est l'~ d'une minute it will only take a minute; faire l'~ to do nicely; j'en fais mon ~ leave it to me; tirer qqn d'~ to get sb out of trouble. ♦ affaires nfpl -1. COMM business (V). -2. [objets personnels] things, belongings. -3. [activités] affairs; les —s de l'Etat affairs of state; les Affaires étrangères — the Foreign Office; se mêler OU s'occuper de ses ~s to mind one's own business; toutes ~s cessantes forthwith. affairé, -e [afere] adj busy. affairer [afere] [4] ♦ s'affairer vp to bustle about. affairisme [aferism] nm racketeering. affaissem*nt [afesmâ] nm GÉOGR subsidence. affaisser [afese] [4]

♦ s'affaisser vp -1. [se creuser] to subside, to sink. -2. [tomber] to collapse. affaler [afale] [3] ♦ s'affaler vp to collapse. affamé, -e [afame] adj starving. affectation [afektasjS] nf-1. [attribution]: ~ de qqch à allocation of sthg to. -2. [nomination] appointment, posting. -3. [manque de naturel] affectation. affecter [afekte] [4] vt -1. [consacrer]: ~ qqch à to allocate sthg to. -2. [nommer]: ~ qqn à to appoint sb to. -3. [feindre] to feign. -4. [émouvoir] to affect, to move. affectif, -ive [afektif, iv] adj emotional. affection [afeksj'5] nf -1. [sentiment] affection; avoir de l'~ pour to be fond of. -2. [maladie] complaint. affectionner [afeksjone] [3] vt to be fond of. affectivité [afektivite] «/"emotions (pi). affectueusem*nt [afektqozmô] adv affectionately. affectueux, -euse [afektqo, oz] adj affectionate. afférent, -e [aferâ, ât] adj -1. JUR: ~ à qqch pertaining OU relating to sthg. -2. ANAT afferent. affermir [afermir] [32] vt [gén] to strengthen; [chairs] to tone up. ♦ s'affermir vp -1. [matière] to be strengthened; [chairs] to be toned up. -2. [pouvoir] to be consolidated. affichage [afija3] nm -1. [d'un poster, d'un avis] putting up, displaying. -2. ELECTRON: ~ à cristaux liquides LCD, liquid crystal display; ~ numérique digital display. affiche [afij] nf [gén] poster; [officielle] notice; ~ publicitaire (advertising) poster; être à P~ fig to be on. afficher [afije] [3] vt -1. [liste, poster] to put up; [vente, réglementation] to put up a notice about. -2. [laisser transparaître] to display, to exhibit. ♦ s'afficher vp: s'~ avec qqn to flaunt o.s. with sb. affichette [afijet] «/"small poster. afficheur [afifcer] nm -1. [entreprise] billposter. -2. ELECTRON display. affilée [a file] ♦ d'affilée be adv. trois jours d'~ three days running. affiler [afile] [3] vt to sharpen. affilié, -e [afilje] adj: — à affiliated to. affiner [afine] [3] vt litt & fig to refine.

11 agate ♦ s'affiner vp [silhouette] to become thinner; [devenir plus raffiné] to become more refined. affinité [afinite] nf affinity; avoir des ~s avec to have an affinity with. affirmatif, -ive [afirmatif, iv] adj -1. [réponse] affirmative. -2. [personne] positive. ♦ affirmatif adv affirmative. ♦ affirmative nf dans l'affirmative if yes, if the answer is yes; répondre par l'affirmative to reply in the affirmative. affirmation [afirmasj5] nf assertion. affirmativement [afirmativmâ] adv: répondre ~ to answer in the affirmative. affirmer [afirme] [3] vt -1. [certifier] to maintain, to claim. -2. [exprimer] to assert. ♦ s'affirmer vp to assert o.s. affixe [afiks] nm affix. affleurer [afloere] [5] vi fig to rise to the surface. affliction [afliksjS] nf affliction. affligeant, -e [afli3â, ât] adj -1. [désolant] saddening, distressing. -2. [lamentable] appalling. affliger [afli3e] [17] vt sout -1. [attrister] to sadden, to distress. -2. [de défaut, de maladie]: être affligé de to be afflicted with. ♦ s'affliger vp sout: s'~ de to be distressed at ou about. affluence [aflyâs] nf crowd, crowds (yl). affluent [aflyâ] nm tributary. affluer [aflye] [3] vi -1. [choses] to pour in, to flood in. -2. [personnes] to flock. -3. [sang]: ~ (à) to rush (to). afflux [afly] nm -1. [de liquide, dons, capitaux] flow. -2. [de personnes] flood. affolant, -e [afolâ, ât] adj -1. [inquiétant] frightening. -2. [troublant] disturbing. affolé, -e [able] adj horrified. affolement [abîma] nm panic. affoler [able] [3] vt -1. [inquiéter] to terrify. -2. [émouvoir] to drive mad. ♦ s'affoler vp [paniquer] to panic. affranchi, -e [afrâji] adj -1. [lettre - avec timbre] stamped; [- à la machine] franked. -2. [personne, esclave] liberated. affranchir [afrâjir] [32] vt -1. [lettre - avec timbre] to stamp; [- à la machine] to frank. -2. arg crime [renseigner] to put in the picture, to fill in. -3. [libérer]: ~ qqn de qqch to liberate OU free sb from sthg. -4. [esclave] to set free, to liberate. ♦ s'affranchir vp: s'~ de qqch [se libérer de] to free o.s. from sthg. affranchissem*nt [afrâjismâ] nm -1. [de lettre - avec timbre] stamping; [- à la machine] franking. -2. [libération] liberation,

emancipation. affres [afr] nfpl littéraire throes. affréter [afrete] [18] vt to charter. affreusem*nt [afrozmâ] adv -1. [horriblement] horribly. -2. [énormément] awfully. affreux, -euse [afro, 0z] adj -1. [repoussant] horrible. -2. [effrayant] terrifying. -3. [détestable] awful, dreadful. affriolant, -e [afrijDlâ, ât] adj enticing. affront [afr5] nm insuit, affront; faire un -~ à qqn to insult sb. affrontement [afr5tmâ] nm confrontation. affronter [afr5te] [3] vt to confront. ♦ s'affronter vp to confront each other. affubler [afyble] [3] vt péj: être affublé de to be got up in. ♦ s'affubler vp: s'~ de qqch péj to get o.s. up in sthg. affût [afy] nm: être à l'~ (de) to be lying in wait (for); fig to be on the lookout (for). affûter [afyte] [3] vt to sharpen. afghan, -e [afgâ/an] ^/Afghan. ♦ afghan nm [langue] Afghan, Pashto. ♦ Afghan, -e nm, f Afghan. Afghanistan [afganistâ] nm: l'~ Afghanistan. afin [afê] ♦ afin de loc prép in order to. ♦ afin que loc conj (+ subjonctif) so that. AFNOR, Afhor [afnor] (abr de Association française de normalisation) nf French industrial standards authority, = ASA Am, — BSI Br. a fortiori [afDrsJDri] adv all the more. AFP (abr de Agence France-Presse) nf French press agency. africain, -e [afrikê, en] adj African. ♦ Africain, -e nm, /"African. afrikaner [afrikaner], afrikaander [afrikôder] adj Afrikaner. ♦ Afrikaner, Afrikaander nmf Afrikaner. Afrique [afrik] nf l'~ Africa; l'~ australe Southern Africa; l'~ noire sub-Saharan Africa; l'~ du Nord North Africa; l'~ du Sud South Africa. after-shave [aftoerjev] nm inv & adj inv aftershave. ag. abr de agence. AG (abr de assemblée générale) nf GM. agaçant, -e [agasâ, ât] adj irritating. agacement [agasmâ] nm irritation. agacer [agase] [16] vt to irritate. agate [agat] nf agate.

âge 12 âge [a3] nm age; à l'~ de at the age of; en ~ de faire qqch old enough to do sthg; en bas ~ very young; quel ~ as-tu£ how old are you£; d'un certain ~ middle-aged; prendre de l'~ to age; l'~ adulte adulthood; l'~ ingrat the awkward OU difficult age; d'un ~ avancé elderly; ~ de fer/de bronze Iron/Bronze Age; ~ mental mental age; d'~ mûr of mature years; ~ d'or golden age; ~ de raison age of reason; le troisième ~ [personnes] the over-sixties. âgé, -e [a3e] adj old, elderly; être ~ de 20 ans to be 20 years old OU of age; un enfant ~ de 3 ans a 3-year-old child. agence [a3Ôs] nf agency; ~ immobilière real estate agent's Am, estate agent's Br; ~ matrimoniale marriage bureau; Agence nationale pour l'emploi French national employment agency, = job centre Br; ~ de publicité advertising agency; ~ de voyages travel agent's, travel agency. agencement [a3âsmâ] nm arrangement. agencer [a3âse] [16] vt to arrange; fig to put together. ♦ s'agencer vp to fit together. agenda [a3èda] nm diary. agenouiller [a3nuje] [3] ♦ s'agenouiller vp to kneel; s'~ devant fig to bow down before. agent [a3Ô] nm agent; ~ de change stockbroker; ~ commercial sales representative; ~ immobilier real estate agent Am, estate agent Br; ~ de police police officer; ~ de publicité advertising agent; ~ secret secret agent. agglomérat [agbmera] nm GÉOL & fig agglomerate. agglomération [agbmerasjS] nf -1. [amas] conglomeration. -2. [ville] conurbation; l'~ parisienne the Parisian urban area. aggloméré [agbmere] nm chipboard. agglomérer [agbmere] [18] vt to mix together. ♦ s'agglomérer vp -1. [surface] to bind. -2. [foule] to gather. agglutiner [aglytine] [3] vt to stick together. ♦ s'agglutiner vp [foule] to gather, to congregate. aggravation [agravasj5] nf worsening, aggravation. aggraver [agrave] [3] vt to make worse. ♦ s'aggraver vp to get worse, to worsen. agile [a3il] adj agile, nimble. agilement [a3ilmô] adv agilely. agilité [a3ilite] nf lift & fig agility. agios [a3Jo] nmpl FIN bank charges. agir [a3ir] [32] vi -1. [faire, être efficace] to act. -2. [se comporter] to behave. -3.

[influer]: ~ sur to have an effect on. ♦ s'agir v impers: il s'agit de ... it's a matter of ...; il s'agit de faire qqch we/you etc must do sthg; de quoi s'agit-iK what's it abouti; de quoi s'agit-il dans ce film/cette lettre $ what is this film/letter abouti agissem*nts [a3ismâ] nmpl péj schemes, intrigues. agitateur, -trice [a3itatœr, tris] nm, f POLIT agitator. agitation [a3itasj5] nf agitation; [politique, sociale] unrest. agité, -e [a3ite] adj -1. [gén] restless; [enfant, classe] restless, fidgety; [journée, atmosphère] hectic. -2. [mer] rough. agiter [a3ite] [3] vt -1. [remuer - flacon, objet] to shake; [- drapeau, bras] to wave; «~ avant l'emploi» "shake well before use". -2. [énerver] to perturb. ♦ s'agiter vp [personne] to move about, to fidget; [mer] to stir; [population] to get restless. agneau [ajio] nm -1. [animal, viande] lamb; doux comme un ~ gentle as a lamb. -2. [cuir] lambskin. agonie [agani] nf [de personne] mortal agony; fig death throes (/?/); être à P~ to be at death's door. agoniser [agDnize] [3] vi [personne] to be dying; fig to be on its last legs. agoraphobie [agorafabi] «f agoraphobia. agrafe [agraf] nf -1. [de bureau] staple. -2. MED clip. agrafer [agrafe] [3] vt [attacher] to fasten; fam fig to nab. agrafeuse [agrafez] nf stapler. agraire [agrer] adj agrarian. agrandir [agràdir] [32] vt -1. [élargir - gén & PHOT] to enlarge; [- rue, écart] to widen. -2. fig [développer] to expand. -3. [faire paraître plus grand]: ~ qqch to make sthg look bigger. ♦ s'agrandir vp -1. [s'étendre] to grow. -2. fig [se développer] to expand. agrandissem*nt [agrâdismâ] nm -1. [gén & PHOT] enlargement. -2. fig [développement] expansion. agréable [agreabl] adj pleasant, nice. agréablement [agreabtamâ] adv pleasantly. agréé, -e [agree] adj [concessionnaire, appareil] authorized. agréer [agree] [15] vt sout -1. [accepter]: faire ~ qqch to have sthg accepted; veuillez ~ mes salutations distinguées OU l'expression

13 aigrir de mes sentiments distingués yours faithfully. -2. [convenir]: ~ à qqn to suit OU please sb. agrégat [agrega] nm -1. [agglomérat] aggregate. -2. fig & péj [amas] hodgepodge Am, hotchpotch Br. agrégation [agregasjS] nf competitive examination for secondary school and university teachers. agrégé, -e [agre3e] nm, f holder of the agrégation. agrément [agremâ] nm -1. [caractère agréable] attractiveness; d'~ [jardin] ornamental; [voyage] pleasure {avant n). -2. [approbation] consent, approval. agrémenter [agremôte] [3] vt: ~ qqch (de qqch) to embellish sthg (with sthg). ♦ s'agrémenter vp: s'~ de qqch [vêtement] to be trimmed OU adorned with sthg. agrès [agre] nmpl SPORT gym apparatus (U). agresser [agrese] [4] vt -1. [suj: personne] to attack. -2. fig [suj: bruit, pollution] to assault. agresseur [agrescer] nm attacker. agressif, -ive [agresif, iv] adj aggressive. agression [agresj5] nf attack; MIL & PSYCHOL aggression. agressivement [agresivmâ] adv aggressiveiy agressivité [agresivite] «f aggressiveness. agricole [agrikol] adj agricultural. agriculteur, -trice [agrikyltcer, tris] nm, f farmer. agriculture [agrikyltyr] «/"agriculture, farming.^ agripper [agripe] [3] vt -1. [personne] to cling OU hang on to. -2. [objet] to grip, to clutch. ♦ s'agripper vp: s'~ à qqn to cling OU hang on to sb; s'~ à qqch to grip OU clutch sthg. agronome [agronom] nmf agronomist. agronomie [agronomi] «/"agronomy. agronomique [agransmik] adj agronomic. agrume [agrym] nm citrus fruit. aguerrir [agerir] [32] vt to harden. ♦ s'aguerrir vp: s'~ (contre) to become hardened (to). aguets [age] ♦ aux aguets be adv. être/rester aux ~ to be OU keep on the lookout. aguichant, -e [agi/â, ât] adj enticing. ah [a] interj oh!, ah!; ah bon£ really^; ah, quelle bonne surprise! what a nice surprise! Ah {abr de ampère-heure) ah. ahuri, -e [ayri] adj: être ~ (par qqch) to be

taken aback (by sthg). ahurir [ayrir] [32] vt [étonner] to astound. ahurissant, -e [ayrisâ, ât] adj astounding. ahurissem*nt [ayrismâ] nm astonishment. ai —> avoir. aide [ed] o nf -1. [gén] help; à l'~! help!; appeler (qqn) à l'~ to call (to sb) for help; venir en ~ à qqn to come to sb's aid, to help sb; ~ ménagère home help. -2. [secours financier] aid; ~ sociale welfare Am, social security Br. o nmf [adjoint] assistant; ~ de camp MIL aide-de-camp. ♦ à l'aide de loc prép with the help of. aide-mémoire [edmemwar] nm inv aidemémoire; [pour examen] revision notes {pi). aider [ede] [4] vt to help; ~ qqn à faire qqch to help sb to do sthg; ~ qqn dans qqch to help sb with sthg; se faire ~ par OU de qqn to be helped by sb, to get help from sb; ~ à faire qqch to help to do sthg. ♦ s'aider vp -1. [s'assister mutuellement] to help each other.* -2. [avoir recours]: s'~ de to use, to make use of. aide-soignant, -e [edswajiâ, ât] {mpl aides-soignants, fpl aides-soignantes) nm, f nurse's aide Am, nursing auxiliary Br. aie, aies etc avoir. aïe [aj] interj -1. [exprime la douleur] ow!, ouch! -2. [exprime le désagrément] oh dear!, oh no! AIEA {abr de Agence internationale de l'énergie atomique) nf IAEA. aïeul, -e [ajœl] nm, f sout grandparent, grandfather (f grandmother). aïeux [ajo] nmpl ancestors. aigle [egl] nm eagle. aiglon [egl5] nm eaglet. aigre [egr] adj -1. [gén] sour. -2. [propos] harsh. aigre-doux, -douce [egradu, dus] adj -1. CULIN sweet-and-sour. -2. [propos] bittersweet. aigrelet, -ette [egrsle, et] adj -1. [vin] vinegary. -2. [voix] sharpish. aigrement [egramâ] adv bitterly. aigrette [egret] nf egret. aigreur [egreer] nf -1. [d'un aliment] sourness. -2. [d'un propos] harshness. ♦ aigreurs d'estomac nfpl heartburn {U). aigri, -e [egri] adj embittered. aigrir [egrir] [32] vt -1. [aliment] to make sour. -2. [personne] to embitter. ♦ s'aigrir vp -1. [aliment] to turn sour. -2. [personne] to become bitter.

aigu 14 aigu, -uë [egy] adj -1. [son] high-pitched. -2. [objet, lame] sharp; [angle] acute. -3. [douleur] sharp, acute. -4. [conflit, grève] bitter. -5. [intelligence, sens] acute, keen. ♦ aigu nm high note. aiguillage [egqija3] nm [RAIL - manoeuvre] switching Am, shunting Br; [- dispositif] switch Am, points (pt) Br. aiguille [egqij] nf -\. [gén] needle; ~ à tricoter knitting needle; ~ de pin pine needle; chercher une ~ dans une botte de foin fig to look for a needle in a haystack. -2. [de pendule] hand. -3. GÉOGR peak. aiguiller [egqije] [3] w -1. RAIL to switch Am, to shunt Br. -2. [personne, conversation] to steer, to direct. aiguilleur [egqijcer] nm -1. RAIL switchman Am, pointsman Br. -2. AÉRON: ~ du ciel air traffic controller. aiguillon [egqijô] nm -1. [dard] sting. -2. [stimulant] spur, incentive. aiguiser [egize] [3] vt litt & fig to sharpen; ~ l'appétit to whet the appetite. aïkido, aïkido [ajkido] nm aikido. ail [aj] (pi ails OU aube [o]) nm garlic (V); ~ des bois Can wild leek. aile [el] nf-i. [gén] wing; battre de l'~ to be in a bad way; donner des —s à qqn to lend sb wings; voler de ses propres ~s to stand on one's own two feet. -2. [de moulin] sail. aileron [elr5] nm -1. [de requin] fin. -2. [d'avion] aileron. ailier [elje] nm winger. aille, ailles etc —► aller. ailleurs [ajoer] adv elsewhere, someplace Am OU somewhere Br else; elle avait l'esprit ~ fig her mind was on other things; nulle part ~ no-place Am OU nowhere Br else; partout ~ everyplace Am OU everywhere Br else. ♦ d'ailleurs, par ailleurs loc adv moreover, besides. ailloli, aïoli [apli] nm garlic mayonnaise. aimable [emabl] adj kind, nice. aimablement [emabbmà] adv kindly. aimant1, -e [emâ, ât] adj loving. aimant2 [emâ] tun magnet. aimanter [emâte] [3] vt to magnetize. aimer [erne] [4] vt -1. [gén] to like; ~ bien qqch/qqn to like sthg/sb, to be fond of sthg/sb; ~ bien faire qqch to (really) like doing sthg; ~ (à) faire qqch to like to do sthg, to like doing sthg; j'aime à croire que ... I like to think that ...; elle aime qu'on l'appelle par son surnom she likes being called by her nickname; je n'aime pas que tu rentres seule le soir I don't like you

coming home alone at night; j'aimerais (bien) que tu viennes avec moi I'd like you to come with me; j'aimerais bien une autre tasse de café I wouldn't mind another cup of coffee; ~ mieux qqch to prefer sthg; ~ mieux faire qqch to prefer doing OU to do sthg. -2. [d'amour] to love. ♦ s'aimer vp -1. (emploi réfléchi) to like o.s. -2. (emploi réciproque) to love each other; s'~ bien to like each other. aine [en] nf groin. aîné, -e [ene] o adj [plus âgé] elder, older; [le plus âgé] eldest, oldest. O nm, f [plus âgé] older OU elder child, older OU eldest son/ daughter; [le plus âgé] oldest OU eldest child, oldest OU eldest son/daughter; elle est mon ~e de deux ans she is two years older than me. aînesse [enes] —*■ droit. ainsi [êsi] adv -1. [manière] in this way, like this. -2. [valeur conclusive] thus; ~ done so; et ~ de suite and so on, and so forth; pour ~ dire so to speak; ~ soit-il so be it. ♦ ainsi que loc conj -1. [comme, de même que] as. -2. [et] as well as. aïoli = ailloli. air [er] nm -1. [gén] air; le grand ~ the fresh air; à l'~ libre in the open air; en plein ~ (out) in the open air, outside; prendre l'~ to get some (fresh) air; en l'~ [projet] (up) in the air; fig [paroles] empty; ~ comprimé compressed air; ~ conditionné air-conditioning; s'envoyer en l'~ vulg to get laid. -2. [apparence, mine] air, look; il a l'~ triste he looks sad; il a l'~ de bouder it looks as if he's sulking; il a l'~ de faire beau it looks like being a nice day; sans en avoir l'~ without showing it; d'un ~ dégagé in a casual manner; n'avoir P~ de rien to look OU seem unremarkable; un ~ de famille a family resemblance. -3. MUS tune. aire [er] nf-1. [gén] area; ~ d'atterrissage landing strip; ~ de jeu playground; ~ de repos lay-by. -2. [nid] eyrie. airelle [erel] nf bilberry. aisance [ezâs] nf -1. [facilité] ease. -2. [richesse]: il vit dans P~ he has an affluent lifestyle. aise [ez] O nfsout pleasure; être à l'~ OU à son ~ [confortable] to feel comfortable; [financièrement] to be comfortably off; mettez-vous à l'~ make yourself comfortable; mettre qqn mal à l'~ to make sb feel ill at ease OU uneasy; en prendre à son ~ to do as one likes; à votre ~ please your-

15 alimentaire self, as you wish. O adj: être bien ~ (de faire qqch) to be delighted (to do sthg). ♦ aises «//?/: aimer ses ~s to like one's (home) comforts; prendre ses —s to make o.s. comfortable. aisé, -e [eze] adj -1. [facile] easy. -2. [riche] well-off. aisément [ezemâ] adv easily. aisselle [esel] «/"armpit. ajonc [a35] nm gorse (U). ajournement [a3urndmâ] nm adjournment, postponement. ajourner [a3ume] [3] vt -1. [reporter décision etc] to postpone; [- réunion, procès] to adjourn. -2. [candidat] to refer. ajout [a3u] nm addition. ajouter [a3ute] [3] vt to add; ~ que to add that; ~ foi à qqch sout to give credence to sthg. ^ ♦ s'ajouter vp: s'~ à qqch to be in addition to sthg. ajustage [a3ysta3] nm fitting. ajusté, -e [a3yste] adj [coupé] fitted, tailored. ajuster [a3yste] [3] vt -1. [monter]: ~ qqch (à) to fit sthg (to). -2. [régler] to adjust. -3. [vêtement] to alter. -4. [tir, coup] to aim. -5. [arranger - coiffure, cravate] to adjust. ♦ s'ajuster vp to be adaptable. ajusteur [a3ystcer] nm fitter. alaise, alèse [alez] nf undersheet. alambiqué, -e [alâbike] adj convoluted. alarmant, -e [alarma, àt] adj alarming. alarme [alarm] nf alarm; donner l'~ to give OU raise the alarm. alarmer [alarme] [3] vt to alarm. ♦ s'alarmer vp> to get OU become alarmed. alarmiste [alarmist] O nmf scaremonger. O adj alarmist. albanais, -e [albane, ez] adj Albanian. ♦ albanais nm [langue] Albanian. ♦ Albanais, -e nm, f Albanian. Albanie [albani] nf: l'~ Albania. albâtre [albatr] nm alabaster. albatros [albatros] nm albatross. albinos [albinos] nmf & adj inv albino. album [albam] nm album; ~ (de) photo photo album. albumine [albymin] nf albumin. alcalin, -e [alkalê, in] adj alkaline. alchimiste [aljimist] nmf alchemist. alcool [alkol] nm alcohol; ~ à brûler methylated spirits {ft); ~ à 90 degrés surgical spirit; ~ de prune/poire plum/pear brandy. alcoolémie [allolemi] nf: taux d'~ blood

alcohol level. alcoolique [alkolik] nmf 62 adj alcoholic. alcoolisé, -e [alkalize] adj alcoholic. alcoolisme [alkolism] nm alcoholism. Alc(o)otest® [alkotcst] nm — Breathalyser®; passer un ~ to be breathalysed. alcôve [alkov] nf recess; secret d'~ intimate secret. aléa [aléa] nm (gén p>t) sout hazard. aléatoire [aleatwar] adj -1. [avenir] uncertain. -2. [choix] random. alémanique [alemanik] adj: Suisse ~ German-speaking (part of) Switzerland. alentour [alâtur] adv around, round about. ♦ alentours nmpl surroundings; les —s de la ville the outskirts of the city; aux —s de [spatial] in the vicinity of; [temporel] around. alerte [alert] O adj -1. [personne, esprit] agile, alert. -2. [style, pas] lively. O nf alarm, alert; donner P~ to sound OU give the alert; ~ à la bombe bomb scare; fausse ~ false alarm. alerter [alerte] [3] vt to warn, to alert. alèse = alaise. alexandrin [aleksâdrê] nm alexandrine. algèbre [al3ebr] nf algebra. Alger [al3e] n Algiers. Algérie [al3eri] nf: P~ Algeria. algérien, -ienne [al3erjë, jen] adj Algerian. ♦ Algérien, -ienne nm, /'Algerian. algue [alg] «/"seaweed (U). alias [aljas] adv alias. alibi [alibi] nm alibi. aliénation [aljenasjS] «/"alienation; ~ mentale insanity. aliéné, -e [aljene] O adj -1. MÉD insane. -2. JUR alienated. O nm, f MÉD insane person. aliéner [aljene] [18] vt to alienate. alignement [alijimâ] nm alignment, lining up; ~ sur alignment with; être dans P~ de to be in line with. aligner [alijie] [3] vt -1. [disposer en ligne] to line up, to align. -2. [présenter] to set out. -3. [adapter]: ~ qqch sur to align sthg with, to bring sthg into line with. ♦ s'aligner vp to line up; s'~ sur POLIT to align o.s. with. aliment [alimâ] nm [nourriture] food (U). alimentaire [alimâtcr] adj -1. [gén] food (avant n); c'est juste un travail ~ I'm doing this job just for the money. -2. JUR maintenance (avant «).

alimentation 16 alimentation [alimâtasj5] nf -1. [nourriture] diet; magasin d'~ food store. -2. [approvisionnement]: ~ (en) supply OU supplying (V) (of). alimenter [alimâte] [3] vt -1. [nourrir] to feed. -2. [approvisionner]: ~ qqch en to supply sthg with. -3. fig [entretenir] to keep going. # ♦ s'alimenter vp to eat. alinéa [alinéa] nm -1. [retrait de ligne] indent. -2. [dans document officiel] paragraph. aliter [alite] [3] vt: être alité to be bedridden. ♦ s'aliter vp to take to one's bed. allaitement [aletmâ] nm [d'enfant] breastfeeding; [d'animal] suckling. allaiter [alete] [4] vt [enfant] to breast-feed; [animal] to suckle. allant [alâ] nm: plein d'~ dynamic. alléchant, -e [alejâ, ât] adj mouthwatering, tempting. allécher [aleJe] [18] vt: il a été alléché par l'odeur/la perspective the smell/prospect made his mouth water. allée [ale] nf-1. [dans un jardin] path; [dans une ville] avenue. -2. [passage] aisle. -3. [trajet]: ~s ec venues comings and goings. -4. Can GOLF fairway. allégation [alegasjô] «f allegation. allégé, -e [ale3e] adj [régime, produit] lowfat. allégeance [ale3âs] nf allegiance. alléger [ale3e] [22] vt -1. [fardeau] to lighten. -2. [douleur] to soothe. allégorie [alegsri] «/"allegory. allègre [alegr] adj -1. [ton] cheerful. -2. [démarche] jaunty. allégresse [alegres] «Relation. alléguer [alege] [18] vt: ~ une excuse to put forward an excuse; ~ que to plead (that). Allemagne [almaji] nf: l'~ Germany; l'(ex-)— de l'Est (former) East Germany; l'(ex-)— de l'Ouest (former) West Germany. allemand, -e [almâ, âd] adj German. ♦ allemand nm [langue] German. ♦ Allemand, -e nm, f German; un Allemand de l'Est/l'Ouest an East/a West German. aller [aie] [31] o nm -1. [trajet] outward journey. -2. [billet] one-way ticket Am, single ticket Br. O vi -1. [gén] to go; allez! corne on!; allez, au revoir! bye then!; vas-y! go on!; allonsy! let's go! -2. (+ infinitif): ~ faire qqch to go and do sthg; ~ chercher les enfants à l'école to go and fetch the children from school; ~ travailler se promener to go to

work/for a walk. -3. [indiquant un état]: comment vas-tu^ how are you£; je vais bien I'm very well, I'm fine; comment ça va centre. antiquaire [âtiker] nmf antique dealer. antique [âtik] adj -1. [de l'antiquité civilisation] ancient; [- vase, objet] antique. -2. [vieux] antiquated, ancient. antiquité [âtikite] nf-1. [époque]: l'Antiquité antiquity. -2. [ancienneté] great age, antiquity. -3. [objet] antique. antirabique [âtirabik] adj: vaccin ~ rabies vaccine. antiraciste [âtirasist] adj 62 nmf antiracist. antireflet [âtirsfle] adj inv [surface] nonreflecting. antirides [âtirid] adj inv anti-wrinkle. antirouille [âtiruj] adj inv [traitement] rust (avant «); [revêtement, peinture] rustproof. antisèche [âtisej] nm ou nf arg scol cheat sheet Am, crib Br. antisémite [âtisemit] O nmf anti-Semite, o adj anti-Semitic. antiseptique [âtiscptik] nm 62 adj antiseptic. antisismique [âtisismik] adj earthquakeproof. antithèse [âtitez] «/"antithesis.

25 apostrophe antitussif, -ive [âtitysif, iv] adj cough {avant n). ♦ antitussif nm cough mixture. antiviral, -aux [âtiviral, o] nm antivirus. antivol [âtivol] O nm inv anti-theft device, o adj inv anti-theft. antre [âtr] nm den, lair. anus [anys] nm anus. anxiété [âksjete] nf anxiety; être dans l'~ to be very worried OU anxious. anxieusem*nt [ôksjozmâ] adv anxiously. anxieux, -ieuse [âksjo, joz] o adj anxious, worried; être ~ de qqch to be worried OU anxious about sthg; être ~ de faire qqch to be anxious to do sthg. o nm, f worrier. AOC (abr de appellation d'origine contrôlée) nf label guaranteeing quality of French wine. aorte [asrt] nf aorta. août [u(t)] nm August; le quinze août Assumption Day; voir aussi septembre. aoûtat [auta] nm harvest tick. apaisem*nt [apezmâ] nm -1. [moral] comfort. -2. [de douleur] alleviation. -3. [de tension, de crise] calming. apaiser [apeze] [4] vt -1. [personne] to calm down, to pacify. -2. [conscience] to salve; [douleur] to soothe; [soif] to slake, to quench; [faim] to assuage; [passion] to calm. ♦ s'apaiser vp -1. [personne] to calm down. -2. [besoin, passion] to be assuaged; [tempête] to subside, to abate; [douleur] to die down; [scrupules] to be allayed. apanage [apana3] nm sout privilege; être l'~ de qqn/qqch to be the prerogative of sb/ sthg. aparté [aparté] nm -1. THÉÂTRE aside. -2. [conversation] private conversation; prendre qqn en ~ to take sb aside. apartheid [aparted] nm apartheid. apathie [apati] nf apathy. apathique [apatik] adj apathetic. apatride [apatrid] o nmf stateless person, o adj stateless. apercevoir [apersavwar] [52] vt -1. [voir] to see, to catch sight of. -2. [comprendre] to see, to perceive. ♦ s'apercevoir vp: s'~ de qqch to notice sthg; s'~ que to notice (that). aperçois, aperçoit etc —► apercevoir. aperçu, -e [apersy] pp —► apercevoir. ♦ aperçu nm general idea; donner un ~ de qqch to give a general idea of sthg. apéritif, -ive [aperitif, iv] adj which whets the appetite. ♦ apéritif nm aperitif; prendre l'~ to have an aperitif, to have drinks {before a meat).

apesanteur [apazôtcer] «f weighdessness. à-peu-près [apopre] nm inv approximation. aphasie [afazi] nf aphasia. aphone [afbn] adj voiceless. aphorisme [abnsm] nm aphorism. aphrodisiaque [afradizjak] nm & adj aphrodisiac. aphte [aft] nm mouth ulcer. API {abr de alphabet phonétique international) nm IPA. apiculteur, -trice [apikyltcer, tris] nm, f beekeeper. apiculture [apikyltyr] «/"beekeeping. apitoie, apitoies etc —> apitoyer. apitoiement [apitwamâ] nm pity. apitoyer [apitwaje] [13] vt to move to pity. ♦ s'apitoyer vp to feel pity; s'~ sur to feel sorry for. ap. J.-C. {abr de après Jésus-Christ) AD. APL {abr de aide personnalisée au logement) «f housing benefit. aplanir [aplanir] [32] vt -1. [aplatir] to level. -2. fig [difficulté, obstacle] to smooth away, to iron out. ♦ s'aplanir vp fig [se résoudre] to be ironed out. aplatir [aplatir] [32] vt [gén] to flatten; [couture] to press flat; [cheveux] to smooth down. ♦ s'aplatir vp -1. [s'écraser] to be flattened. -2. [s'étaler] to lie flat; s'~ devant qqn fig to grovel before sb. aplomb [apl5] nm -1. [stabilité] balance. -2. [audace] nerve, cheek; garder/perdre son ~ to keep/lose one's nerve. ♦ d'aplomb loc adv steady; se tenir d'~ to be steady; ne pas se sentir d'~ to feel out of sorts. apnée [apne] nf. plonger en ~ to dive without breathing apparatus. apocalypse [apokalips] «/"apocalypse. apocalyptique [apokaliptik] adj apocalyptic. apogée [apD3e] nm ASTRON apogee; fig peak. apolitique [apolitik] adj apolitical, unpolitical. apologie [apDlo3i] nf justification, apology; faire l'~ de qqn/qqch to praise sb/sthg. apoplexie [apDpleksi] «/"apoplexy. apostrophe [apostrsf] nf -1. [signe graphique] apostrophe. -2. [interpellation] rude remark.

apostropher 26 apostropher [apostrofe] [3] vt: ~ qqn to speak rudely to sb. apothéose [apoteoz] nf -1. [consécration] great honor Am OU honour Br. -2. [point culminant - d'un spectacle] grand finale; [- d'une carrière] crowning glory. apôtre [apotr] nm apostle, disciple; se faire l'~ de qqch fig to be the OU an advocate of sthg. Appalaches [apalaj] nmpl: les ~ the Appalachians. • • apparaissais, apparaissions etc —► apparaître. apparaître [aparetr] [91] o vi -1. [gén] to appear. -2. [se dévoiler] to come to light, o v impers: il apparaît que it seems OU appears that. apparat [apara] nm pomp; d'~ [dîner, habit] ceremonial; en grand ~ with great pomp and ceremony. appareil [aparej] nm -1. [gén] device; [électrique] appliance; porter un ~ (auditif)/ (dentaire) to wear a hearing aid/a brace. -2. [téléphone] phone, telephone; qui est à l'~£ who's speaking^ -3. [avion] aircraft. -4. [structure] apparatus. -5. he: dans le plus simple ~ in one's birthday suit. ♦ appareil digestif nm digestive system. ♦ appareil photo nm camera. appareillage [apareja3] nm -1. [équipement] equipment. -2. NAV1C. getting under way. appareiller [apareje] [4] O vt [assortir] to match up. o vi NAVIG to get under way. apparemment [aparamâ] adv apparently. apparence [aparâs] nf appearance; malgré les OU en dépit des —s in spite of appearances; sauver les —s to keep up appearances. ♦ en apparence he adv seemingly, apparendy. apparent, -e [aparô, ât] adj -1. [superficiel, illusoire] apparent. -2. [visible] visible; coutures —es top-stitched seams. -3. [évident] obvious. apparenté, -e [aparâte] adj: ~ à [personne] related to; fig [ressemblant] similar to; [affilié] affiliated to. appariteur [apariteer] nm porter (in university). apparition [aparisj5] nf -1. [gén] appearance; faire son ~ to make one's appearance. -2. [vision - RELIC] vision; [- de fantôme] apparition. appart [apart] (abr de appartement) nm fam apartment Am, flat Br.

appartement [apartamâ] nm apartment Am, flat Br. appartenance [apartanâs] nf ~ à [famille] belonging to; [parti] membership of. appartenir [apartanir] [40] vi -1. [être la propriété de]: —à qqn to belong to sb. -2. [faire partie de]: — à qqch to belong to sthg, to be a member of sthg, il ne m'appartient pas de ... fig & sont it's not up to me to .... appartenu [apartsny] pp inv —► appartenir. appartiendrai, appartiendrais etc —► appartenir. apparu, -e [apary] pp —► apparaître. appât [apa] nm PÊCHE bait, lure. appâter [apate] [3] vt litt & fig to lure. appauvrir [apovrir] [32] vt to impoverish. ♦ s'appauvrir vp to grow poorer, to become impoverished. appel [apel] nm -1. [gén] call; faire ~ à qqn to appeal to sb; faire ~ à qqch [nécessiter] to call for sthg; [avoir recours à] to call on sthg; ~ (téléphonique) (phone) call. -2. JUR appeal; faire ~ JUR to appeal; sans ~ final. -3. [pour vérifier - gén] roll-call; [- SCOL] registration; manquer à l'~ to be absent. -4. COMM. ~ d'offre invitation to tender. -5. [signe]: faire un ~ de phares to flash one's headlights. appelant [aplâ] nm [leurre] decoy; Can [sifflet] birdcall. appelé [aple] nm conscript. appeler [aple] [24] O vt -1. [gén] to call; ~ au secours OU à l'aide to call for help. -2. [téléphoner] to ring, to call. -3. [exiger] to call for. -4. [entraîner] to lead to. -5. [nommer]: être appelé à un poste to be appointed to a post. -6. [amener]: ~ qqn à faire qqch to call on sb to do sthg. o vi [solliciter]: en ~ à qqch to appeal to sthg. ♦ s'appeler vp -1. [se nommer] to be called; comment cela s'appelle^ what is it called^; il s'appelle Patrick his name is Patrick, he's called Patrick. -2. [se téléphoner]: on s'appelle demain^ shall we talk tomorrow^ appellation [apclasj5] nf designation, name; ~ contrôlée guarantee that a wine eonforms to certain conditions of origin, strength and quality; ~ d'origine JUR label of origin. appelle, appelles etc —* appeler. appendice [apêdis] nm appendix. appendicite [apêdisit] nf appendicitis. appends [apâti] nm lean-to. appesantir [apazâtir] [32] vt [démarche] to slow down.

27 approfondir ♦ s'appesantir vp -1. [s'alourdir] to become heavy. -2. [insister]: s'~ sur qqch to dwell on sthg. appétissant, -e [apetisâ, ât] adj [nourriture] appetizing. appétit [apeti] nm appetite; ~ de qqch/de faire qqch fig appetite for sthg/for doing sthg; bon ~! enjoy your meal!; couper/ ouvrir l'~ à qqn to spoil/whet sb's appetite; manger de bon ~ to eat heartily. applaudir [aplodir] [32] o vt to applaud, o vi to clap, to applaud; ~ à qqch fig to applaud sthg; ~ à tout rompre fig to bring the house down. applaudissem*nts [aplodismô] nmpl applause (U), clapping (U). applicable [aplikabl] adj: ~ (à) applicable (to). application [aplikasjS] nf [gén & INFORM] application; mettre qqch en ~ to apply sthg.^ applique [aplik] «/"wall lamp. appliquer [aplike] [3] vt [gén] to apply; [loi] to enforce. ♦ s'appliquer vp -1. [s'étaler, se poser]: cette peinture s'applique facilement this paint goes on easily. -2. [concerner]: s'~ à qqn/qqch to apply to sb/sthg. -3. [se concentrer]: s'~ (à faire qqch) to apply o.s. (to doing sthg). appoint [apwê] nm -1. [monnaie] change; faire l'~ to give the right money. -2. [aide] help, support; d'~ [salaire, chauffa*ge] extra. appointements [apwêtmâ] nmpl salary (sg). apport [apDr] nm -1. [gén & FIN] contribution. -2. [de chaleur] input. apporter [aparté] [3] vt -1. [gén] to bring; ça m'a beaucoup apporté fig I got a lot from it. -2. [raison, preuve] to provide, to give. -3. [contribuer à] to give, to bring; [provoquer] to bring about. -4. [mettre - soin] to exercise; [- attention] to give. apposer [apoze] [3] vt -1. [affiche] to put up. -2. [signature] to append. apposition [apozisj5] nf GRAM apposition; en ~ in apposition. appréciable [apresjabi] adj -1. [notable] appreciable. -2. [précieux]: un grand jardin, c'est ~! I/we really appreciate having a big garden. appréciation [apresjasjS] nf -1. [de valeur] valuation; [de distance, poids] estimation. -2. [jugement] judgment. -3. SCOL assessment. apprécier [apresje] [9] vt -1. [gén] to appreciate. -2. [évaluer] to estimate, to assess. ♦ s'apprécier vp to like one other.

appréhender [apreâde] [3] vt -1. [arrêter] to arrest. -2. [craindre]: ~ qqch/de faire qqch to dread sthg/doing sthg. appréhension [apreâsp] nf apprehension. apprenais —► apprendre. apprendre [aprâdr] [79] vt -1. [étudier] to learn; ~ à faire qqch to learn (how) to do sthg. -2. [enseigner] to teach; ~ qqch à qqn to teach sb sthg; ~ à qqn à faire qqch to teach sb (how) to do sthg. -3. [nouvelle] to hear of, to learn of; ~ que to hear that, to learn that; ~ qqch à qqn to tell sb of sthg. apprenne —► apprendre. apprenti, -e [aprâti] nm, f [élève] apprentice; fig beginner; — sorcier fig sorcerer's apprentice. apprentissage [aprôtisa3] nm -1. [de métier] apprenticeship. -2. [formation] learning; ~ de la vie learning about life. apprêter [aprete] [4] vt to prepare. ♦ s'apprêter vp -1. [être sur le point]: s'~ à faire qqch to get ready to do sthg. -2. [s'habiller]: s'~ pour qqch to dress up for sthg. appris, -e [apri, iz] pp —> apprendre. apprivoiser [aprivwaze] [3] vt to tame. ♦ s'apprivoiser vp -1. [animal] to become tame. -2. [personne] to become more sociable. approbateur, -trice [aprobatcer, tris] adj approving. approbation [aprobasjS] «/"approval. approchant, -e [aprajâ, ât] adj similar; quelque chose d'~ something similar. approche [aproj] «/"[arrivée] approach; à l'~ des fêtes as the Christmas holidays draw near; il a pressé le pas à P~ de la maison he quickened his step as he approached OU drew near the house. ♦ approches nfpl [abords] surrounding area (sg). approcher [apraje] [3] O vt -1. [mettre plus près] to move near, to bring near; ~ qqch de qqn/qqch to move sthg near (to) sb/ sthg. -2. [aborder] to go up to, to approach. O vi to approach, to go/come near; approchez! come nearer!; n'approchez pas! keep OU stay away!; ~ de [moment, fin] to approach. ♦ s'approcher vp to come/go near, to approach; s'~ de qqn/qqch to approach sb/ sthg. approfondir [aprafSdir] [32] vt -1. [creuser] to make deeper. -2. [développer] to go further into.

appropne 28 ♦ s'approfondir vp -1. [se creuser] to become deeper. -2. [se compliquer] to deepen. approprié, -e [aproprije] adj: ~ (à) appropriate (to). approprier [aproprije] [10] vt -1. [adapter] to adapt. -2. Belg to clean. ♦ s'approprier vp [s'adjuger] to appropriate. approuver [apruve] [3] vt -1. [gén] to approve of; ~ qqn de faire qqch to commend sb for doing sthg. -2. JUR to approve. approvisionnement [aprovizpnmà] run supplies (ft), stocks {pt). approvisionner [aprovizjone] [3] vt -1. [compte en banque] to pay money into. -2. [magasin, pays] to supply. ♦ s'approvisionner vp: s'~ chez/à [suj: particulier] to shop at/in; [suj: commerçant] to get one's supplies from. approximatif, -ive [aproksimatif, iv] adj approximate, rough. approximation [aproksimasjS] nf approximation. approximativement [aproksimativmâ] adv approximately, roughly. appt abr de appartement. appui [apqi] nm -1. [soutien] support; à l'~ de in support of. -2. [de fenêtre] sill. appuie, appuies etc —> appuyer. appui-tête [apqitet] {pi appuis-tête) nm headrest. appuyer [apqije] [14] O vt -1. [poser]: ~ qqch sur/contre qqch to lean sthg on/ against sthg, to rest sthg on/against sthg. -2. [presser]: ~ qqch sur/contre to press sthg on/against. -3. fig [soutenir] to support. O vi -1. [reposer]: ~ sur to lean OU rest on. -2. [presser] to push; ~ sur [bouton] to press. -3. fig [insister]: ~ sur to stress. -4. [se diriger]: ~ sur la OU à droite to bear right. ♦ s'appuyer vp -1. [se tenir]: s'~ contre/ sur to lean against/on, to rest against/on. -2. [se baser]: s'~ sur to rely on. -3. [compter]: s'~ sur to rely on, to count on. -4. fam [supporter, prendre en charge]: s'~ qqn to put up with sb; s'~ qqch to take sthg on, to take on sthg. apr. abr de après. âpre [apr] adj -1. [goût, discussion, combat] bitter. -2. [ton, épreuve, critique] harsh. -3. [concurrence] fierce. âprement [apramâ] adv bitterly, fiercely. après [âpre] O prép -1. [gén] after; ~ avoir mangé, ils ... after having eaten OU after they had eaten, they ...; ~ cela after that; ~ quoi after which. -2. [indiquant l'attirance,

l'attachement, l'hostilité]: soupirer ~ qqn to yearn for sb; aboyer ~ qqn to bark at sb; se fâcher ~ qqn to get angry at OU with sb. O adv -1. [temps] afterwards; ~, je rentrerai à la maison Til go home afterwards; un mois ~ one month later; le mois d'~ the following OU next month. -2. [lieu, dans un ordre, dans un rang]: la rue d'~ the next street; c'est ma sœur qui vient ~ my sister's next. ♦ et après loc adv {employée interrogativement) -1. [questionnement sur la suite] and then what£ -2. [exprime l'indifférence] so what£ ♦ après coup loc adv afterwards, after the event. ♦ après tout loc adv after all. ♦ d'après loc prép according to; d'~ moi in my opinion; d'~ lui according to him. ♦ après que loc conj (+ indicatif) after; je le verrai ~ qu'il aura fini I'll see him after OU when he's finished; ~ qu'ils eurent dîné, ... after dinner OU after they had dined, après-demain [apredmê] adv the day after tomorrow. après-guerre [apreger] nm post-war years {pt); d'~ post-war. après-midi [apremidi] nm inv ou nfinv afternoon. après-rasage [apreraza3] {pi après-rasages) nm & adj inv aftershave. après-ski [apreski] {pi après-skis) nm [chaussure] snow-boot. après-soleil [apresslej] adj inv after-sun {avant n). après-vente [aprevât] —*■ service. âpreté [aprate] nf -1. [de goût, discussion, combat] bitterness. -2. [de voix, épreuve, critique] harshness. -3. [de concurrence] ferocity. à-propos [apropo] nm inv [de remarque] aptness; faire preuve d'~ to show presence of mind. apte [apt] adj: ~ à qqch/à faire qqch capable of sthg/of doing sthg; ~ (au service) MIL fit (for service). aptitude [aptityd] nf: ~ (à OU pour qqch) aptitude (for sthg); ~ à OU pour foire qqch ability to do OU for doing sthg. aquarelle [akwarel] nf watercolour. aquarium [akwarpm] nm aquarium. aquatique [akwatik] adj [plante, animal] aquatic; [milieu, paysage] watery, marshy. aqueduc [akdyk] nm aqueduct. aqueux, -euse [ako, oz] adj watery.

29 argenterie aquilin [akilê] —► nez. Aquitaine [akiten] nf l'~ Aquitaine. AR O nm -1. abr de accusé de réception. -2. (abr de aller-retour) RTN. O abr de arrière. arabe [arab] O ad] [peuple] Arab; [désert] Arabian. O nm [langue] Arabie. ♦ Arabe nmf Arab. arabesque [arabesk] nf -1. [ornement] arabesque. -2. [ligne sinueuse] flourish. Arabie [arabi] nf: l'~ Arabia; P~ Saoudite Saudi Arabia. arachide [arajid] nf-1. [plante] groundnut. -2. [graine] peanut, groundnut. araignée [arejie] nf spider; avoir une ~ dans le OU au plafond fam fig to have a screw loose. ♦ araignée de mer nf spider crab. araser [araze] [3] w GÉOL to erode. arbalète [arbalet] «/"crossbow. arbitrage [arbitras] nm -!• [SPORT - gén] refereeing; [- au tennis, cricket] umpiring. -2. JUR arbitration. arbitraire [arbitrer] ad] arbitrary. arbitrairement [arbitrermâ] adv arbitrarily. arbitre [arbitr] nm -1. [SPORT - gén] referee; [- au tennis, cricket] umpire. -2. [conciliateur] arbitrator. ♦ libre arbitre nm free will. arbitrer [arbitre] [3] vt -1. [SPORT - gén] to referee; [- au tennis, cricket] to umpire. -2. [conflit] to arbitrate. arborer [arbore] [3] w -1. [exhiber] to display, to sport. -2. [expression] to wear. arborescence [arboresâs] «/"INFORM tree. arboriculteur, -trice [arbstikyltœr, tris] nm, f tree grower. arboriculture [arborikyltyr] nf tree growing. arbouse [arbuz] «/"arbutus berry. arbre [arbr] nm -1. ROT & fig tree; ~ fruitier fruit tree; ~ généalogique family tree; ~ de Noël Christmas tree. -2. [axe] shaft; ~ de transmission AUTOM drive shaft, propeller shaft. arbrisseau [arbriso] nm shrub. arbuste [arbyst] nm shrub. arc [ark] nm -1. [arme] bow. -2. [courbe] arc; ~ de cercle arc of a circle. -3. ARCHIT arch. arcade [arkad] nf-1. ARCHIT arch; ~s arcade (sg). -2. ANAT: ~ sourcilière arch of the eyebrows. arc-bouter [arkbute] [3] ♦ s'arc-bouter vp to brace o.s. arceau, -x [arso] nm -1. ARCHET arch. -2. [objet métallique] hoop. arc-en-ciel [arkâsjel] {pi arcs-en-ciel) nm

rainbow. archaïque [arkaik] ad] archaic. arche [arf] «/"ARCHrrarch. archéologie [arkesb3i] «f archaeology. archéologique [arkesb3ik] ad] archaeological. archéologue [arkeobg] nmf archaeologist. archer [arje] nm archer. archet [arje] nm MUS bow. archétype [arketip] nm archetype. archevêché [arjaveje] nm [charge] archbishopric; [logement] archbishop's palace. archevêque [arfavek] nm archbishop. archipel [arfipel] nm archipelago. architecte [arjitckt] nmf architect. architectural, -e, -aux [arfitcktyral, o] ad] architectural. architecture [arjitektyr] «/"architecture; fig structure. archiver [arjive] {3] vt to archive. archives [arjiv] nfpl [de bureau] records; [de musée] archives. archiviste [arfivist] nmf archivist. arctique [arktik] ad] Arctic; le cercle polaire ~ the Arctic Circle. ♦ Arctique nm: l'~ the Arctic. ardemment [ardamâ] adv fervently, passionately. ardent, -e [arda, ât] ad] -1. [soleil] blazing. -2. [soif, fièvre] raging; [passion] burning. ardeur [ardcer] nf -1. [vigueur] fervor Am, fervour Br, enthusiasm. -2. [chaleur] blazing heat. ardoise [ardwaz] «/"slate. ardu, -e [ardy] ad] -1. [travail] arduous; [problème] difficult. -2. [pente] steep. are [ar] nm 100 square metres. arena [arena] nm Can sports centre with skating rink, arena Am. arène [aren] nf arena. ♦ arènes nfpl [romaines] amphitheater (sg) Am, amphitheatre (sg) Br. arête [aret] nf -1. [de poisson] bone. -2. [d'un toit, d'une montagne] ridge. -3. [du nez] bridge. argent [ar3â] nm -1. [métal, couleur] silver. -2. [monnaie] money; ~ comptant cash; ~ liquide (ready) casn; ~ de poche pocket money; en avoir pour son ~ to get one's money's worth. argenté, -e [ar3âte] ad] silvery, silver. argenterie [ar3âtri] «/"silverware.

argentin 30 argentin, -e [arçâtê, in] adj -1. [son] silvery. -2. [d'Argentine] Argentinian. ♦ Argentin, -e nm, /"Argentinian. Argentine [ar3Ôtin] nf: l'~ Argentina. argile [arçil] nf day. argileux, -euse [arçilo, az] adj clayey. argot [argo] nm slang. argotique [argotik] adj slang {avant n), slangy. arguer [argqe] [8] vi sout [prétexter]: ~ de qqch (pour) to put sthg forward as a reason (for). argument [argymâ] nm argument; tirer ~ de qqdi to use sthg as an argument; ~ de vente COMM selling point. argumentation [argymâtasj5] nf argumentation. argus [argys] nm: coté à P~ rated in the guide to secondhand car prices. aride [arid] adj litt & fig arid; [travail] thankless. aridité [aridité] «/"aridity. aristocrate [aristokrat] nmf aristocrat. aristocratie [aristokrasi] «/"aristocracy. aristocratique [aristokratik] adj aristocratie. arithmétique [aritmetik] O nf arithmetic. O adj arithmetical. armagnac [armajiak] nm armagnac. armateur [armateer] nm ship owner. armature [armatyr] «/"-l. CONSTR & fig framework. -2. [de parapluie] frame; [de soutiengorge] underwiring. -3. MUS key signature. arme [arm] nf litt & fig weapon; ~ blanche blade; ~ à feu firearm; passer F— à gauche fam fig to snuff it. ♦ armes nfpl -1. [armée]: les —s the army. -2. [blason] coat of arms (sg). -3. foc: faire ses premières —s [apprendre] to learn the ropes; fourbir ses ~s to prepare for battle; partir avec ~s et bagages to leave taking everything. armée [arme] «/"army; P~ de l'air the airforce; P~ de terre the army. ♦ Armée du salut nf: l'Armée du salut the Salvation Army. armement [armamô] nm -1. [MIL - de personne] arming; [- de pays] armament; [ensemble d'armes] arms (pi); la course aux ~s the arms race. -2. [de fusil] co*cking. -3. [d'appareil-photo] winding-on. -4. [de navire] fitting-out. Arménie [armeni] nf: l'~ Armenia. arménien, -ienne [armenjë, jen] adj Armenian. ♦ arménien nm [langue] Armenian. ♦ Arménien, -ienne nm, /"Armenian. armer [arme] [3] vt -1. [pourvoir en armes] to

arm; être armé pour qqch/pour faire qqch fig [préparé] to be equipped for sthg/to do sthg. -2. [fusil] to co*ck. -3. [appareil photo] to wind on. -4. [navire] to fit out. ♦ s'armer vp litt & fig: s'~ (de) to arm o.s. (with). armistice [armistis] nm armistice. armoire [armwar] nf [gén] closet Am, cupboard Br; [garde-robe] wardrobe; ~ à glace wardrobe with a mirror; c'est une ~ à glace! fam fig he's built like a tank!; ~ à pharmarie medicine cabinet. armoiries [armwari] nfpl coat of arms (sg). armure [armyr] nf armor Am, armour Br. armurerie [armyrri] «/"[magasin] gunsmith's (shop). armurier [armyrje] nm [d'armes à feu] gunsmith; [d'armes blanches] armourer. ARN (abr de adde ribonudéique) nm RNA. arnaque [arnak] nf fam rip-off. arnaquer [arnake] [3] vt fam to swindle, to do Br; se faire ~ to be had. aromate [aromat] nm [épice] spice; [fine herbe] herb. aromatique [aromatik] adj aromatic. aromatiser [aromatize] [3] vt to flavour. arôme [arom] nm -1. [gén] aroma; [de fleur, parfum] fragrance. -2. [goût] flavour. arpège [arpe3] nm arpeggio. arpenter [arpâte] [3] vt -1. [marcher] to pace up and down. -2. [terrain] to survey. arpenteur [arpâteer] nm surveyor. arqué, -e [arke] adj -1. [objet] curved. -2. [jambe] bow (avant «), bandy; [nez] hooked; [sourcil] arched. arr. abr de arrondissem*nt. arraché [araJe] ♦ à l'arraché loc adv: gagner OU emporter la victoire à l'~ to snatch victory. arrachement [arajmô] nm fig wrench. arrache-pied [arajpje] ♦ d'arrache-pied loc adv: travailler d'~ to work away furiously. arracher [araJe] [3] vt -1. [extraire - plante] to pull up OU out; [- dent] to extract. -2. [déchirer - page] to tear off OU out; [- chemise, bras] to tear off. -3. [prendre]: ~ qqch à qqn to snatch sthe from sb; fig [extorquer] to extract sthg from sb; [susciter] to wring sthg from sb. -4. [soustraire]: ~ qqn à [milieu, lieu] to drag sb away from; [lit, sommeil] to drag sb from; [habitude, torpeur] to force sb out of; [mort, danger] to snatch sb from.

31 arrivisme ♦ s'arracher vp -1. [se détacher]: s'~ de OU à [milieu, lieu] to drag o.s. away from; [lit, sommeil] to drag o.s. from. -2. [se disputer]: s'~ qqn/qqch to fight over sb/sthg. -3. fam [partir] to split, to beat it. arraisonner [arezone] [3] vt [navire] to stop and inspect. arrangeant, -e [arÔ3â, ât] adj obliging. arrangement [arâ3mâ] nm -1. [gén] arrangement. -2. [accord] agreement, arrangement. arranger [arÔ3e] [17] vt -1. [gén] to arrange. -2. [convenir à] to suit. -3. [régler] to settle. -4. [améliorer] to sort out. -5. [réparer] to fix. ♦ s'arranger vp to come to an agreement; s'~ pour faire qqch to manage to do sthg; arrangez-vous pour être là à cinq heures make sure you're there at five o'clock; cela va s'~ things will work out. arrdt abr de arrondissem*nt. arrérages [arera3] nmpl arrears. arrestation [arestasjS] nf arrest; être en état d'~ to be under arrest. arrêt [are] nm -1. [d'un mouvement] stopping; à P~ [véhicule] stationary; [machine] (switched) off; tomber en ~ devant qqch to stop dead in front of sthg. -2. [interruption] interruption; sans ~ [sans interruption] non-stop; [sans relâche] constantly, continually; être en ~ maladie to be on sick leave; ~ maladie OU de travail doctor's certificate; ~ du travail stoppage. -3. [station]: ~ (d'autobus) (bus) stop; ~ facultatif request stop. -4. JUR decision, judgment. arrêté [arete] nm -1. FIN settlement. -2. ADMIN order, decree; par ~ préfectoral by order of the prefect. arrêter [arete] [4] O vf -1. [gén] to stop. -2. [cesser]: ~ de faire qqch to stop doing sthg; ~ de fumer to stop smoking. -3. [abandonner - gén] to give up; [- école] to leave. -4. [voleur] to arrest. -5. [fixer] to decide on. O vi to stop. ♦ s'arrêter vp to stop; s'~ à qqch: il ne s'arrête pas à ces détails he's not going to dwell on these details; s'~ de faire to stop doing; s'~ chez qqn to stay with sb. arrhes [ar] nfpl deposit (sg). arrière [arjer] O adj inv back, rear; roue ~ rear OU back wheel; marche ~ reverse gear. O nm -1. [partie postérieure] back; à l'~ in back Am, at the back Br; assurer ses —s fig to play safe. -2. SPORT back. ♦ en arrière be adv -1. [dans la direction opposée] back, backwards; faire un pas en ~ to take a step back OU backwards. -2. [derrière, à la traîne] behind; rester en ~ to lag behind.

♦ en arrière de loc prép behind. arriéré, -e [arjere] adj -1. [mentalité, pays] backward. -2. [dette] outstanding, overdue. ♦ arriéré nm arrears {pi). arrière-boutique [arjerbutik] (pi arrièreboutiques) «f back shop. arrière-garde [arjergard] (pi arrière-gardes) nf rearguard; combat d'~ titt & fig rearguard action. arrière-goût [arjergu] (pi arrière-goûts) nm aftertaste. arrière-grand-mère [arjergrâmer] (pi amère-grands-mères)«fgreat-grandmother. arrière-grand-père [arjergrâper] (pi arrière grands-pères) nm great-grandfather. arrière-pays [arjerpei] nm inv hinterland. arrière-pensée [arjerpâse] (pi arrièrepensées) nf -1. [raison intéressée] ulterior motive. -2. [réserve]: sans ~ without reservation. arrière-plan [arjerplâ] (pi arrière-plans) nm background. arrière-saison [arjersezS] (pi arrièresaisons) nf late autumn. arrière-train [arjertrê] (pi arrière-trains) nm hindquarters (pi). arrimer [arime] [3] vt -1. [attacher] to secure. -2. NAVIG to StOW. arrivage [ariva3] nm -1. [de marchandises] consignment, delivery. -2. [de touristes] influx. arrivant, -e [arivâ, ât] nm, f [personne] arrivai. arrivée [arive] nf -1. [venue] arrivai. -2. TECHNOL inlet. arriver [arive] [3] O vi -1. [venir] to arrive; en ~ à faire qqch fig to begin to do sthg; j'arrive! (I'm) coming!; ~ à Paris to arrive in OU reach Paris; l'eau m'arrivait aux genoux the water came up to my knees. -2. [réussir dans la vie] to succeed, to get on. -3. [parvenir]: ~ à faire qqch to manage to do sthg; il n'arrive pas à faire ses devoirs he can't do his homework. o v impers to happen; il arrive que (+ subjonctif): il arrive qu'il soit en retard he is sometimes late; il arrive à tout le monde de se décourager we all get fed up sometimes; il arrive à tout le monde de se tromper anyone can make a mistake; il lui arrive d'oublier quel jour on est he sometimes forgets what day it is; quoi qu'il arrive whatever happens. arrivisme [arivism] nm ptj ambition.

arrogance 32 arrogance [arogôs] nf arrogance. arrosant, -e [arogâ, ât] o adj arrogant, o nm, /arrogant person. arroger [ars3e] [17] ♦ s'arroger vp: s'~ le droit de faire qqch to take it upon o.s. to do sthg. arrondi [ar5di] nm [de jupe] hemline. arrondir [arôdir] [32] vt -1. [forme] to make round. -2. [capital] to increase. -3. [chiffre en haut] to round up; [- en bas] to round down. ♦ s'arrondir vp [corps, visage] to fill out. arrondissem*nt [arôdismâ] nm ADMIN arrondissem*nt (administrative division of a département or city). arrosage [aroza3] nm [de jardin] watering; [de rue] spraying. arroser [aroze] [3] vt -1. [jardin] to water, to spray. -2. [couler à travers] to flow through. -3. fam [café]: ~ son cafe (avec) to lace one's coffee (with). -4. fam [repas] to wash down. -5. fam [célébrer] to celebrate. -6. fam [soudoyer]: ~ qqn to grease sb's palm. arrosoir [arozwar] nm watering can. arsenal, -aux [arssnal, o] nm -1. [de navires] naval dockyard. -2. [d'armes] arsenal; ~ de pêcheur fishing gear. arsenic [arsanik] nm arsenic. art [ar] nm art; P~ de faire qqch the art of doing sthg; ~ culinaire art of cooking; ~ dramatique/graphique dramatic/graphic art; le septième ~ cinema; —s appliqués applied arts; ~s et métiers state-funded institution offering vocational courses by correspondence or evening classes; Salon des Arts ménagers — home crafts exhibition OU show Am, — Ideal Home Exhibition Br. art. abr de article. artère [arter] nf -1. AN AT artery; ~ coronaire coronary artery. -2. [rue] arterial road. artériel, -ielle [arterjel] adj arterial. artériosclérose [arterjoskleroz] nf arteriosclerosis. arthrite [artrit] «/"arthritis. arthrose [artroz] «/"osteoarthritis. artichaut [artifo] nm artichoke. article [artikl] nm -1. [gén] article; ~ défini/ indéfini definite/indefinite article; ~ de fond feature; ~s de bureau office supplies. -2. INFORM record. -3. he: faire l'~ to make a sales pitch; à l'~ de la mort at death's door. articulation [artikylasjô] «/"-l. ANAT & TECHNOL joint. -2. [prononciation] articulation. -3. [d'une démonstration] structure. articulé, -e [artikyle] adj jointed.

articuler [artikyle] [3] vt -1. [prononcer] to articulate. -2. ANAT & TECHNOL to articulate, to joint. -3. JUR to set out. ♦ s'articuler vp to hang together; s'~ sur/autour de qqch [réflexion] to be based OU centred on sthg. artifice [artifis] nm -1. [moyen astucieux] clever device OU trick. -2. [tromperie] trick. artificiel, -ielle [artifisjel] adj artificial. artificiellement [artifisjclmâ] adv artificially-. artillerie [artijri] nf MIL artillery. artisan, -e [artizâ, an] nm, f craftsman (f crafts woman). ♦ artisan nm [responsable]: être P~ de fig to be the architect of. artisanal, -e, -aux [artizanal, o] adj craft (avant «); fabrication ~e cottage industry. artisanat [artizana] nm [métier] craft; [classe] craftsmen. artiste [artist] nmf -1. [créateur] artist. -2. [interprète] performer. ♦ artiste-peintre nm painter. artistique [artistik] adj artistic. as1 [a] —► avoir. as2 [as] nm -1. [carte] ace. -2. [premier] number one. -3. [champion] star, ace. -4. he: être fringue comme l'~ de pique fam to look like a scarecrow; passer à l'~ fam to go by the board; être plein aux ~ fam to be rolling in it. a/s (abr de aux soins de) c/o. AS (abr de association sportive) nf sports association. ASA, Asa [aza] (abr de American Standards Association) «f ASA. asc. abr de ascenseur. ascendant, -e [asâdâ, ât] adj rising. ♦ ascendant nm -1. [influence] influence, power; avoir de P~ sur qqn to have influence over sb. -2. ASTROL ascendant. ascenseur [asâscer] nm elevator Am, lift Br. ascension [asâsjS] nf-1. [de montagne] ascent. -2. [d'avion] climb. -3. [progression] rise. ♦ Ascension nf: l'Ascension Ascension (Day). ^ ascensionnel, -elle [asâspnel] adj upward. ascèse [asez] «f asceticism. ascète [aset] nmf ascetic. ASE (abr de Agence spatiale européenne) nf ESA. aseptique [ascptik] adj aseptic.

33 assembler ashkénase [ajkenaz] ad] & nmf: (Juif) ~ Ashkenazi; les ~s the Ashkenazim. asiatique [azjatik] ad] -1. [de l'Asie en général] Asian. -2. [d'Extrême-Orient] oriental. ♦ Asiatique nmf Asian. Asie [azi] nf: l'~ Asia; P~ centrale Central Asia; l'~ du Sud-Est Southeast Asia. asile [azil] nm -1. [refuge] refuge. -2. POLIT: demander/accorder l'~ politique to seek/to grant political asylum. -3. vieilli [psychiatrique] asylum. asocial, -e, -iaux [asosjal, jo] o ad] antisocial. O nm, f social misfit. aspect [aspe] nm -1. [apparence] appearance; d'~ agréable nice-looking. -2. [angle & LING] aspect. -3. [vue]: à I'~ de sout at the sight of. asperge [asperç] «/"[légume] asparagus. asperger [asperçe] [17] vt: ~ qqch de qqch to spray sthg with sthg; ~ qqn de qqch [ar roser] to spray sb with sthg; [éclabousser] to splash sb with sthg. ♦ s'asperger vp: s'~ de qqch to spray o.s. with sthg. aspérité [aspérité] «/"[du sol] bump. asphalte [asfalt] nm asphalt. asphyxie [asfiksi] nf-1. MÉD asphyxia, suffocation. -2. fig [de l'économie] paralysis. asphyxier [asfiksje] [9] vt -1. MÉD to asphyxiate, to suffocate. -2. fig [économie] to paralyze Am, to paralyse Br. ♦ s'asphyxier vp to suffocate. aspic [aspik] nm [vipère] asp. aspirant, -e [aspira, 5t] ad]: hotte ~e cooker range Am, cooker hood Br; pompe ~e suction pump. ♦ aspirant nm [armée] — officer cadet; [marine] — midshipman. aspirateur [aspiratcer] nm vacuum cleaner, Hoover® Br; passer l'~ to do the vacuuming OU hoovering. aspiration [aspirasj5] nf -\. [souffle] inhalation. -2. TECHNOL suction. -3. LING aspiration. ♦ aspirations nfpl aspirations. aspirer [aspire] [3] vt -1. [air] to inhale; [liquide] to suck up. -2. TECHNOL to suck up, to draw up. -3. [désirer]: ~ à qqch/à faire qqch to aspire to sthg/to do sthg. aspirine [aspirin] «/"aspirin. assagir [asa3ir] [32] vt to quieten down. ♦ s'assagir vp to quieten down. assaillant, -e [asajô, at] o ad] attacking, o nm, f assailant, attacker. assaillir [asajir] [47] vt to attack, to assault; ~ qqn de qqch fig to assail OU bombard sb with sthg.

assainir [asenir] [32] vt -1. [logement] to clean up. -2. [eau] to purify. -3. ÉCON to rectify, to stabilize. assainissem*nt [asenismà] nm -1. [de quartier] cleaning up. -2. [d'eau] purification. -3. ÉCON stabilization. assaisonnement [asezonmâ] nm [sauce] dressing. assaisonner [asezone] [3] vt -1. [salade] to dress; [viande, plat] to season. -2. [propos] to season. -3. fam [gronder] to tell off; se faire ~ par qqn to get a (good) telling-off from sb. assassin, -e [asasê, in] ad] provocative. ♦ assassin nm [gén] murderer; POLU assassin. assassinat [asasina] nm [gén] murder; POLIT assassination. assassiner [asasine] [3] vt [tuer - gén] to murder; [- POLIT] to assassinate. assaut [aso] nm -1. [attaque] assault, attack; prendre d'~ [lieu] to storm; [personne] to attack. -2. SPORT bout. -3. he: faire ~ de to vie with each other in. assécher [aseje] [18] vt to drain. ♦ s'assécher vp to become dry, to dry up. ASSEDIC, Assedic [asedik] (abr de Associations pour l'emploi dans l'industrie et le commerce) nfpl French unemployment insurance scheme; toucher les ~ to get welfare Am OU unemployment benefit Br. assemblage [asâbla3] nm -1. [gén] assembly. -2. INFORM: langage d'~ assembler OU assembly language. assemblée [asûble] nf -\. [réunion] meeting. -2. [public] gathering. -3. ADMIN & POLIT assembly; ~ constituante constituent assembly; ~ consultative advisory body; l'Assemblée nationale the (French) National Assembly. L'ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE: The French parliament has two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. The members of the National Assembly (the 'députés') are elected in the 'élections législatives' held every five years assembler [asâble] vt -1. [monter] to put together. -2. [réunir - objets] to gather (together). -3. [associer] to connect. -4. [personnes - gén] to bring together, to assemble; [- députés] to convene. ♦ s'assembler vp to gather.

assener 34 assener [asane] [19], asséner [asene] [18] vt: ~ un coup à qqn [frapper] to strike sb, to deal sb a blow. assentiment [asâtimâ] nm assent; donner son ~ à qqch to give one's assent to sthg. asseoir [aswar] [65] vt -1. [sur un siège] to put; faire ~ qqn to seat sb, to ask sb to take a seat. -2. [fondations] to lay. -3. fig [réputation] to establish; ~ qqch sur qqch to base sthg on sthg; ~ l'impôt sur le revenu to base taxation on income. ♦ s'asseoir vp to sit (down). assermenté, -e [asermâte] adj -1. [fonctionnaire, expert] sworn. -2. [témoin] under oath. assertion [asersjS] «/"assertion. assesseur [asesœr] nm assessor. asseyais, asseyions etc —► asseoir. asseyez, asseyons etc —> asseoir. assez [ase] adv -1. [suffisamment] enough; ~ de enough; ~ de lait/chaises enough milk/ chairs; il en reste juste ~ there is/are just enough left; en avoir ~ de qqn qqch to have had enough of sb/sthg, to be red up with sb/sthg. -2. [plutôt] quite, rather. assidu, -e [asidy] adj -1. [élève] diligent. -2. [travail] painstaking. -3. [empressé]: ~ (auprès de qqn) attentive (to sb). assiduité [asidqite] nf -1. [zèle] diligence. -2. [fréquence]: avec ~ regularly. ♦ assiduités nfpl péj & sout attentions; poursuivre qqn de ses ~s to press one's attentions on sb. assidûment [asidymâ] adv -1. [avec zèle] assiduously, diligently. -2. [fréquemment] regularly. assiégeant, -e [asje3â, àt] adj besieging. ♦ assiégeant nm besieger. assiéger [asje3e] [22] vt lia & fig to besiege. assiette [asjet] nf -1. [vaisselle] plate; ~ creuse OU à soupe soup plate; ~ à dessert dessert plate; ~ plate dinner plate. -2. [de cavalier] seat. -3. [d'impôt] base. -4. CUL1N: ~ anglaise cold cuts (pf) Am, assorted cold meats (pf) Br; ~ de crudités raw vegetables served as an hors-d'œuvre. -5. be: ne pas être dans son ~ not to feel too well. assiettée [asjete] «/"plate, plateful. assignation [asinasjô] nf-1. [attribution]: ~ de qqch à qqn allocation of sthg to sb. -2. JUR summons. assigner [asijie] [3] vt -1. [fonds, tâche]: ~ qqch à qqn to allocate OU assign sthg to sb. -2. [personne]: ~ qqn à qqch to assign sb to sthg. -3. JUR: ~ qqn en justice to issue a writ against sb. assimilation [asimilasp] nf assimilation; ~ de qqch à qqch assimilation of sthg with

sthg; ~ de qqn à qqn comparison of sb to sb. assimiler [asimile] [3] vt -1. [aliment, connaissances] to assimilate. -2. [confondre]: ~ qqch (à qqch) to liken sthg (to sthg); ~ qqn à qqn to compare sb to OU with so. ♦ s'assimiler vp -1. [se comparer]: s'~ à qqn to be (able to be) compared to sb. -2. [s'intégrer] to integrate. assis, -e [asi, iz] O pp —► asseoir, o adj sitting, seated; place ~e seat. ♦ assise nf [base] seat, seating. ♦ assises nfpl -1. JUR: (cour d')~es Circuit court Am, Crown Court Br. -2. [congrès] conference (sg). assistance [asistôs] nf -\. [aide] assistance; prêter ~ à qqn to lend assistance to sb; l'Assistance publique French authority which manages the social services and state-owned hospitals; être à l'Assistance (publique) to be in care; ~ technique technical aid. -2. [auditoire] audience. . assistant, -e [asistâ, ât] nm, f-1. [auxiliaire] assistant; ~e sociale social worker. -2. UNIV assistant lecturer. assister [asiste] [3] O vi: ~ à qqch to be at sthg, to attend sthg. o vt to assist. associatif, -ive [asosjatif, iv] adj -1. [mémoire] associative. -2. [vie] community (avant «). association [asosjasjS] nf -\. [gen] association; ~ d'idées association of ideas. -2. [union] society, association; ~ à but non lucratif JUR non-profit Am OU non-profitmaking Br organization; ~ sportive sports club. -3. COMM partnership. associé, -e [asosje] o adj associated, o nm, f-1. [collaborateur] associate. -2. [actionnaire] partner. associer [asDsje] [9] vt -1. [personnes] to bring together. -2. [idées] to associate. -3. [faire participer]: ~ qqn à qqch [inclure] to bring sb in on sthg; [prendre pour partenaire] to make sb a partner in sthg. ♦ s'associer vp -1. [prendre part]: s'~ à qqch [participer] to join OU participate in sthg; [partager] to share sthg. -2. [collaborer]: s'~ à OU avec qqn to join forces with sb. -3. [se combiner]: s'~ à qqch to be combined with sthg. assoiffé, -e [aswafe] adj thirsty; fig: ~ de pouvoir power-hungry. assois —*■ asseoir. assombrir [as5brir] [32] vt -1. [plonger dans

35 astrologue l'obscurité] to darken. -2. fig [attrister] to cast a shadow over. ♦ s'assombrir vp -1. [devenir sombre] to grow dark. -2. fig [s'attrister] to darken. assommant, -e [asomâ, ât] adj péj deadly boring. assommer [asome] [3] vt -1. [frapper] to knock out. -2. [ennuyer] to bore stiff. -3. [de reproches] to overwhelm. Assomption [as5psj5] nf: l'~ the Assumption. assorti, -e [asorti] adj -1. [accordé]: bien ~ well-matched; mal ~ ill-matched; une cravate -eau costume a tie which matches the suit. -2. [varié] assorted. assortiment [asortimâ] nm assortment, selection. assortir [asortir] [32] vt -1. [objets]: ~ qqch à qqch to match sthg to OU with sthg. -2. [magasin] to stock. ♦ s'assortir vp to match; s'~ de qqch to be accompanied by OU with sthg. assoupi, -e [asupi] adj -1. [endormi] dozing. -2. fig & littéraire [sens, intérêt] dulled; [passion, haine] spent; [querelle] dormant. assoupir [asupir] [32] vt -1. sout [enfant] to send to sleep. -2. fig & littéraire [douleur] to soothe. ♦ s'assoupir vp -1. [s'endormir] to doze off. -2. fig & littéraire [douleur] to die down. assoupissem*nt [asupismâ] nm -1. [sommeil] doze. -2. fig & sout: l'~ culturel cultural apathy. assouplir [asuplir] [32] vt -1. [corps] to make supple. -2. [matière] to soften. -3. [règlement] to relax. -4. [caractère] to mellow. ♦ s'assouplir vp -1. [physiquement] to become supple. -2. [moralement] to mellow. assouplissem*nt [asuplismâ] nm -1. [de corps] making supple. -2. [de matière] softening. -3. [de règlement] easing, relaxation. -4. [de caractère] mellowing. assourdir [asurdir] [32] vt -1. [rendre sourd] to deafen. -2. [abrutir] to exhaust, to wear out. -3. [amortir] to deaden, to muffle. assouvir [asuvir] [32] vt to satisfy. ♦ s'assouvir vp littéraire to be satisfied. ASSU, Assu [asy] (ahr de Association du sport scolaire et universitaire) nf former schools and university sports association. assujetti, -e [asy3eti] adj: ~ à l'impôt subject to tax OU taxation. assujettir [asy3etir] [32] vt -1. [peuple] to subjugate. -2. [soumettre]: ~ qqn à qqch to subject sb to sthg. -3. [fixer] to secure. ♦ s'assujettir vp: s'~ à qqch to submit to sthg.

assumer [asyme] [3] vt -1. [fonction - exercer] to carry out; [- prendre] to take on. -2. [risque, responsabilité] to accept. -3. [condition] to come to terms with. -4. [frais] to meet. ♦ s'assumer vp to come to terms with O.S. assurance [asyrâs] nf -1. [gén] assurance. -2. [contrat] insurance; contracter OU prendre une ~ to take out insurance; ~ maladie health insurance; ~ tous risques AUTOM comprehensive insurance; ~-vie life assurance. assuré, -e [asyre] nm, f policy holder; ~ social Social Security Am OU National Insurance Br contributor. assurément [asyremâ] adv sout certainly. assurer [asyre] O vt -1. [promettre]: ~ à qqn que to assure sb (that); — qqn de qqch to assure sb of sthg. -2. [permanence, liaison] to provide. -3. [voiture] to insure. -4. [paix] to ensure. -5. [échelle] to secure, to fix. ♦ s'assurer vp -1. [vérifier]: s'~ que to make sure (that); s'~ de qqch to ensure sthg, to make sure of sthg. -2. COMM: s'~ (contre qqch) to insure o.s. (against sthg). -3. [obtenir]: s'~ qqch to secure sthg. -4. [se stabiliser] to steady o.s. Assyrie [asiri] nf: l'~ Assyria. assyrien, -ienne [asirjê, jen] adj Assyrian. ♦ Assyrien, -ienne nm, f Assyrian. astérisque [asterisk] nm asterisk. asthmatique [asmatik] nmf & adj asthmatic. asthme [asm] nm MED asthma. asticot [astiko] nm maggot. astigmate [astigmat] nmf & adj astigmatic. astiquer [astike] [3] vt to polish. astrakan [astrakâ] nm astrakhan. astral, -e, -aux [astral, o] adj astral, star {avant n). astre [astr] nm star. astreignant, -e [astrejiâ, at] adj demanding. astreindre [astrëdr] [81] vt: ~ qqn à qqch to subject sb to sthg; ~ qqn à faire qqch to compel sb to do sthg. ♦ s'astreindre vp: s'~ à qqch to subject o.s. to sthg; s'~ à faire qqch to compel o.s. to do sthg. astreint, -e [astre, et] pp —*■ astreindre. astringent, -e [astrê3â, ât] adj astringent. ♦ astringent nm astringent. astrologie [astrsb3i] nf astrology. astrologique [astrol^ik] adj astrological. astrologue [astrabg] nm astrologer.

astronaute 36 astronaute [astronot] nmf astronaut. astronautique [astronotik] nf astronautics (V). astronome [astrDnDm] nmf astronomer. astronomie [astransmi] «/"astronomy. astronomique [astronomik] adj astronomical. astrophysique [astrofisik] nf astrophysics (U). astuce [astys] nf-1. [ruse] (clever) trick. -2. [ingéniosité] shrewdness (U). -3. [plaisanterie] wisecrack. astucieux, -ieuse [astysjo, joz] adj -1. [idée] clever. -2. [personne] shrewd. asymétrique [asimetrik] adj asymmetric, asymmetrical. atavisme [atavism] nm atavism. atelier [atalje] nm -1. [d'artisan] workshop. -2. [de peintre] studio. atermoiement [atermwamâ] nm -1. [tergiversation] procrastination. -2. JUR postponement. athée [ate] o nmf atheist. O adj atheistic. athénée [atene] nm Belg secondary school. Athènes [aten] n Athens. athénien, -ienne [atenjê, jen] adj Athenian. ♦ Athénien, -ienne nm, /"Athenian. athlète [atlet] nmf athlete. athlétique [adetik] adj athletic. athlétisme [atletism] nm athletics (U). atlantique [atlùtik] adj Atlantic. ♦ Atlantique nm: l'Atlantique the Atlantic (Ocean). atlas [adas] nm atlas. Atlas [adas] nm: l'~ the Adas Mountains Hatmosphère [atmDsfer] «/"atmosphere. atmosphérique [atmDsferik] adj atmospheric. atoca [atDka] nm Can large cranberry. atoll [atDi] nm atoll. atome [atom] nm atom; avoir des ~s crochus avec qqn to be on the same wavelength as sb. atomique [atsmik] adj -1. [gén] nuclear. -2. CHIM & PHYS atomic. atomiseur [atDmizœr] nm spray. atone [atDn] adj -1. [inexpressif] lifeless. -2. MÉD atonic. -3. [voyelle] unstressed. atours [atur] nmpl littéraire: paré de OU dans ses plus beaux ~ in all one's finery. atout [atu] nm -1. [carte] trump; ~ cœur/ pique trèfle carreau hearts/spades/clubs/ diamonds are trumps. -2. fig [ressource] asset, advantage. ATP O nf (abr de Association des tennismen professionnels) ATP. O nfpl (abr de

arts et traditions populaires) arts and crafts; musée des ~ arts and crafts museum. âtre [atr] nm littéraire hearth. atroce [atrss] adj -1. [crime] atrocious, dreadful. -2. [souffrance] horrifie, atrocious. -3. [temps] terrible. atrocement [atrDsmâ] adv -1. [horriblement] horribly, terribly. -2. [exagérément] terribly. atrocité [atrDsite] nf -1. [horreur] atrocity. -2. [calomnie] insuit. atrophie [atrofi] «/"atrophy. atrophier [atrDfje] [9] ♦ s'atrophier vp to atrophy. attabler [atable] [3] ♦ s'attabler vp to sit down (at the table); s'~ devant qqch to sit down to sthg. attachant, -e [atajâ, ât] adj lovable. attache [ataj] «/"[lien] fastening. ♦ attaches nfpl links, connections. attaché, -e [ataje] nm, f attaché; ~ d'ambassade attaché; ~ commercial/culturel/ militaire commercial/cultural/military attaché; ~ de presse [diplomatique] press attaché; [d'organisme, d'entreprise] press officer. attaché-case [atajekez] {pi attachés-cases) nm attaché case. attachement [atajmâ] nm attachment. attacher [ataje] [3] O vt -1. [lier]: ~ qqch (à) to fasten OU tie sthg (to); fig [associer] to attach sthg (to). -2. [paquet] to tie up. -3. [lacet] to do up; [ceinture de sécurité] to fasten. -4. fig [émotionnellement]: ~ qqn à to bind sb to. O vi CULIN: ~ (à) to stick (to). ♦ s'attacher vp -1. [émotionnellement]: s'~ à qqn qqch to become attached to sb/sthg. -2. [se fermer] to fasten; s'~ avec OU par qqch to do up OU fasten with sthg. -3. [s'appliquer]: s'~ à qqch à faire qqch to devote o.s. to sthg/to doing sthg, to apply o.s. to sthg/to doing sthg. attaquant, -e [atakâ, ât] o adj attacking. O nm, /"attacker. attaque [atak] «f-1. [gén & MÉD] attack; ~ à main armée holdup; fig: ~ contre qqn/ qqch attack on sb/sthg. -2. MUS [de note] attack. -3. be: être d'~ to be on form; être/ se sentir d'~ pour faire qqch to be/feel up to doing sthg. attaquer [atake] [3] vt -1. [gén] to attack. -2. [JUR - personne] to take to court; [jugement] to contest. -3. fam [plat] to tuck into. -4. [tâche] to tackle.

37 attique ♦ s'attaquer vp -1. [combattre]: s'~ à qqn to attack sb. -2. fig: s'~ à qqch [tâche] to tackle sthg. attardé, -e [atarde] o adj -1. [idées] outdated. -2. [passants] late. -3. [enfant] backward, o nm, f [enfant] backward child. attarder [atarde] [3] ♦ s'attarder vp: s'~ sur qqch to dwell on sthg; s'~ à faire qqch to stay on to do sthg, to stay behind to do sthg. atteignais, atteignions etc —> atteindre. atteindre [atêdr] [8] vt -1. [gén] to reach. -2. [toucher] to hit. -3. [affecter] to affect. atteint, -e [atc, et] O pp —> atteindre. O adj -1. [malade]: être ~ de to be suffering from. -2. fam [fou] touched. ♦ atteinte nf -1. [préjudice]: ~ à attack on; porter ~e à to undermine; hors d'~e [hors de portée] out of reach; [inattaquable] beyond reach. -2. [effet] effect. attelage [ada3] nm -1. [chevaux] team. -2. [harnachement] harnessing (U). atteler [ade] [24] vt -1. [animaux, véhicules] to hitch up; [wagons] to couple. -2. [à une tâche]: ~ qqn à to assign sb to. ♦ s'atteler vp: s'~ à to get down to. attelle [atel] «/"splint. attenant, -e [atnâ, ât] adj: ~ (à qqch) adjoining (sthg). attendre [atâdr] [73] o vt -1. [gén] to wait for, le déjeuner nous attend lunch is ready; ~ que (+ subjonctif): ~ que la pluie s'arrête to wait for the rain to stop; faire ~ qqn [personne] to keep sb waiting; les résultats se font — we're all waiting for the results. -2. [espérer]: ~ qqch (de qqn qqch) to expect sthg (from sb/sthg). -3. [suj: surprise, épreuve] to be in store for. o vi to wait; attends! hang on! ♦ s'attendre vp: s'~ à to expect. ♦ en attendant be adv -1. [pendant ce temps] meanwhile, in the meantime. -2. [quand même] all the same. attendrir [atâdrir] [32] vt -1, [viande] to tenderize. -2. [personne] to move. ♦ s'attendrir vp: s'~ (sur qqn/qqch) to be moved (by sb/sthg). attendrissant, -e [atôdrisâ, ât] adj moving, touching. attendrissem*nt [atâdrismâ] nm pity. attendrisseur [atâdrisœr] nm meat tenderizer. attendu, -e [atâdy] pp —> attendre. ♦ attendu o nm JUR reasoning (V). o prép considering. ♦ attendu que be conj since, considering

that. attentat [atôta] nm attack; ~ à la bombe bomb attack, bombing; ~ à la pudeur JUR indecent assault. attente [atât] nf-1. [station] wait; en ~ in abeyance. -2. [espoir] expectation; contre toute ~ contrary to all expectations; répondre aux —s de qqn to live up to sb's expectations. attenter [atâte] [3] vi: ~ à [liberté, droit] to violate; ~ à ses jours to attempt suicide; ~ à la vie de qqn to make an attempt on sb's life. attentif, -ive [atôtif, iv] adj -1. [auditoire]: ~ (à qqch) attentive (to sthg). -2. [soin] careful, scrupulous. attention [atâsj5] o «/"attention; à l'~ de for the attention of; faire ~ à [prudence] to be careful of; [concentration] to pay attention to; porter qqch à l'~ de qqn to bring sthg to sb's attention, o interj watch out!, be careful!; «~ chien méchant» "beware of the dog"; ~ à la marche mind the step; «~ peinture fraîche» "wet paint". attentionné, -e [atâsjone] adj thoughtful; ~ auprès de attentive to. attentisme [atôtism] nm [gén] waiting game; POLIT policy of wait-and-see. attentivement [atâtivmâ] adv attentively, carefully. atténuante [atenqât] —► circonstance. atténuation [atenqasjS] nf [de lumière] dimming; [de propos] toning down; [de douleur] easing; ~ de peine JUR reduction in sentence. atténuer [atenqe] [7] vt [douleur] to ease; [propos, ton] to tone down; [lumière] to dim, to subdue; [bruit] to quieten. ♦ s'atténuer vp [lumière] to dim, to fade; [bruit] to fade; [douleur] to ease. atterrer [atere] [4] vt to stagger. atterrir [aterir] [32] vi to land; ~ dans qqch fig to land up in sthg. atterrissage [aterisa3] nm landing; — sans visibilité blind landing; ~ forcé emergency landing. attestation [atcstasjô] nf -1. [certificat] certificate. -2. [action] attestation. -3. [preuve] proof. attester [ateste] [3] vt -1. [confirmer] to vouch for, to testify to. -2. [certifier] to attest. attifer [atife] [3] vt to get up. ♦ s'attifer vp to get OU doll o.s. up. attique [atik] nm penthouse.

attirail 38 attirail [atiraj] nm fam [équipement] gear. attirance [atirôs] nf attraction; avoir/ éprouver de P~ pour to be/to feel attracted to. attirant, -e [atirâ, ât] adj attractive. attirer [atire] [3] w -1. [gén] to attract. -2. [amener vers soi]: ~ qqn à soi to draw sb to one. -3. [provoquer]: ~ des ennuis à qqn to cause trouble for sb. ♦ s'attirer vp: s'~ qqch to bring sthg on O.S. attiser [adze] [3] w -1. [feu] to poke. -2. fig [haine] to stir up. attitré, -e [atitre] adj -1. [habituel] usual. -2. [titulaire - fournisseur] by appointment; [représentant] accredited. attitude [atityd] nf-1. [comportement, approche] attitude. -2. [posture] posture. attouchement [atujmâ] nm caress. attractif, -ive [atraktif, iv] adj -1. [force] magnetic. -2. [prix] attractive. attraction [atraksjS] nf-1. [gén] attraction. -2. [force]: ~ magnétique magnetic force; P~ terrestre the earth's gravitational force. ♦ attractions nfpl -1. [jeux] amusem*nts. -2. [spectacle] attractions. attrait [atre] nm -1. [séduction] appeal. -2. [intérêt] attraction. ♦ attraits nmpl attractions. attrape [atrap] «/"trick. attrape-nigaud [atrapnigo] {pi attrapenigauds) nm con. attraper [atrape] [3] w -1. [gén] to catch. -2. fam [gronder] to tell off; se faire ~ (par qqn) to get a telling-off (from sb). -3. [habitude, accent] to pick up. -4. fam [tromper] to take in. attrayant, -e [atrejô, ât] adj attractive. attribuer [atribqe] [7] w -1. [tâche, part]: ~ qqch à qqn to assign OU allocate sthg to sb, to assign OU allocate sb sthg; [privilège] to grant sthg to sb, to grant sb sthg; [récompense] to award sthg to sb, to award sb sthg. -2. [faute]: ~ qqch à qqn to attribute sthg to sb, to put sthg down to sb. ♦ s'attribuer vp -1. [s'approprier] to appropriate (for o.s.). -2. [revendiquer] to claim (for o.s.). attribut [atriby] nm -1. [gén] attribute. -2. GRAM complement. attribution [atribysj5] nf-1. [de prix] awarding, award. -2. [de part, tâche] allocation, assignment. -3. [d'avantage] bestowing. ♦ attributions nfpl [fonctions] duties. attrister [atriste] [3] vt to sadden. ♦ s'attrister vp to be saddened. attroupement [atrupmâ] nm crowd.

attrouper [atrupe] [3] ♦ s'attrouper vp to form a crowd, to gather. au [o] —> à. aubade [obad] «/"dawn serenade. aubaine [oben] nf piece of good fortune. aube [ob] nf-1. [aurore] dawn, daybreak; à P~ at dawn; à P~ de fig at the dawn of. -2. RELIC alb. aubépine [obepin] nf hawthorn. auberge [ober3] nf [hôtel] inn; ~ de jeunesse youth hostel; on n'est pas sorti de l'~ fam fig we're not out of the woods yet. aubergine [obepin] o nf-1. BOT eggplant Am, aubergine Br. -2. péj [contractuelle] meter maid Am, traffic warden Br. o adj inv [couleur] aubergine. aubergiste [ober3ist] «/«/"innkeeper. auburn [oboern] adj inv auburn. aucun, -e [okœ, yn] o adj -1. [sens négatif]: ne ... ~ no; il n'y a ~e voiture dans la rue there aren't any. cars in the street, there are no cars in tne street; sans faire ~ bruit without making a sound. -2. [sens positif] any; il lit plus qu'~ autre enfant he reads more than any other child, o pron -1. [sens négatif] none; ~ des enfants none of the children; ~ d'entre nous none of us; ~ (des deux) neither (of them). -2. [sens positif]: plus qu'~ de nous more than any of us; d'~s sout some (people). aucunement [okynmâ] adv not at all, in no way. audace [odas] nf-1. [hardiesse] daring, boldness. -2. [insolence] audacity; avoir l'~ de faire qqch to have the cheek OU audacity to do sthg. -3. [innovation] daring innovation. audacieux, -ieuse [odasjo, joz] o adj -1. [projet] daring, bold. -2. [personne, geste] bold, o nm, /daring person. au-dedans [odadâ] be adv inside. ♦ au-dedans de be prép inside. au-dehors [odsor] be adv outside. ♦ au-dehors de be prép outside. au-delà [odala] o be adv -1. [plus loin] beyond. -2. [davantage, plus] more. O nm: l'~ RELIC the beyond, the afterlife. ♦ au-delà de be prép beyond. au-dessous [odsu] be adv below, underneath. ♦ au-dessous de be prép below, under. au-dessus [odssy] be adv above. ♦ au-dessus de be prép above, over. au-devant [odavâ] be adv ahead.

39 autant ♦ au-devant de loc prép: aller ~ de to go to meet; aller ~ du danger to court danger. audible [odibl] adj audible. audience [odjâs] nf -1. [public, entretien] audience. -2. JUR hearing. Audimat® [odimat] nm audience rating. AUDIMAT: Viewing figures for French television are calculated using a device which is installed for a period of time in selected households audionumérique [odjonymerik] adj digital audio. audiovisuel, -elle [odjovizqel] adj audiovisual. ♦ audiovisuel nm TV and radio. audit [odit] nm audit; ~ marketing COMM marketing audit. auditeur, -trice [oditcer, tris] nm, f listener. ♦ auditeur nm -1. UNIV: ~ libre person allowed to attend lectures without being registered, auditor Am. -2. FIN auditor. auditif, -ive [oditif, iv] adj -1. [appareil] hearing {avant n). -2. [mémoire] auditory. audition [odisj5] nf -\. [fait d'entendre] hearing. -2. JUR examination. -3. THÉÂTRE audition. -4. MUS recital. auditionner [odisjsne] [3] vt & vi to audition. auditoire [oditwar] nm [public] audience; ~ cible COMM target audience. auditorium [oditDn'Dm] nm [de concert] auditorium; [d'enregistrement] studio. auge [03] nf [pour animaux] trough. augmentation [ogmâtasj5] nf ~ (de) increase (in); ~ (de salaire) rise (in salary). augmenter [ogmâte] [3] o vt to increase; [prix, salaire] to raise; [personne] to give a raise Am OU rise Br to. o vi to increase, to rise; le froid augmente it's getting colder; la douleur augmente the pain is getting worse. augure [ogyr] nm [présage] omen; être de bon/mauvais — to be a good/bad sign. augurer [ogyre] [3] vt: ~ bien/mal de qqch to augur well/ill for sthg. auguste [ogyst] adj august. aujourd'hui [o3urdqi] adv today. aulx —> ail. aumône [omon] nf faire l'~ à qqn to give alms to sb; faire l'~ de qqch à qqn fig to favor Am OU favour Br sb with sthg. aumônier [omonje] nm RBLIG chaplain. auparavant [oparavâ] adv -1. [tout d'abord] first (of all). -2. [avant] before, previously. auprès [opre] ♦ auprès de loc prép -1. [à côté de] beside, next to. -2. [dans l'opinion de] in the eyes

of. -3. [comparé à] compared with. -4. [en s'adressant à] to. auquel [okcl] —► lequel. aurai, auras etc —► avoir. auréole [oreol] nf -1. ASTRON & RELIG halo. -2. [trace] ring. auréoler [oresle] [3] vt: être aureole de to be crowned with. auriculaire [orikyler] nm little finger. aurore [orDr] nf dawn; ~ boréale northern lights ipî), aurora borealis; à l'~ de fig at the dawn of. ausculter [oskylte] [3] vt MÉD to sound. auspice [ospis] nm (gén pt) sien, auspice; sous d'heureux ~s promisingly; sous les —s de qqn under the auspices of sb. aussi [osi] adv -1. [pareillement, en plus] also, too; moi ~ me too; j'y vais — I'm going too OU as well; il parle anglais et ~ espagnol he speaks English as well as Spanish. -2. [dans une comparaison]: ~ ... que as ... as; il n'est pas ~ intelligent que son frère he's not as clever as his brother; je n'ai jamais rien vu d'~ beau I've never seen anything so beautiful; ~ léger qu'il soit, je ne pourrai pas le porter even though it's light OU light though it is, I won't be able to carry it; ~ incroyable que cela paraisse incredible though OU as it may seem. -3. sout [introduisant une explication] so. ♦ (tout) aussi bien loc adv just as easily, just as well; j'aurais pu (tout) ~ bien refuser I could just as easily have said no. ♦ aussi bien ... que loc conj as well ... as; tu le sais ~ bien que moi you know as well as I do. aussitôt [osito] adv immediately. ♦ aussitôt que loc conj as soon as. austère [ostcr] adj -1. [personne, vie] austere. -2. [vêtement] severe; [paysage] harsh. austérité [osterite] nf -1. [de personne, vie] austerity. -2. [de vêtement] severeness; [de paysage] harshness. austral, -e [ostral] {pi australs OU austraux [ostro]) adj southern. Australie [ostrali] nf l'~ Australia; 1'— Méridionale South Australia; 1'— Occidentale Western Australia. australien, -ienne [ostraljê, jen] adj Australian. ♦ Australien, -ienne nm, f Australian. autant [otâ] adv -1. [comparatif]: ~ que as much as; ce livre coûte ~ que l'autre this

autel 40 book costs as much as the other one; ~ de (... que) [quantité] as much (... as); [nombre] as many (... as); il a dépensé ~ d'argent que moi he spent as much money as I did; il y a ~ de femmes que d'hommes there are as many women as men; ~ il est gentil avec moi ~ il est désagréable avec elle he is as kind to me as he is unpleasant to her. -2. [à un tel point, en si grande quantité] so much; [en si grand nombre] so many; ~ de patience so much patience; ~ de gens so many people; il ne peut pas en dire ~ he can't say the same; en faire ~ to do likewise. -3. [il vaut mieux]: ~ dire la vérité we/you etc may as well tell the truth. ♦ autant que loc con'y. (pour) ~ que je sache as far as I know. ♦ d'autant loc adv accordingly, in proportion. ♦ d'autant mieux loc adv all the better; d'~ mieux que all the better since. ♦ d'autant que loc cony. d'~ (plus) que all the more so since; d'~ moins que all the less so since. ♦ pour autant loc adv for all that. autel [otcl] nm altar. auteur [otœr] nm -1. [d'oeuvre] author. -2. [inventeur] originator. -3. [responsable] perpetrator. authenticité [otâtisite] nf authenticity, genuineness. authentifier [otâtifje] [9] vt to authenticate. authentique [otâtik] ad/ authentic, genuine. autisme [otism] nm autism. autiste [otist] o nmf autistic person, o adj autistic. autistique [otistik] adj autistic. auto [oto] nf car; ~ tamponneuse bumper car, Dodgem® Br. autobiographie [otobjografi] nf autobiography. autobiographique [otobJDgrafik] adj autobiographical. autobronzant, -e [otobr5zâ, ât] adj selftanning; lotion ~e self-tanning lotion. ♦ autobronzant nm self-tanning product. autobus [otobys] nm bus; ~ à impériale = double-decker bus. autocar [otokar] nm coach. autochtone [otokton] nmf'& adj native. autocollant, -e [otskolô, ât] adj selfadhesive, sticky. ♦ autocollant nm sticker. auto-couchettes [otokujet] adj inv. train ~ = Motorail® train. autocritique [otakritik] «/"self-criticism.

autocuiseur [otakqizcer] nm pressure cooker. autodéfense [otDdefâs] nf self-defense Am, self-defence Br. autodétermination [otDdetcrminasjS] nf self-determination. autodétruire [otodetrqir] [98] ♦ s'autodétruire vp -1. [machine] to selfdestruct. -2. [personne] to destroy o.s. autodidacte [otsdidakt] O nmf self-taught person, o adj self-taught. autodiscipline [otodisiplin] nf selfdiscipline. auto-école [otDeksl] {pi auto-écoles) nf driving school. autofinancement [otofinâsmâ] nm selffinancing. autofocus [otsfskys] nm & adj inv autofocus. autogène [otD3en] adj: training ~ autogenic training. autogéré, -e • [otD3ere] adj workercontrolled, self-managed. autogestion [ot33estj5] «f workers' control. autographe [otograf] nm autograph. autoguidé, -e [otogide] adj self-guided. automate [otDmat] nm [robot] automaton. automatique [otDmatik] o nm -1. [pistolet] automatic. -2. TELECOM = direct dialling, o adj TELECOM automatic. automatiquement [otomatikmâ] adv automatically. automatisation [otomatizasj5] nf automation. automatisme [otamatism] nm -1. [de machine] automatic operation. -2. [réflexe] automatic reaction, automatism. automédication [otDmedikasjS] nf selfmedication. automitrailleuse [otomitrajoz] nf armored Am OU armoured Br vehicle. automnal, -e, -aux [otonal, o] adj autumnal, autumn (avant n). automne [oton] nm autumn, fall Am; être à l'~ de sa vie fig to be in the autumn of one's life. automobile [otomDbil] o nf car, automobile Am. O adj [industrie, accessoires] car (avant n), automobile (avant n) Am; [véhicule] motor (avant n). automobiliste [otsmobilist] «/«/"motorist. automoteur, -trice [otomDtcer, tris] adj self-propelled.

41 auxiliaire ♦ automoteur nm large self-propelled river barge. ♦ automotrice nf railcar. autonettoyant, -e [otonetwajâ, ât] adj selfcleaning. autonome [otonom] adj -1. [gén] autonomous, independent. -2. INFORM off-line. -3. [appareil] self-contained. autonomie [otonami] nf -1. [indépendance] autonomy, independence. -2. AUTOM & AV1AT range; ~ de vol AVIAT flight range. -3. POLIT autonomy, self-government. autonomiste [otDnomist] nmf & adj separatist. autoportrait [otDpDitre] nm self-portrait. autopropulsé, -e [otsprspylse] adj selfpropelled. autopsie [otopsi] «/"post-mortem, autopsy. autoradio [otoradjo] nm car radio. autorail [otoraj] nm railcar. auto-reverse [otorivcers] adj inv autore verse. autorisation [otorizasjS] nf -1. [permission] permission, authorization; avoir l'~ de faire qqch to be allowed to do sthg; demander/accorder l'~ de faire qqch to request/grant permission to do sthg. -2. [attestation] pass, permit. autorisé, -e [otorize] adj [personne] in authority; milieux ~s official circles. autoriser [otorize] [3] vt to authorize, to permit; ~ qqn à faire qqch [permission] to give sb permission to do sthg; [possibilité] to permit OU allow sb to do sthg. autoritaire [otariter] adj authoritarian. autoritarisme [otoritarism] nm authoritarianism. autorité [otorite] nf authority; faire ~ [ouvrage] to be authoritative; [personne] to be an authority; faire qqch d'~ to do sthg out of hand. autoroute [otorut] nf highway Am, freeway Am, motorway Br. autoroutier, -ière [otsrutje, jer] adj freeway (avant n) Am, motorway (avant n) Br. auto-stop [otDstDp] nm hitchhiking, hitching; faire de l'~ to hitchhike, to hitch; prendre quelqu'un en ~ to pick up a hitchhiker. auto-stoppeur, -euse [otostDpcer, oz] (mpl auto-stoppeurs, fpl auto-stoppeuses) nm, f hitchhiker, hitcher. autosuggestion [otDsyg3estj5] nf autosuggestion. autour [otur] adv round, around. ♦ autour de loc prép -1. [sens spatial] round, around. -2. [sens temporel] about,

around. autre [otr] O adj indéf -1. [distinct, différent] other, different; je préfère une — marque de café I prefer another OU a different brand of coffee; l'un et l'~ projets both rojects; ni l'une ni l'~ maison neither ouse; ~ chose something else. -2. [supplémentaire] other; tu veux une ~ tasse de café4 would you like another cup of coffee^ -3. [qui est différent par une certaine supériorité]: c'est un (tout) — homme que son père he's not at all like his father, he's a different man from his father. -4. [qui reste] other, remaining; les —s passagers ont été rapatriés en autobus the other OU remaining passengers were bussed home. O pron indéf: l'~ the other (one); un ~ another (one); les —s [personnes] the others; [objets] the others, the other ones; l'un à côté de l'~ side by side; d'une semaine à l'~ from one week to the next; aucun ~, nul ~, personne d'~ no one else, nobody else; quelqu'un d'~ somebody else, someone else; rien d'~ nothing else; l'une chante, l'~ danse one sings and the other dances; l'un et l'~ sont venus they both came, both of them came; l'un ou l'~ ira one or other (of them) will go; ni l'un ni l'~ n'est venu neither (of them) came. ♦ entre autres loc adv among other things. autrefois [otrsfwa] adv in the past, formerly. autrement [otrsmâ] adv -1. [différemment] otherwise, differently; je n'ai pas pu faire ~ que d'y aller I had no choice but to go; ~ dit in other words. -2. [sinon] otherwise. -3. sout [beaucoup plus] far more; je n'en suis pas ~ étonné it doesn't particularly surprise me. Autriche [otrij] nf. l'~ Austria. autrichien, -ienne [otrijjê, jen] adj Austrian. ♦ Autrichien, -ienne nm, f Austrian. autruche [otryj] nf ostrich; avoir un estomac d'~ fig to have a cast-iron stomach; pratiquer la politique de l'~ fig to bury one's head in the sand. autrui [otrqi] pron others, other people. auvent [ovâ] nm canopy. aux [o] —> à. auxiliaire [oksiljer] O nmf [assistant] assistant; ~ médical medical auxiliary, o nm GRAM auxiliary (verb), o adj -1. [secondaire] auxiliary. -2. ADMIN assistant (avant n).

auxquels 42 auxquels, auxquelles [okel] —► lequel. av. abr de avenue. AV O nm {abr de avis de virement) notification of bank transfer. O abr de avant. avachi, -e [avaji] adj -1. [gén] misshapen. -2. [personne] listless; il était ~ dans un fauteuil he was slumped in an armchair. aval, -als [aval] nm backing (U), endorsem*nt. ♦ en aval loc adv lia & fig downstream. ♦ en aval de loc prép titt & fig downstream of. avalanche [avalaJ] nf titt & fig avalanche. avaler [avale] [3] vt -1. [gén] to swallow. -2. fig [supporter] to take; dur à ~ difficult to swallow. avaliser [avalize] [3] vt -1. [traite] to endorse. -2. [décision, projet] to back. avance [avâs] nf -1. [progression, somme d'argent] advance. -2. [distance, temps] lead; le train a dix minutes d'~ the train is ten minutes early; le train a une ~ de dix minutes sur l'horaire the train is running ten minutes ahead of schedule; prendre de P~ (dans qqch) to get ahead (in sthg). ♦ avances nfpl: faire des ~s à qqn to make advances to sb. ♦ à l'avance loc adv in advance. ♦ d'avance loc adv in advance. ♦ en avance loc adv. être en ~ to be early; être en ~ sur qqch to be ahead of sthg. ♦ par avance loc adv in advance. avancement [avâsmô] nm -1. [développement] progress. -2. [promotion] promotion. avancer [avôse] [16] o vt -1. [objet, tête] to move forward; [date, départ] to bring forward; [main] to hold out. -2. [projet, travail] to advance. -3. [montre] to put forward. -4. [argent]: ~ qqch à qqn to advance sb sthg. O vi -1. [approcher] to move forward. -2. [progresser] to advance; ~ dans qqch to make progress in sthg. -3. [faire saillie]: ~ (dans/sur) to jut out (into/over), to project (into/over). -4. [montre, horloge]: ma montre avance de dix minutes my watch is ten minutes fast. -5. [servir]: ça n'avance à rien that won't get us/you anywhere. ♦ s'avancer vp -1. [s'approcher] to move forward; s'~ vers to move toward Am OU towards Br. -2. [prendre de l'avance]: s'~ (dans qqch) to get ahead (in sthg). -3. [s'engager] to commit o.s. avant [ava] o prép before, o adv before; quelques jours ~ a few days earlier OU before; tu connais le cinémat ma maison se situe un peu ~ do you know the cinemaÉ my house is just this side of it; bien ~

[spatial] well before; [temporel] well before OU beforehand, o adj inv front; les roues ~ the front wheels. O nm -1. [partie antérieure] front. -2. SPORT forward. ♦ avant de loc prép: ~ de faire qqch before doing sthg; ~ de partir before leaving. ♦ avant que loc conj (+ subjonctif): je dois te parler ~ que tu partes I must speak to you before you leave. ♦ avant tout loc adv above all; sa carrière passe ~ tout his career comes first. ♦ en avant loc adv forward, forwards. ♦ en avant de loc prép in front of. avantage [avâta3] nm [gén & TENNIS] advantage; se montrer à son ~ to look one's best; ~s en nature fringe benefits, perks; ~s sociaux welfare benefits. avantager [avôta3e] [17] vt -1. [favoriser] to favor Am, to favour Br. -2. [mettre en valeur] to flatter. avantageusem*nt [avâta30zmâ] adv favorably Am, favourably Br. avantageux, -euse [avôta30, ez] adj -1. [attrayant] attractive.. -2. [profitable] profitable, lucrative. -3. [économique - prix] reasonable. -4. [flatteur] flattering. avant-bras [avâbra] nm inv forearm. avant-centre [avâsôtr] {pi avants-centres) nm center Am OU centre Br forward. avant-coureur [avâkurœr] —> signe. avant-dernier, -ière [avâdemje, jer] (mpl avant-derniers, fpl avant-dernières) adj second to last, penultimate. avant-garde [avôgard] {pi avant-gardes) nf -1. MIL vanguard. -2. [idées] avant-garde; d'~ avant-garde. avant-goût [avâgu] {pi avant-goûts) nm foretaste. avant-hier [avâtjer] adv the day before yesterday. avant-première [avâpramjer] {pi avantpremières) «f preview; présenté en ~ [film, pièce] previewed. avant-projet [avôpr03e] {pi avant-projets) nm draft. avant-propos [avâpropo] nm inv foreword. avant-veille [avâvej] {pi avant-veilles) nf P~ two days earlier. avare [avar] O nmf miser. O adj miserly; être ~ de qqch fig to be sparing with sthg. avarice [avaris] «/"avarice. avarie [avari] «/"damage (I/). avarié, -e [avarje] adj rotting, bad. avatar [avatar] nm [transformation] metamorphosis. ♦ avatars nmpl [mésaventures] misfortunes.

43 aviron avec [avek] O prép -1. [gén] with; ~ respect with respect, respectfully; c'est fait ~ du cuir it's made from leather; et ~ ça£ fam [dans un magasin] anything else£ -2. [vis-àvis de] to, toward Am, towards Br. O adv fam with it/him etc. Ave (Maria) [ave (marja)] nm inv Hail Mary. avenant, -e [avnâ, ât] adj pleasant. ♦ avenant nm JUR additional clause. ♦ à l'avenant loc adv in the same vein. avènement [avenmâ] nm -1. [d'un roi] accession. -2. fig [début] advent. avenir [avnir] nm future; avoir de l'~ to have a future; d'~ [profession, concept] with a future, with prospects. ♦ à l'avenir loc adv in future. Avent [avô] nm: l'~ Advent. aventure [avâtyr] «/"-l. [gén] adventure. -2. [liaison amoureuse] affair. -3. loc: dire la bonne ~ à qqn to tell sb's fortune. ♦ d'aventure loc adv by (any) chance. aventurer [a va tyre] [3] vt -1. [risquer] to risk. -2. sout [remarque] to venture. ♦ s'aventurer vp> to venture (out); s'~ à faire qqch fig to venture to do sthg. aventureux, -euse [avâtyro, ez] adj -1. [personne, vie] adventurous. -2. [projet] risky. aventurier, -ière [avâtyrje, jer] nm, f adventurer. avenu [avny] adj: nul et non ~ JUR null and void. avenue [avny] «/"avenue. avérer [avère] [18] ♦ s'avérer vp: il s'est avéré (être) un musicien accompli he proved to be an accomplished musician. averse [avers] nf downpour; ~ de neige snow flurry. aversion [aversj5] nf. ~ pour aversion to, loathing for; prendre qqn/qqch en ~ to take an intense dislike to sb/sthg; avoir qqn/qqch en ~ to have an aversion to sb/ sthg. averti, -e [averti] adj -1. [expérimenté] experienced. -2. [initié]: ~ (de) informed OU well-informed (about). avertir [avertir] [32] vt -1. [mettre en garde] to warn. -2. [prévenir] to inform; avertissez-moi dès que possible let me know as soon as possible. avertissem*nt [avertismâ] nm -1. [gén] warning. -2. [avis] notice, notification. avertisseur, -euse [avertiscer, oz] O adj warning (avant n). O nm -1. [klaxon] horn. -2. [d'incendie] alarm.

aveu, -x [avo] nm confession; de l'~ de tout le monde, c'est lui le responsable everyone agrees that he is responsible; passer aux ~x to make a confession. aveuglant, -e [avceglâ, ât] adj -1. [lumière] blinding. -2. fig [vérité] blindingly obvious. aveugle [avcegl] O «/«/"blind person; les —s the blind, o adj litt & fig blind. aveuglement [avœgbmà] nm blindness. aveuglément [avœglemâ] adv blindly. aveugler [avœgle] [5] vt -1. //'// & fig [priver de la vue] to blind. -2. [fenêtre] to board up. ♦ s'aveugler vp: s'~ sur qqn to be blind to sb's faults. aveuglette [avœgle t] ♦ à l'aveuglette loc adv: marcher à P~ to grope one's way; avancer à l'~ fig to be in the dark. aviateur, -trice [avjatcer, tris] nm, /"aviator. aviation [avjasjS] nf -1. [transport aérien] aviation. -2. MIL airforce. aviculture [avikyltyr] nf [gén] bird-breeding; [de volailles] poultry farming. avide [avid] adj -1. [vorace, cupide] greedy. -2. [désireux]: ~ (de qqch/de faire qqch) eager (for sthg/to do sthg). avidement [avidmâ] adv -1. [avec appétit, convoitise] greedily. -2. [avec intérêt] avidly. -3. [avec passion] eagerly. avidité [avidité] nf -1. [voracité, cupidité] greed. -2. [passion] eagerness. Avignon [aviji5] « Avignon; en ~ in Avignon; le festival d'~ the Avignon festival. LE FESTIVAL D'AVIGNON: Founded by Jean Vilar in 1947 and held every summer in and around Avignon, this arts festival is a showcase for new theatre and dance performances avilir [avilir] [32] vt -1. [personne] to degrade. -2. [monnaie, marchandise] to devalue. ♦ s'avilir vp -1. [personne] to demean o.s. -2. [monnaie, marchandise] to depreciate. aviné, -e [avine] adj -1. [personne] inebriated. -2. [haleine] smelling of alcohol. avion [avj5] nm plane, aeroplane, airplane Am; en ~ by plane, by air; par ~ [courrier] airmail; ~ de Ligne airliner; ~ à réaction jet (plane). aviron [avirô] nm -1. [rame] oar. -2. SPORT: P~ rowing.

avis 44 avis [avi] nm -1. [opinion] opinion; changer d'~ to change one's mind; être d'~ que to think that, to be of the opinion that; à mon ~ in my opinion; les ~ sont partagés opinion is divided. -2. [conseil] advice (U). -3. [notification] notification, notice; sauf ~ contraire unless otherwise informed; jusqu'à nouvel ~ until further notice; ~ de débit/crédit debit/credit advice. avisé, -c [avize] adj [sensé] sensible; être bien/mal ~ de faire qqch to be welladvised/ill-advised to do sthg. aviser [avize] [3] O vt -1. [informer]: ~ qqn de qqch to inform sb of sthg. -2. sout [apercevoir] to notice, o vi to reassess the situation. ♦ s'aviser vp -1. sout [s'apercevoir]: s'~ de qqch to notice sthg; s'~ que to notice (that). -2. [oser]: s'~ de faire qqch to take it into one's head to do sthg; ne t'avise pas de répondre! don't you dare answer me back! av. J.-C. (abr de avant Jésus-Christ) B.C. avocat, -e [avoka, at] nm, f -1. JUR attorney-at-law Am, barrister Br, ~ d'affaires commercial lawyer; ~ de la défense defense counsel Am, counsel for the defence Br; ~ général prosecuting attorney Am, — counsel for the prosecution Br. -2. [défenseur]: se faire l'~ de qqch to champion sthg; se faire l'~ du diable fig to play devil's advocate. ♦ avocat nm [fruit] avocado. avoine [avwan] nf oats {pt). avoir [avwar] [1] O nm -1. [biens] assets {pi). -2. [document] credit note, o v aux to have; j'ai fini I have finished; il a attendu pendant deux heures he waited for two hours. O vt -1. [posséder] to have (got); il a deux enfants les cheveux bruns he has (got) two children/brown hair; la maison a un grand jardin the house has (got) a large garden. -2. [être âgé de]: il a 20 ans he is 20 (years old); il a deux ans de plus que son frère he is two years older than his brother. -3. [obtenir] to get. -4. [éprouver] to have; ~ du chagrin to feel sorrowful; ~ de la sympathie pour qqn to have a liking for sb; voir aussi faim, peur, soif etc. -5. loc: se faire ~ fam to be had OU conned; en ~ assez (de qqch/de faire qqch) to have had enough (of sthg/of doing sthg); j'en ai pour cinq minutes it'll take me five minutes; en ~ après qqn to have (got) it in for sb. ♦ avoir à vi + prép [devoir]: ~ à faire qqch to have to do sthg; tu n'avais pas à lui

parler sur ce ton you had no need to speak to him like that, you shouldn't have spoken to him like that; tu n'avais qu'à me demander you only had to ask me; tu n'as qu'à y aller toi-même just go (there) yourself, why don't you just go (there) yourself^ ♦ il y a v impers -l. [présentant] there is/ are; il y a un problème there's a problem; il y a des problèmes there are (some) problems; qu'est-ce qu'il y a$ what's the matter^, what is it£; il n'y a qu'à en finir we'll/you'll etc just have to have done (with it). -2. [temporel]: il y a trois ans three years ago; il y a longtemps de cela that was a lone time ago; il y a longtemps qu'il est parti he left a long time ago. avoisinant, -e [avwazinâ, ât] adj -1. [lieu, maison] neighboring Am, neighbouring Br. -2. [sens, couleur] similar. Avoriaz [avDrjaz] n: le festival d'~ festival of science fiction and horror films held annually at Avoriaz in the French Alps. avortement [avDrtamâ] nm -1. MÉD abortion. -2. fig [d'un projet] abandonment. avorter [avarte] [3] vi -1. MÉD: (se faire) ~ to have an abortion. -2. [échouer] to fail. avorton [avDrtS] nm péj [nabot] runt. avouer [avwe] [6] vt -1. [confesser] to confess (to). -2. [reconnaître] to admit. ♦ s'avouer vp to admit (to being); s'~ vaincu to admit defeat. avril [avril] nm April; voir aussi septembre. AVS {abr de assurance vieillesse et survivants) nf Swiss pension scheme. axe [aks] nm -1. GÉOM & PHYS axis. -2. [de roue] axle. -3. [route]: les grands ~s the major roads; ~ rouge section of the Paris road system where parking is prohibited. -4. [prolongement]: dans l'~ de directly in line with. -5. [de politique, de parti] line. axer [akse] [3] vt: ~ qqch sur qqch to center Am OU centre Br sthg on sthg; ~ qqch autour de qqch to center Am OU centre Br sthg around sthg. axial, -e, -iaux [aksjal, jo] adj axial. axiome [akspm] nm axiom. ayant [ejô] ppr —> avoir. ayant droit [ejâdrwa] {pi ayants droit) nm beneficiary. ayatollah [ajatola] nm ayatollah. azalée [azale] nf azalea. azimut [azimyt] ♦ tous azimuts loc adj [défense, offensive] all-out. azote [azDt] nm nitrogen. aztèque [aztck] adj Aztec. ♦ Aztèque nmf Aztec.

45 bagatelle azur [azyr] nm littéraire -1. [couleur] azure. -2. [ciel] skies (pî). azyme [azim] —► pain. b, B [be] nm inv b, B. ♦ B (ahr de bien) good grade (as assessment on schoolwork), = B. BA (abr de bonne action) nffam good deed. baba [baba] O nm -1. CULIN: ~ (au rhum) rum baba. -2. [hippie] person practising hippie lifestyle and values. O adj inv fam: en rester ~ to be flabbergasted. babeurre [babœr] nm buttermilk. babil [babil] nm [d'enfant] babble, babbling. babiller [babije] [3] vi to babble. babines [babin] nfpl chops; se lécher les ~ fig to lick one's lips. babiole [babjol] nf -l. [objet] knick-knack. -2. [broutille] trifling matter. bâbord [babsr] nm port; à ~ to port, on the port side. babouin [babwê] nm baboon. baby-foot [babifut] nm inv table football. baby-sitter [bebisitcer] (pi baby-sitters) nmf baby-sitter. baby-sitting [bebisitirj] (pi baby-sittings) nm: faire du ~ to baby-sit. bac [bak] nm -1. —► baccalauréat. -2. [bateau] ferry. -3. [de réfrigérateur]: ~ à glace ice tray; ~ à légumes vegetable drawer. -4. [d'évier] sink. baccalauréat [bakabrea] nm school-leaving examinations leading to university entrance qualification. BACCALAURÉAT: The 'baccalauréat' or 'bac' is a series of examinations taken by French pupils who have completed their final year of secondary education; successful candidates may go on to university. There are three types of examination: students taking the 'bac L' concentrate on arts subjects, those taking the 'bac S' concentrate on science subjects, and those taking the 'bac ES' concentrate on economics. Alternatively, students can take vocational courses like the 'bac STI' or the 'bac STT' leading to a qualification in industrial science and technology, computer studies and so on bâche [baj] «/"[toile] tarpaulin. bachelier, -ière [bajslje, jer] nm, f holder of the baccalauréat. bachot [bajo] vieilli —> baccalauréat. bachotage [bajbta3] nm cramming. bacille [basil] nm bacillus. bâcler [bakle] [3] vt to botch. bacon [bekon] nm bacon. bactérie [bakteri] «/"bacterium.

badaud, -e [bado, od] nm, /"gawper. badge [bad3] nm badge. badigeon [badi35] nm whitewash. badigeonner [badi3Dne] [3] vt -1. [mur] to whitewash. -2. [plaie] to paint. -3. [tarte, pain] to brush. badin, -e [bade, in] adj playful. badinage [badina3] nm sout joking. badiner [badine] * [3] vi sout to joke; ne pas ~ avec qqch not to treat sthg lightly. badminton [badminton] nm badminton. baffe [baf] nffam slap. baffle [bafl] nm speaker. bafouer [bafwe] [6] vt -1. [principe] to trample upon. -2. [personne] to ridicule. bafouille [bafuj] nffam letter. bafouiller [bafuje] [3] vi & vt to mumble. bâfrer [bâfre] [3] fam O vi to guzzle. O vt to wolf down. bagage [baga3] nm -1. (gén pî) [valises, sacs] luggage (U), baggage (0); (aire ses —s to pack; —s à main hand luggage; plier ~ to pack one's bags (and leave). -2. [connaissances] (fund of) knowledge; ~ intellectuel/ culturel intellectual/cultural baggage. bagagiste [baga3ist] nmf [chargement des avions] baggage handler; [à l'hôtel] porter; [fabricant] travel goods manufacturer. bagarre [bagar] nf brawl, fight; chercher la ~ fam to look for a fight. bagarrer [bagare] [3] vi to fight. ♦ se bagarrer vp to fight. bagarreur, -euse [bagarcer, oz] o adj aggressive, who likes a fight. O nm, f fig fighter. bagatelle [bagatel] nf-1. [objet] trinket. -2. [somme d'argent]: acheter qqch pour une ~ to buy sthg for next to nothing; la ~ de X francs iron a mere X francs. -3. [chose futile] trifle. -4. [sexe]: être porté sur la ~ to be quite a one for the ladies.

bagnard 46 bagnard [bajiar] nm convict. bagne [baji] nm -1. [prison] labor Am OU labour Br camp. -2. [sentence] hard labor Am OU labour Br; c'est le ~ id fig it's slave labor Am OU labour Br here. bagnole [bajiol] nffam car. bagou(t) [bagu] nm patter; avoir du ~ to have the gift of the gab. bague [bag] nf-l. [bijou, anneau] ring; ~ de fiançailles engagement ring. -2. [de cigare] band. -3. ~ de serrage clip. baguer [bage] [3] vt [oiseau, arbre] to ring. baguette [baget] nf-l. [pain] French stick. -2. [petit bâton] stick; ~ magique magic wand; ~ de tambour drumstick; mener qqn à la ~ to rule sb with a rod of iron. -3. [pour manger] chopstick. -4. [de chef d'orchestre] baton. Bahamas [baamas] nfpl: les ~ the Bahamas; aux ~ in the Bahamas. bahut [bay] nm -1. [buffet] sideboard. -2. [coffre] chest. -3. arg scol [lycée] secondary school. -4. fam péj [voiture] old banger. baie [be] nf-l. [fruit] berry. -2. GÉOGR bay. -3. [fenêtre]: ~ vitrée picture window. baignade [bejiad] «/"[action] swirnming (U), bathing (U) Br; «~ interdite» "no bathing/ swimming". baigner [bejie] [4] O vt -1. [donner un bain à] to bath. -2. [tremper, remplir] to bathe; baigné de soleil bathed in sunlight. O vi: ~ dans le luxe to be surrounded by wealth; — dans son sang to lie in a pool of blood; les tomates baignaient dans l'huile the tomatoes were swimming in oil; tout/ça baigne fam everything's/it's great. ♦ se baigner vp -1. [dans la mer] to go swimming, to swim. -2. [dans une baignoire] to have a bath. baigneur, -euse [bejicer, oz] nm, f bather Br, swimmer. ♦ baigneur nm [poupée] baby doll. baignoire [bejiwar] nf bath. bail [baj] {pi baux [bo]) nm -1. JUR lease; renouveler un ~ to renew a lease; ~ à loyer residential lease; ~ reconductible renewable lease. -2. be: ça fait un ~ que fam it's ages since. bâillement [bajmô] nm yawning (U), yawn. bâiller [baje] [3] vi -1. [personne] to yawn. -2. [vêtement] to gape. bailleur, -eresse [bajoer, bajres] nm, f lessor; ~ de fonds backer. bâillon [baj5] nm gag. bâillonner [bajone] [3] vt to gag. bain [bë] nm -1. [gén] bath; faire couler un

~ to run a bath; prendre un ~ to have OU take a bath; ~ moussant foaming bath oil; ~s-douches public baths. -2. [dans mer, piscine] swim; ~ de mer sea swimming OU bathing Br. -3. [de partie du corps]: ~ de bouche mouthwash; ~ de pieds foot-bath. -4. be: se mettre dans le ~ to get the hang of things; prendre un ~ de foule to go on a walkabout; prendre un ~ de soleil to sunbathe. bain-marie [bëmari] {pi bains-marie) nm: au ~ in a bain-marie. baïonnette [bajonet] nf-l. [arme] bayonet. -2. ÉLECTR bayonet fitting. baise [bez] nf vulg f*cking. baisemain [bczmë] nm: faire le ~ à qqn to kiss sb's hand. baiser [beze] [4] o nm kiss. O vi vulg [avoir des relations sexuelles avec] to f*ck. O vi vulg to f*ck. baisse [bes] nf -1. [gén]: ~ (de) drop (in), fall (in); en ~ falling; la tendance est à la ~ there is a downward trend. -2. INFORM: ~ de tension brownout. baisser [bese] [4] o vt [gén] to lower; [radio] to turn down; ~ le ton to modify one's tone; ~ les yeux to look down. O vi -1. [descendre] to go down; le jour baisse it's getting dark. -2. [santé, vue] to fail. -3. [prix] to fall. -4. [s'affaiblir - malade] to grow weaker; [- talent] to decline. ♦ se baisser vp to bend down. bajoues [ba3u] nfpl jowls. bakchich [bakjij] nm baksheesh. bal [bal] nm ball; ~ masqué/costumé masked/fancy-dress ball; ~ populaire OU musette popular old-fashioned dance accompanied by accordion. BAL, Bal {abr de boîte aux lettres (électronique)) «f E-mail. balade [balad] nffam stroll; faire une ~ to go for a stroll. balader [balade] [3] O w -1. fam [traîner avec soi] to trail around. -2. [emmener en promenade] to take for a walk. O vi: envoyer ~ qqn to send sb packing. ♦ se balader vp fam -1. [se promener - à pied] to go for a walk; [- en voiture] to go for a drive. -2. [traîner] to be kicking around. baladeur, -euse [baladcer, oz] adj wandering. ♦ baladeur nm personal stereo. ♦ baladeuse nf inspection lamp. balafre [balafr] nf-l. [blessure] gash. -2. [cicatrice] scar.

47 ballotter balafré, -e [balafre] adj scarred. balai [baie] nm -1. [de nettoyage] broom, brush; ~ mécanique carpet sweeper. -2. [d'essuie-glace] wiper blade. -3. fam [an]: il a 50 —s he's 50 years old. balai-brosse [balebros] (yl balais-brosses) nm (long-handled) scrub Am OU scrubbing Br brush. balaie, balaies —> balayer. balance [balâs] «/"-l. [instrument] scales (/?/); faire pencher la ~ fig to tip the balance. -2. COMM & POLIT balance; ~ des paiements commerciale balance of payments/ of trade; ~ des pouvoirs balance of power. ♦ Balance nf ASTROL Libra; être Balance to be (a) Libra. balancement [balôsmâ] nm [mouvement d'objet, de hanches] swaying; [- de bras, de jambe] swinging; [- de navire] motion. balancer [balâse] [16] O vt -1. [bouger] to swing. -2. fam [lancer] to chuck. -3. fam [jeter] to chuck out. O vi -1. sout [hésiter] to waver. -2. [osciller] to swing. ♦ se balancer vp -1. [sur une chaise] to rock backwards and forwards. -2. [sur une balançoire] to swing. -3. fam: se ~ de qqch not to give a damn about sthg. balancier [balâsje] nm -1. [de pendule] pendulum. -2. [de funambule] pole. balançoire [balâswar] nf [suspendue] swing; [bascule] see-saw. balayage [baleja3] nm [gén] sweeping; TECHNOL scanning. balayer [baleje] [11] vt -1. [nettoyer] to sweep. -2. [chasser] to sweep away. -3. fig [écarter] to brush aside. -4. [suj: radar] to scan; [suj: projecteurs] to sweep (across). balayette [balejet] «/"small brush. balayeur, -euse [balejcer, oz] nm, f streetsweeper Am, roadsweeper Br. ♦ balayeuse «/"[machine] roadsweeper. balayures [balejyr] nfpl sweepings. balbutiement [balbysimâ] nm -1. [bredouillement] stammering. -2. fig: —s [débuts] infancy ((7). balbutier [balbysje] [9] o vi -1. [bafouiller] to stammer. -2. fie [débuter] to be in its infancy, o vt [bafouiller] to stammer (out). balcon [balk5] nm -1. [de maison - terrasse] balcony; [- balustrade] parapet. -2. [de théâtre, de cinéma] circle. balconnet [ballone] nm: soutien-gorge à ~ half-cup bra. baldaquin [baldakê] nm -1. ARCHIT canopy. -2. -► Ut. Baléares [balear] nfpl: les ~ the Balearic Islands; aux ~ in the Balearic Islands.

baleine [balen] nf -1. [mammifère] whale. -2. [de corset] whalebone. -3. [de parapluie] rib. baleinier, -ière [balenje, jer] adj whaling (avant «). ♦ baleinier nm whaler. ♦ baleinière nf [bateau] whaler. Bali [bali] n Bali; à ~ in Bali. balinais, -e [baline, ez] adj Balinese. ♦ Balinais, -e nm, /"Balinese (inv). balisage [baliza3] nm -1. [action] marking out. -2. [signaux - NAVlG] markers (t?l), marker buoys (/?/); [- AÉRON] runway lights (pt); [- AUTOM] road signs {pi). balise [baliz] nf -1. NAVIG marker (buoy). -2. AÉRON runway light. -3. AUTOM road sign. -4. INFORM tag. baliser [balize] [3] O vt to mark out. O vi fam to be spooked. balistique [balistik] o nf ballistics (U). o adj ballistic. balivernes [balivern] nfpl nonsense (V). Balkans [balkô] nmpl: les — the Balkans. ballade [balad] «/"ballad. ballant, -e [balâ, ât] adj: les bras ~s arms dangling. ♦ ballant nm [mouvement]: avoir du ~ to sway. ballast [balast] nm -1. [chemin de fer] ballast. -2. NAVIG ballast tank. balle [bal] «/"-l. [d'arme à feu] bullet; — perdue stray bullet. -2. [de jeu] ball; ~ de ping-pong tennis table-tennis/tennis bail. -3. [de marchandises] baie. -4. fam [argent] franc. -5. loc: se renvoyer la ~ to pass the buck; saisir la ~ au bond to jump at the chance. ballerine [balrin] «/"-l. [danseuse] ballerina. -2. [chaussure] ballet shoe. ballet [bale] nm [gén] ballet; fig [activité intense] to-ing and fro-ing. ballon [bal5] nm -1. JEU & SPORT ball; ~ de football football; le ~ ovale rugby; le ~ rond football. -2. [montgolfière, de fête] balloon. -3. [verre de vin]: ~ de rouge glass of red (wine). ballonné, -e [babne] adj: avoir le ventre ~, être ~ to be bloated. ballot [balo] nm -1. [de marchandises] bundle. -2. vieilli [imbécile] twit. ballottage [babta3] nm POLIT second ballot; en ~ standing for a second ballot. ballotter [babte] [3] O vt to toss about;

ball-trap 48 être ballotté entre fig to be torn between. O vi [chose] to roll around. ball-trap [baltrap] nm clay pigeon shooting. balluchon = baluchon. balnéaire [balneer] adj: station ~ seaside resort. balourd, -e [balur, urd] O adj clumsy. O nm, f clumsy idiot. balte [bait] adj Baltic. ♦ Balte nmf native of the Baltic states. Baltique [baltik] nf: la ~ the Baltic (Sea). baluchon, balluchon [baly/5] nm bundle; faire son ~ fam to pack one's bags (and leave). balustrade [balystrad] nf -1. [de terrasse] balustrade. -2. [rambarde] guardrail. bambin [bàbê] nm kiddie. bambou [bâbu] nm -1. [plante] bamboo; pousse de ~ bamboo shoot. -2. [matériau]: en ~ bamboo (avant n). bamboula [bâbula] nf: faire la ~ fam to go out on the town. ban [bô] nm -1. [de mariage]: publier OU afficher les ~s to publish OU display the banns. -2. [applaudissem*nts] round of applause. -3. loc: être/mettre qqn au ~ (de la société) to be outlawed/to outlaw sb (from society); le ~ et l'arrière— the whole lot of them. banal, -e, -als [banal] adj commonplace, banal; pas OU peu ~ unusual. banaliser [banalize] [3] vt: voiture banalisée unmarked police car. ♦ se banaliser vp to become commonplace. banalité [banalité] nf -\. [caractère banal] banality. -2. [cliché] commonplace; échanger des —s to make small-talk. banane [banan] nf -1. [fruit] banana. -2. [sac] bum-bag. -3. [coiffure] quiff. bananier, -ière [bananje, jer] adj banana (avant n). ♦ bananier nm -1. [arbre] banana tree. -2. [cargo] banana boat. banc [bâ] nm [siège] bench; le ~ des accusés JUR the dock; ~ d'essai test-bed; être au ~ d'essai fig to be at the test stage; ~ des joueurs HOCKEY players' bench; ~ de neige Can snowbank; ~ des pénalités OU des punitions HOCKEY penalty box; ~ de poissons shoal of fish; ~ de sable sandbank. bancaire [bôkcr] adj bank (avant n), banking (avant n). bancal, -e, -als [bâkal] adj -1. [personne] lame. -2. [meuble] wobbly. -3. [théorie, idée] unsound. bandage [bâda3] nm [de blessé] bandage. bande [bôd] nf-1. [de tissu, de papier] strip.

-2. [bandage] bandage; ~ Velpeau® crêpe bandage. -3. [de billard] cushion; par la ~ fig by a roundabout route. -4. [groupe] band; ~ de ...! fam bunch of ...!; en ~ in a group; faire ~ à part to keep to o.s. -5. [pellicule de film] film; ~ dessinée comic strip. -6. [d'enregistrement] tape; ~ audionumérique DAT tape; ~ magnétique (magnetic) tape; ~ vidéo video (tape). -7. [voie]: ~ d'arrêt d'urgence hard shoulder. -8. RADIO: ~ de fréquence waveband. -9. NAV1G: donner de la ~ to list. bande-annonce [bâdanSs] {y\ bandesannonces) «f trailer. bandeau [bâdo] nm -1. [sur les yeux] blindfold. -2. [dans les cheveux] headband. bandelette [bâdlet] «/"strip (of cloth). bander [bade] [3] o vf -1. MÉD to bandage; ~ les yeux de qqn to blindfold sb. -2. [arc] to draw back. -3. [muscle] to flex, o vi vulg to have a hard-on. banderole [bâdrôl] «/"streamer. bande-son [bôds5] (j?l bandes-son) nf soundtrack. bandit [bâdi] nm -1. [voleur] bandit. -2. [personne sans scrupules] crook. banditisme [bâditism] nm serious crime. bandoulière [bôduljer] nf bandolier; en ~ across the shoulder. bangladais, -e [bâglade, ez] adj Bangladeshi. ♦ Bangladais, -e nm, f Bangladeshi. Bangladesh [bâgladeJ] nm: le ~ Bangladesh; au ~ in Bangladesh. banlieue [bàljo] «f suburbs (pi); en ~ in the suburbs; la grande ~ the outer suburbs; la ~ parisienne the Paris suburbs; réseau de ~ commuter OU suburban network. banlieusard, -e [baljozar, ard] nm, f person living in the suburbs. bannière [banjer] «/"[étendard] banner. bannir [banir] [32] vt: ~ qqn/qqch (de) to banish sb/sthg (from). banque [bôk] nf -1. [activité] banking. -2. [établissem*nt, au jeu] bank; Banque de France Bank of France. -3. INFORM: ~ de données data bank. -4. MÉD: ~ d'organes/ du sang/du sperme organ/blood/sperm bank. banqueroute [bâkrut] nf bankruptcy; faire ~ to go bankrupt. banouet [bâke] nm (celebration) dinner; [de gala] banquet.

49 barre banquette [bâket] nf seat; ~ arrière back seat. banquier, -1ère [bâkje, jer] nm, /"banker. banquise [bâkiz] nf ice field. baobab [baobab] nm baobab. baptême [batem] nm -1. RELIG baptism, christening. -2. [première fois]: ~ de Pair maiden flight; ~ du feu baptism of fire. baptiser [batize] [3] vt to baptize, to christen. baptismal, -e, -aux [batismal, o] adj baptismal; voir aussi fonts. baquet [bake] nm -1. [cuve] tub. -2. [siège] bucket seat. bar [bar] nm -1. [café, unité de pression] bar; ~ à café Helv coffee bar; ~ à vin wine bar. -2. [poisson] bass. baragouiner [baragwine] [3] vt fam -1. [langue]: il baragouine le français he speaks broken French. -2. [bredouiller] to gabble. baraka [baraka] nf fam: avoir la ~ to be lucky. baraque [barak] nf-1. [cabane] hut. -2. fam [maison] house. -3. [de forain] stall, stand. baraqué, -e [barake] adj fam well-built. baraquement [barakmâ] nm camp {of huts for refugees, workers etc). baratin [baratê] nm fam smooth talk; faire du ~ à qqn to sweet-talk sb. baratiner [baratine] [3] fam O vt [femme] to chat up; [client] to give one's sales pitch to. O vi to be a smooth talker. Barbade [barbad] nf: la ~ Barbados; à la ~ in Barbados. barbant, -e [barbâ, ât] adj fam deadly dull OU boring. barbare [barbar] O nm barbarian. O adj -1. péj [non civilisé] barbarous. -2. [cruel] barbaric. barbarisme [barbarism] nm GRAM barbarism. barbe [barb] nf beard; se laisser pousser la ~ to grow a beard; — à papa cotton candy Am, candy floss Br; faire qqch au nez et à la ~ de qqn fig to do sthg right under sb's nose; quelle OU la ~! fam what a drag! barbecue [barbskju] nm barbecue. barbelé, -e [barbale] adj barbed; fil de fer ~ barbed wire. ♦ barbelé nm barbed wire (U). barber [barbe] [3] vt fam to bore stiff. ♦ se barber vp fam to be bored stiff. barbiche [barbij] nf goatee (beard). barbiturique [barbityrik] nm barbiturate. barboter [barbote] [3] o vi to paddle, o vt fam to nick. barboteuse [barbotez] «/"romper-suit.

barbouillé, -e [barbuje] adj: être ~, avoir l'estomac ~ to feel sick. barbouiller [barbuje] [3] vt -1. [salir]: ~ qqch (de) to smear sthg (with). -2. péj [peindre] to daub. -3. fam [écrire sur] to scribble on. barbu, -e [barby] adj bearded. ♦ barbu nm bearded man. ♦ barbue nf [poisson] brill. barda [barda] nm -1. arg mil kit. -2. fam [attirail] gear; avec tout son ~ with all his/her gear. barde [bard] o nm [poète] bard. O «/" CULIN bacon, bard. bardé, -e [barde] adj fig: il est ~ de diplômes he's got heaps of diplomas. barder [barde] [3] O vt CULIN to bard. O vi fam: ça va ~ there'll be trouble. barème [barem] nm [de référence] table; [de salaires] scale. barge [bar3] «/"[bateau] barge. baril [baril] nm barrel; un ~ de pétrole a barrel of oil. barillet [barije] nm -1. [petit baril] cask. -2. [de revolver, de serrure] cylinder. bariolé, -e [barjole] adj multicolored Am, multicoloured Br. barjo(t) [bar3o] adj inv fam nuts. barmaid [barmed] «/"barmaid. barman [barman] (pi barmans OU barmen [barmen]) nm barman. baromètre [barametr] nm. barometer. baron, -onne [bar5, Dn] nm, f baron (/" baroness). ♦ baron nm [magnat] baron. baroque [barok] o nm ART: le ~ the Baroque style, o adj -1. [style] baroque. -2. [bizarre] weird. baroud [barud] nm: ~ d'honneur last stand. barque [bark] nf small boat; savoir mener sa — fig to be well-organized. barquette [barket] nf -1. [tartelette] pastry boat. -2. [récipient - de fruits] punnet; [- de frites] carton; [- de crème glacée] tub. barrage [bara3] nm -1. [de rue] roadblock. -2. CONSTR dam. barre [bar] nf -1. [gén & JUR] bar; ~ fixe GYM high bar; — des témoins JUR witness stand Am OU box Br; c'est le coup de ~ fam it's a rip-off; avoir un coup de ~ fam to be shattered. -2. NAV1G helm; être à la ~ NAViG & fig to be at the helm. -3. [trait]

barreau 50 stroke. -4. INFORM: ~ d'espacement space bar; ~ de menu menu bar; ~ d'outils tool bar. barreau [baro] nm bar; le ~ JUR the Bar. barrer [bare] [3] vt -1. [rue, route] to block. -2. [mot, phrase] to cross out. -3. [bateau] to steer. ♦ se barrer vp fam to clear off. barrette [baret] nf [pince à cheveux] barrette Am, (hair) slide Br. barreur, -euse [barcer, oz] nm, f NAV1G helmsman; [à l'aviron] cox. barricade [barikad] nf barricade; monter sur les —s fig to man the barricades. barricader [barikade] [3] vt to barricade. ♦ se barricader vp to barricade o.s.; se ~ chez soi to shut o.s. away (at home). barrière [barjer] nf litt & fig barrier; ~ de dégel ban on heavy lorries on certain roads during a thaw. barrique [barik] «/"barrel. barrir [barir] [32] vi to trumpet. baryton [baritô] nm baritone. bas, basse [ba, baz devant nm commençant par voyelle ou h muet, bas] ad) -1. [gén] low. -2. péj [vil] base, low. -3. MUS bass. ♦ bas O nm -1. [partie inférieure] bottom, lower part; avoir/connaître des hauts et des ~ to have/go through ups and downs. -2. [vêtement] stocking; ~ de laine woolen Am OU woollen Br stocking; fig nest egg. o adv low; à ~ ...! down with ...!; parler ~ to speak in a low voice, to speak softly; mettre ~ [animal] to give birth. ♦ en bas loc adv at the bottom; [dans une maison] downstairs. ♦ en bas de loc prép at the bottom of; attendre qqn en ~ de chez lui to wait for sb downstairs. ♦ bas de gamme o ad) downmarket, o nm bottom of the range. basalte [bazalt] nm basait. basané, -e [bazane] ad) tanned. bas-bleu [bablo] {pi bas-bleus) nm pé) bluestocking. bas-côté [bakote] (pi bas-côtés) nm [de route] verge. bascule [baskyl] nf -1. [balance] weighing machine. -2. [balançoire] seesaw. basculer [baskyle] [3] O vi to fall over, to overbalance; [benne] to tip up; ~ dans qqch fig to tip over into sthg. O vt to tip up, to base [baz] nf-1. [partie inférieure] base; la ~ [d'entreprise, de syndicat] the rank and file. -2. [principe fondamental] basis; à ~ de based on; de ~ basic; une boisson à ~ d'orange an orange-based drink; sur la ~

de on the basis of. -3. INFORM: ~ de données database. -4. [cosmétique]: ~ de maquillage make-up base. -5. Can: ~ de plein air outdoor recreation area. base-ball [bezbol] (pi base-balls) nm baseball. baser [baze] [3] vt to base; ~ qqch sur fig to base sthg on. ♦ se baser vp: sur quoi vous basez-vous pour affirmer cela-J what are you basing this statement on£ bas-fond [baB] (pi bas-fonds) nm [de l'océan] shallow. ♦ bas-fonds nmpl fig -1. [de la société] dregs. -2. [quartiers pauvres] slums. basilic [bazilik] nm [plante] basil. basilique [bazilik] nf basilica. basique [bazik] ad) basic. basket [basket] O nm = basket-ball. o nf [chaussure] sneaker Am, trainer Br; lâchemoi les —s! fam fig get off my back! basket-ball [basketbol] nm basketball. basque [bask] o ad) Basque; le Pays ~ the Basque country, o nm [langue] Basque, o nf [vêtement] tail (of coat); être toujours pendu aux —s de qqn fig fam to be always tagging along after sb. ♦ Basque nmf Basque. bas-relief [barsljef] (pi bas-reliefs) nm basrelief. basse [bas] o ad) —► bas. o «/"MUS bass. basse-cour [baskur] (^/basses-cours) nf-1. [volaille] poultry. -2. [partie de ferme] farmyard. bassem*nt [basmâ] adv despicably; être ~ intéressé to be motivated by petty selfinterest. bassesse [bases] nf -1. [mesquinerie] baseness, meanness . -2. [action vile] despicable act. basset [base] nm basset hound. bassin [base] nm -1. [cuvette] bowl. -2. [pièce d'eau] (ornamental) pond. -3. [de piscine]: petit/grand ~ children's/main pool. -4. ANAT pelvis. -5. GÉOL basin; ~ houiller coalfield; le Bassin parisien the Paris basin. bassine [basin] nf bowl, basin. bassiner [basine] [3] vt -1. [humecter] to bathe. -2. fam [importuner] to bore. bassiste [basist] nmf bass player. basson [bas5] nm [instrument] bassoon. bastide [bastid] nf traditional farmhouse or country house in southern France; walled town (in south-west France).

51 baudroie Bastille [bastij] nf: la prise de la - the stonning of the Bastille. BASTILLE: A state prison, the Bastille fell to the people of Paris on 14 July 1789 — today celebrated as Bastille Day. The square where the Bastille once stood is now the home of the new Paris opera house, known as TOpéraBastille' bastingage [bastêga3] nm (ship's) rail. bastion [bastjS] nm lin & fig bastion. baston [bast5] nftfam punch-up. bas-ventre [bavâtr] (yl bas-ventres) nm stomach. bât [ba] nm packsaddle; c'est là que le ~ blesse fig that's his/her etc weak point. bataille [bataj] nf-1. MIL battle. -2. [bagarre] fight. -3. [jeu de cartes] — beggar-myneighbour. -4. be: en ~ [cheveux] disheveled Am, dishevelled Br. batailler [bataje] [3] vi: ~ pour qqch/pour faire qqch to fight for sthg/to do sthg. bataillon [bataj5] nm MIL battalion; fig horde. bâtard, -e [batar, ard] O adj -1. [enfant] illegitimate. -2. ptj [style, solution] hybrid. O nm, f illegitimate child. ♦ bâtard nm -1. [pain] — Vienna loaf. -2. [chien] mongrel. batavia [batavja] «/"Webb lettuce. bateau [bato] nm -1. [embarcation - gén] boat; [- plus grand] ship; ~ à voile/moteur sailing/motor boat; ~ de pêche fishing boat; mener qqn en ~ fig to take sb for a ride. -2. [de trottoir] driveway entrance (low kerb). -3. (en apposition inv): encolure ~ boat neck. -4. (en apposition inv) [sujet, thème] well-worn; c'est ~! it's the same old stuff! bateau-mouche [batomuj] (pi bateauxmouches) nm riverboat (on the Seine). bateleur, -euse [badoer, oz] nm, f street acrobat. bâti, -e [bati] adj -1. [terrain] developed. -2. [personne]: bien ~ well-built. ♦ bâti nm -1. COUTURE tacking. -2. CONSTR frame, framework. batifoler [batifsle] [3] vi to frolic. bâtiment [batimâ] nm -1. [édifice] building. -2. IND: le ~ the building trade. -3. NAVIG ship, vessel. bâtir [bâtir] [32] vt -1. CONSTR to build. -2. fie [réputation, fortune] to build (up); [théorie, phrase] to construct. -3. COUTURE to tack. ♦ se bâtir vp to be built. bâtisse [bâtis] nf souvent péj house. bâton [batô] nm -1. [gén] stick; ~ de réglisse liquorice stick; ~ de ski ski pole. -2. fam

fig 10 000 francs. -3. be: mettre des —s dans les roues à qqn to put a spoke in sb's wheel; à ~s rompus [conversation] rambling; parler à —s rompus to talk of this and that. bâtonnet [batone] nm rod. bâtonnier [batonje] nm JUR = President of the Bar. batracien [batrasjê] nm amphibian. battage [bata3] nm: ~ (publicitaire OU médiatique) (media) hype. battant, -e [batâ, ât] O adj: sous une pluie ~e in the pouring OU driving rain; le cœur ~ with beating heart. O nm, f fighter. ♦ battant nm -1. [de porte] door (of double doors); [de fenêtre] half (of double window). -2. [de cloche] clapper. batte [bat] «/"SPORT bat. battement [batmâ] nm -1. [mouvement d'ailes] flap, beating (U); [- de cœur, pouls] beat, beating (U); [- de cils, paupières] flutter, fluttering (U). -2. [bruit - de porte] banging (U); [- de la pluie] beating (U). -3. [intervalle de temps] break; une heure de ~ an hour free. batterie [batri] nf -1. ÉLECTR & MIL battery; recharger ses —s fig to recharge one's batteries. -2. [attirail]: ~ de cuisine kitchen utensils (pi). -3. MUS drums (pi). -4. [série]: une ~ de a string of. batteur [batoer] nm -1. MUS drummer. -2. CULIN beater, whisk. -3. [SPORT - de cricket] batsman; [- de base-ball] batter. batteuse [batoz] «/"ACRIC thresher. battoir [batwar] nm -1. [à tapis] carpet beater. -2. fig [main] great mitt OU paw. battre [batr] [83] O vt -1. [gén] to beat; ~ en neige [blancs d'œufs] to oeat until stiff. -2. [parcourir] to scour. -3. [cartes] to shuffle. O vi [gén] to beat; ~ des cils to blink; ~ des mains to clap (one's hands). ♦ se battre vp to fight; se ~ contre qqn to fight sb. battu, -e [baty] O pp —> battre, o adj -1. [tassé] hard-packed; jouer sur terre ~e TENNIS to play on clay. -2. [fatigué]: avoir les yeux —s to have shadows under one's eyes. ♦ battue nf-1. [chasse] beat. -2. [chasse à l'homme] manhunt. baud [bo] nm baud. baudroie [bodrwa] «f monkfish.

baudruche 52 baudruche [bodryj] «f-1. [ballon] balloon. -2. fig [personne] front man. baume [bom] nm lût & fig balm; mettre du ~ au cœur de qqn to comfort sb. bauxite [boksit] nf bauxite. bavard, -e [bavar, ard] o adj talkative, o nm, f chatterbox; péj gossip. bavardage [bavarda3] nm -1. [papotage] chattering. -2. (gén pî) [racontar] gossip (17). bavarder [bavarde] [3] vi to chatter; péj to gossip. bavarois, -e [bavarwa, waz] adj Bavarian. ♦ bavarois nm, bavaroise nf [gâteau] — mousse. ♦ Bavarois, -e nm, f Bavarian. bave [bav] nf -\. [salive] dribble. -2. [d'animal] slaver. -3. [de limace] slime. baver [bave] [3] vi -1. [personne] to dribble. -2. [animal] to slaver. -3. [limace] to leave a trail. -4. [stylo] to leak. -5. loc: en ~ fam to have a hard OU rough time of it. bavette [bavet] nf-1. [bavoir, de tablier] bib. -2. [viande] flank. -3. loc: tailler une ~ (avec qqn) fam to have a chin wag (with sb). baveux, -euse [bavo, oz] adj -1. [bébé] dribbling. -2. [lettre] blurred. -3. [omelette] runny. Bavière [bavjer] nf: la ~ Bavaria. bavoir [bavwar] nm bib. bavure [bavyr] nf -1. [tache] smudge. -2. [erreur] blunder. bayer [baje] [3] vi: ~ aux corneilles to stand gazing into space. bazar [bazar] nm -1. [boutique] general store. -2. fam [désordre] jumble, clutter. bazarder [bazarde] [3] vt fam to chuck out, to get rid of. BCBG (abr de bon chic bon genre) nmf & adj term used to describe an upper-class lifestyle reflected especially in expensive but conservative clothes; il est très ~ = he's a real preppie type. BCG (abr de bacille Calmette-Guérin) nm BCG. bcp abr de beaucoup. bd abr de boulevard. BD, bédé [bede] (abr de bande dessinée) nf une ~ a comic strip; la ~ comic strips W>. béant, -e [beâ, ât] adj [plaie, gouffre] gaping; [yeux] wide open. béarnais, -e [beame, ez] adj of OU from the Béarn. ♦ Béarnais, -e nm, f native ou inhabitant of the Béarn. ♦ béarnaise nf: (sauce) ~e Béarnaise sauce.

béat, -e [bea, at] adj -1. [content de soi] smug. -2. [heureux] blissful. béatement [beatmâ] adv blissfully. béatitude [beatityd] nf -1. REUG beatitude. -2. [bonheur] bliss. beau, belle, beaux [bo, bel] adj (bel devant voyelle ou h muet) -1. [joli - femme] beautiful, good-lookinc; [- homme] handsome, goodlooking; [- chose] beautiful. -2. [temps] fine, good. -3. (toujours avant le nom) [important] fine, excellent; une belle somme a tidy sum (of money). -4. iron [mauvais]: une belle grippe a nasty dose of the flu; un ~ travail a fine piece of work. -5. (sens intensif): un ~ jour one fine day. -6. [noble] fine, noble. -7. loc: elle a ~ jeu de dire ça it's easy OU all very well for her to say that. ♦ beau O adv: il fait ~ the weather is good OU fine; j'ai ~ essayer ... however hard I try ..., try as I may ...; j'ai ~ dire ... whatever I say .... O nm: être au ~ fixe to be set fair; avoir le moral au ~ fixe fig to have a sunny disCosition; faire le ~ [chien] to sit up and ♦ belle nf-1. [femme] lady friend. -2. [dans un jeu] decider. -3. loc: (se) £aire la belle to escape. ♦ bel et bien loc adv well and truly, actually. ♦ de plus belle loc adv more than ever. beaucoup [boku] O adv -1. [un grand nombre]: ~ de a lot of, many; il y en a ~ there are many OU a lot (of them). -2. [une grande quantité]: ~ de a lot of; ~ d'énergie a lot of energy; il n'a pas ~ de temps he hasn't a lot of OU much time; il n'en a pas ~ he doesn't have much OU a lot (of it). -3. (modifiant un verbe) a lot; il boit ~ he drinks a lot; c'est ~ dire that's saying a lot. -4. (modifiant un adjectif comparatif) much, a lot; c'est ~ mieux it's much OU a lot better; ~ trop vite much too quickly. O pron inv many; nous sommes ~ à penser que ... many of us think that .... ♦ de beaucoup loc adv by far. beauf [bof] nm -1. péj stereotype of average Frenchman with narrow views. -2. fam [beaufrère] brother-in-law. beau-flls [bofis] (pi beaux-fils) nm -1. [gendre] son-in-law. -2. [de remariage] stepson. beau-frère [bofrer] [yl beaux-frères) nm brother-in-law.

53 bénédictin beau-père [boper] {pi beaux-pères) nm -1. [père du conjoint] father-in-law. -2. [de remariage] stepfather. beauté [bote] nf beauty; de toute ~ absolutely beautiful; en ~ [magnifiquement] in great style; sout [femme] ravishing. beaux-arts [bozar] nmpl fine art {sg). ♦ Beaux-Arts nmpl: les Beaux-Arts French national art school. beaux-parents [boparâ] nmpl -1. [de l'homme] husband's parents, in-laws. -2. [de la femme] wife's parents, in-laws. bébé [bebe] O nm baby; ~ phoque seal pup, baby seal. O adj inv babyish. bébé-éprouverte [bebeepruvet] {pi bébéséprouvette) nm test-tube baby. bébête [bebet] adj silly. bee [bek] nm -1. [d'oiseau] beak. -2. [d'instrument de musique] mouthpiece. -3. [de casserole etc] lip; ~ de gaz [réverbère] gaslamp {in street); ~ verseur spout. -4. fam [bouche] mouth; ouvrir le ~ to open one's mouth; clouer le ~ à qqn to shut sb up. bécane [bekan] nf fam -1. [moto, vélo] bike. -2. [ordinateur etc] machine. bécasse [bekas] nf -1. [oiseau] woodco*ck. -2. fam [femme sotte] silly goose. bécassine [bekasin] nf -\. [oiseau] snipe. -2. fam [jeune fille naïve] silly little goose. bec-de-lièvre [bekdaljevr] {pi becs-delièvre) nm harelip. béchamel [bejamel] nf. (sauce) ~ béchamel sauce. bêche [beJ] «/"spade. bêcher [beje] [4] vt to dig. bêcheur, -euse [bejeer, ez] nm, f fam stuck-up person. bécoter [bekote] [3] vt fam to smooch with OU snog Br. ♦ se bécoter vp to smooch, to snog Br. becquée [beke] nf. dormer la ~ à to feed. becqueter, béqueter [bekte] [27] vt to peck at. becter [bekte] [4] vi fam to eat. bedaine [baden] nf potbelly. bédé = BD. bedeau, -x [bsdo] nm verger. bedonnant, -e [badonâ, ât] adj potbellied. bédouin, -e [bedwê, in] adj Bedouin. ♦ Bédouin, -e nm, /"Bedouin. bée [be] adj: bouche ~ open-mouthed. bégaiement [begemô] nm stammering. bégayer [begeje] [11] o vi to have a stutter OU stammer, o vt to stammer (out). bégonia [begonja] nm begonia. bègue [beg] o adj: être ~ to have a stutter OU stammer, o nmf stutterer,

stammerer. bégueule [begœl] fam péj o adj prudish, o nf prude. béguin [begê] nm fam: avoir le ~ pour qqn to have a crush on sb; avoir le ~ pour qqch to be mad keen on sthg. beige [be3] adj 62 nm beige. beigne [beji] nf fam slap. beignet [bejie] nm fritter. bel [bel] —► beau. bêler [bêle] [4] vi to bleat. belette [balet] «/"weasel. belge [bel3] adj Belgian. ♦ Belge nmf Belgian. belgicisme [bel3isism] nm [mot] Belgian word; [tournure] Belgian expression. Belgique [bel3ik] nf la ~ Belgium. bélier [belje] nm -1. [animal] ram. -2. [poutre] battering ram. ♦ Bélier nm ASTROL Aries; être Bélier to be (an) Aries. Belize [beliz] nm: le ~ Belize; au ~ in Belize. belladone [beladon] «/"deadly nightshade. bellâtre [belatr] nm péj smoothie. belle [bel] adj & nf"—► beau. belle-famille [belfamij] {pi belles-familles) nf -1. [de l'homme] husband's family, inlaws {pt). -2. [de la femme] wife's family, in-laws {pt). belle-fille [belfij] {pi belles-filles) nf -1. [épouse du fils] daughter-in-law. -2. [de remariage] stepdaughter. belle-mère [belmer] (/?/belles-mères) nf-1. [mère du conjoint] mother-in-law. -2. [de remariage] stepmother. belles-lettres [belletr] nfpl (great) literature {V). belle-sœur [belsœr] {pi belles-sœurs) nf sister-in-law. belligérant, -e [be^erâ, ât] adj ai nm, f belligerent. belliqueux, -euse [beliko, oz] adj [peuple] warlike; [humeur, tempérament] aggressive. belote [babt] nf French card game. belvédère [belveder] nm -1. [construction] belvedere. -2. [terrasse] viewpoint. bémol [bémol] adj & nm MUS flat. bénédictin, -e [benediktê, in] O adj Benedictine. O nm, f Benedictine; travail de ~ fig painstaking task. ♦ Bénédictine nf [liqueur] Benedictine.

bénédiction 54 bénédiction [benediksj5] nf blessing; donner sa ~ à fig to give one's blessing to. bénéfice [benefis] nm -1. [avantage] advantage, benefit; au ~ de in aid of; accorder à qqn le ~ du doute to give sb the benefit of the doubt. -2. [profit] profit; ~ net/brut net/gross profit; intéressem*nt aux ~s profit-sharing; rapport cours— priceearnings ratio; ~s commerciaux trading profit (sg).^ bénéficiaire [benefisjer] O nmf [gén] beneficiary; [de chèque] payee, o adj [marge] profit {avant «); [résultat, société] profitmaking. bénéficier [benefisje] [9] vi: ~ de [profiter de] to benefit from; [jouir de] to have, to enjoy; [obtenir] to have, to get. bénéfique [benefik] adj beneficial. Bénélux [beneiyks] nm: le ~ Benelux; les pays du ~ the Benelux countries. benêt [bane] o nm clod. O adj (seulement masculin) silly, simple. bénévolat [benevola] nm voluntary work. bénévole [benevol] o adj voluntary. O nmf volunteer, voluntary worker. bénévolement [benevolmâ] adv voluntarily, for nothing. Bengale [bcgal] nm: le ~ Bengal; au ~ in Bengal. bénin, -igné [bene, ijn] adj -1. [maladie, accident] minor; [tumeur] benign. -2. sout [bienveillant] benign. Bénin [bene] nm: le ~ Benin; au ~ in Benin. béninois, -e [beninwa, waz] adj Beninese. ♦ Béninois, -e nm, /"Beninese (inv). bénir [bénir] [32] vt -1. [gén] to bless. -2. [se réjouir de] to thank God for. bénit, -e [beni, it] adj consecrated; eau ~e holy water. bénitier [benitje] nm holy water font. benjamin, -e [bë3amë, in] nm, f [de famille] youngest child; [de groupe] youngest member. benne [ben] nf -1. [de camion] tipper. -2. [de téléphérique] car. -3. [pour déchets] skip. benzine [bêzin] «/"benzine. béotien, -ienne [beosjê, jen] nm, f philistine. BEP, Bep {abr de brevet d'études professionnelles) nm school-leaver's diploma (taken at age 18). BEPC, Bepc {abr de brevet d'études du premier cycle) nm former school certificate (taken at age 16). béqueter = becqueter. béquille [bekij] «/"-l. [pour marcher] crutch.

-2. [d'un deux-roues] stand. berbère [berber] adj 61 nm Berber. ♦ Berbère nmf Berber. bercail [berkaj] nm fold; rentrer au ~ fig to return to the fold. berceau, -x [berso] nm cradle. bercer [berse] [16] vt -1. [bébé, bateau] to rock; son enfance a été bercée de cette musique he was brought up on this kind of music. -2. fig [tromper]: ~ qqn de to delude sb with. ♦ se bercer vp fig: se ~ de to delude o.s. with; se ~ d'illusions to delude o.s. berceuse [bersoz] nf -1. [chanson] lullaby. -2. Can [fauteuil] rocking chair. Bercy [bersi] n -1. [ministère] the French Ministry of Finance. -2. [stade] large sports and concert hall in Paris. BERD, Berd [berd] {abr de Banque européenne pour la reconstruction et le développement) «f EBRD. béret [bere] nm beret; ~ basque (French) beret. bergamote [bergamot] nf bergamot orange. berge [ber3] nf-1. [bord] bank. -2. fam [an]: il a plus de 50 —s he's over 50. berger, -ère [berçe, er] nm, f shepherd (f shepherdess). ♦ bergère nf [canapé] wing chair. ♦ berger allemand nm German shepherd, alsatian Br. bergerie [ber3ari] «f sheepfold. bergeronnette [be^sronet] «/"wagtail. Berlin [berlê] n Berlin; —Est East Berlin; —Ouest West Berlin; le mur de ~ the Berlin Wall. berline [berlin] nf sedan Am, saloon (car) Br. berlingot [berlêgo] nm -1. [de lait etc] carton. -2. [bonbon] boiled sweet. berlue [berly] nf. j'ai la ~! I must be seeing things! bermuda [bermyda] nm bermuda shorts HBermudes [bermyd] nfpl: les ~ Bermuda (sg); aux ~ in Bermuda; le triangle des ~ the Bermuda Triangle. bernard-1'ermite [bernarlermit] nm inv hermit crab. berne [bem] nf. en ~ — at half-mast. berner [berne] [3] vt to fool. berrichon, -onne [beriJ5, on] adj of OU from the Berry. besace [bazas] nf pouch.

55 bichonner besides [bezikl] nfpl hum specs. besogne [bszDji] nf job, work (U); aller vite en ~ fig to be a fast worker. besoin [bazwê] nm need; avoir ~ de qqch/ de faire qqch to need sthg/to do sthg; au ~ if necessary, if need OU needs be; être dans le ~ to be in need. ♦ besoins nmpl -1. [exigences] needs. -2. he: faire ses ~s to relieve O.S.; pour les ~s de la cause for our purposes. bestial, -e, -iaux [bestjal, jo] adj bestial, brutish. bestiole [bestjol] w/" (little) creature. best-seller [bestselœr] (pi best-sellers) nm best-seller. bétail [betaj] nm cattle (pt). bête [bet] o nf-1. [animal] animal; [insecte] insect; ~ à bon Dieu ladybug Am, ladybird Br, ~ féroce wild animal; ~ de somme beast of burden. -2. he: chercher la petite ~ to nit-pick; c'est sa ~ noire that's his/ her pet hate. O adj -1. [stupide] stupid. -2. [simple]: c'est tout ~ there's nothing to it. bêtement [betmâ] adv -1. [de façon bête] stupidly. -2. [simplement]: tout ~ just, quite simply. bêtifiant, -e [betifjâ, ât] adj idiotie. bêtise [betiz] nf-1. [stupidité] stupidity. -2. [action, remarque] stupid thing; faire/dire une ~ to do/say something stupid; faire des —s to be stupid OU silly. béton [bet5] nm -1. [matériau] concrete; ~ armé reinforced concrete. -2. fig: en ~ [argument] cast-iron. bétonner [betsne] [3] O w to concrete. O vi FOOTBALL to play defensively. bétonnière [betDnjer] nf cement mixer. bette [bet], blette [blet] «/"Swiss chard. betterave [betrav] nf beet Am, beetroot Br, ~ fourragère mangel-wurzel; ~ sucrière OU à sucre sugar beet. beuglement [boglsmâ] nm -1. [de bovin] mooing (U), lowing (U). -2. [de radio] blaring (U). beugler [bogie] [5] vi -1. [bovin] to moo, to low. -2. fam [personne] to bellow; [radio] to blare out. beur [beer] nmf person born in France of North African immigrant parents. beurre [beer] nm -1. [aliment] butter; ~ de cacahuètes peanut butter; ~ de cacao cocoa butter; ~ demi-sel slightly-salted butter; ~ noir brown butter sauce. -2. he: compter pour du ~ to count for nothing; faire son ~ to make one's pile; mettre du ~ dans les épinards to make life a little more comfortable.

beurré, -e [bcere] adj -1. [couvert de beurre] buttered. -2. fam [ivre] plastered. beurrer [bcere] [5] vt to butter. beurrier, -ière [bcerje, jer] adj [industrie] butter (avant n); [région] butter-producing. ♦ beurrier nm butter dish. beuverie [bcevri] nf drinking session. bévue [bevy] «/"blunder; faire OU commettre une ~ to slip up. Beyrouth [berut] « Beirut; —Est East Beirut; —Ouest West Beirut. BHV (ahr de Bazar de l'Hôtel de Ville) nm large department store in central Paris. biais [bje] nm -1. [ligne oblique] slant; en OU de ~ [de travers] at an angle; fig indirectly. -2. COUTURE bias; tailler un tissu dans le ~ to cut a piece of cloth on the bias. -3. [aspect] angle. -4. [moyen détourné] expedient; par le ~ de by means of. biaiser [bjeze] [4] vi fig to dodge the issue. bibelot [biblo] ««; trinket, curio. biberon [bibrô] nm baby's bottle; nourrir au ~ to bottle-feed. bible [bibl] «/"bible. bibliobus [biblijobys] nm mobile library. bibliographie [biblijDgrafi] «/"bibliography. bibliographique [biblijografik] adj bibliographical. bibliophile [biblijofil] ««//"book lover. bibliothécaire [biblijsteker] ««//"librarian. bibliothèque [biblijotek] nf -1. [meuble] bookcase. -2. [édifice, collection] library; ~ municipale public library; la Bibliothèque nationale the French national library. BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE: Situated in the rue de Richelieu in Paris, the Bibliothèque nationale or 'BN' is a large copyright deposit library comparable to the British Library and the Library of Congress biblique [biblik] adj biblical. Bic® [bik] nm ball-point pen. bicarbonate [bikarbsnat] nm: ~ (de soude) bicarbonate of soda. bicentenaire [bisâtner] O adj twohundred-year-old (avant n). O nm bicentennial Am, bicentenary Br. biceps [biseps] nm biceps. biche [bij] «/"zoOLhind, doe. bichonner [bi/sne] [3] vt [choyer] to cosset, to pamper.

bicolore 56 ♦ se bichonner vp to spruce o.s. up; [femme] to doll o.s. up. bicolore [bikobr] adj two-colored Am, two-coloured Br. bicoque [bikok] nf péj house. bicorne [bikorn] nm co*cked hat. bicyclette [bisiklet] «/"bicycle; rouler à ~ to cycle. bidasse [bidas] nm fam grunt Am, squaddie Br. bide [bid] nm fam -1. [ventre] belly. -2. [échec] flop. bidet [bide] nm -1. [sanitaire] bidet. -2. hum [cheval] nag. bidon [bid5] nm -1. [récipient] can. -2. fam [ventre] belly. -3. (en apposition inv) fam [faux] phony Am, phoney Br. -4. fam [simulation]: c'est du ~ it's (a load of) rubbish. bidonner [bidone] [3] ♦ se bidonner vp fam to laugh one's head off. bidonville [bidSvil] nm shantytown. bidoullleur [bidujcer] nm INFORM do-ityourselfer. bidule [bidyl] nm fam thing, thingamabob. bielle [bjel] «/"connecting rod. biélorusse [bjebrys] adj Belorussian, Byelorussian. ♦ Biélorusse nmf Belorussian, Byelorussian. Biélorussie [bjebrysi] nf. la ~ Belorussia, Byelorussia. bien [bjê] (compar 62 superl mieux) o adj inv -1. [satisfaisant] good; il est ~ comme prof he's a good teacher; il est ~, ce bureau this is a good office. -2. [en bonne santé] well; je ne me sens pas ~ I don't feel well. -3. [joli] good-looking; tu ne trouves pas qu'elle est ~ comme ça£ don't you think she looks good OU nice like that£ -4. [à l'aise] comfortable. -5. [convenable] respectable. O nm -1. [sens moral]: le ~ good; le ~ et le mal good and evil. -2. [intérêt] good; je te dis ça pour ton — I'm telling you this for your own good. -3. [richesse, propriété] property, possession; ~s de consommation consumer goods. -4. foc: faire du ~ à qqn to do sb good; dire du ~ de qqn/qqch to speak well of sb/sthg; mener à ~ to bring to fruition, to complete; en tout ~ tout honneur with the best of intentions. o adv -1. [de manière satisfaisante] well; on mange ~ id the food's good here; il ne s'est pas ~ conduit he didn't behave well; tu as ~ fait you did the right thing; tu ferais ~ d'y aller you would be wise to go; c'est ~ fait! it serves him/her etc right! -2.

[sens intensif] quite, really; ~ souvent quite often; j'espère ~ que ... I DO hope that ...; on a ~ ri we had a good laugh; il y a ~ trois heures que j'attends I've been waiting for at least three hours; c'est ~ aimable à vous it's very kind OU good of you. -3. [renforçant un comparatif]: il est parti ~ plus tard he left much later; on était ~ moins riches we were a lot worse off OU poorer. -4. [servant à conclure ou à introduire]: bien, c'est fini pour aujourd'hui well, that's it for today; ~, je t'écoute well, I'm listening; très ~, je vais avec toi all right then, I'll go with you. -5. [en effet]: c'est ~ lui it really IS him; c'est ~ ce que je disais that's just what I said. O interj: eh ~! oh well!; eh ~, qu'en penses-tuv well, what do you thinks ♦ biens nmpl property (U). ♦ bien de, bien des loc adj: ~ des gens sont venus quite a lot of people came; ~ des fois many times; il a ~ de la chance he's very OU really lucky; il a eu ~ de la peine à me convaincre he had quite a lot of trouble convincing me. ♦ bien entendu loc adv of course. ♦ bien que he eonj (+ subjonctif) although, though. ♦ bien sûr loc adv of course, certainly. bien-aimé, -e [bjêneme] (mpl bien-aimés, fpl bien-aimées) adj & nm, f beloved. bien-être [bjênetr] nm inv -1. [physique] wellbeing. -2. [matériel] wellbeing, comfort. bienfaisance [bjêfszâs] «/"charity. bienfaisant, -e [bjëfazô, ât] adj beneficial. bienfait [bjêfe] nm -1. [effet bénéfique] benefit. -2. [faveur] kindness. bienfaiteur, -trice [bjêfetœr, tris] nm, f benefactor. bien-fondé [bjêfSde] (pi bien-fondés) nm validity. bienheureux, -euse [bjênoro, oz] adj -1. RELIC blessed. -2. [heureux] happy. biennal, -e, -aux [bjenal, o] adj biennial. ♦ biennale «f biennial festival. bien-pensant, -e [bjêpâsâ, ât] (mpl bienpensants, fpl bien-pensantes) adj éj -1. [taudis] hovel. -2. [café] dive. bougeoir [bu3war] nm candlestick. bougeotte [bu3Dt] nf. avoir la ~ to have itchy feet. bouger [bu3e] [17] O vt [déplacer] to move. O vi -1. [remuer] to move; je ne bouge pas (de chez moi) aujourd'hui I'm staying at home today. -2. [vêtement] to shrink. -3. [changer] to change. -4. [s'agiter]: ça bouge partout dans le monde there is unrest all over the world. ♦ se bouger vp fam -1. [faire des efforts] to move o.s. -2. [se déplacer] to move (over). bougie [bu3i] nf -1. [chandelle] candle. -2. [de moteur] spark plug, sparking plug Br. bougon, -onne [bug5, sn] o adj grumpy. O nm, f grumbler. bougonner [bugone] [3] vt & vi to grumble. bougre, -esse [bugr, -es] nm, f fam [homme] guy, bloke Br; [femme] (old) girl.

♦ bougre nm fam: ~ d'andouille! you damned idiot!, you bloody fool! Br. boui-boui [bwibwi] {pi bouis-bouis) nm fam péj (cheap) caff. bouillabaisse [bujabcs] nf bouillabaisse {Provençal fish soup). bouillant, -e [bujâ, ât] adj -1. [qui bout] boiling. -2. [très chaud] boiling (hot). -3. fig [ardent] fiery. bouille [buj] nf fam [visage] face. bouilleur [bujœr] nm: ~ de cru small-scale distiller. bouillie [buji] «/"baby's cereal; réduire en ~ [légumes] to puree; [personne] to reduce to a pulp. bouillir [bujir] [48] vi -1. [aliments] to boil; faire ~ to boil. -2. fig [personne]: ~ (de) to seethe (with). bouilloire [bujwar] «/"kettle. bouillon [buj5] nm -1. [soupe] stock. -2. [bouillonnement] bubble; faire bouillir à gros —s to bring to a rolling boil. -3. [bactériologique]: ~ de culture culture medium. bouillonner [bujsne] [3] vi -1. [liquide] to bubble. -2. [torrent] to foam. -3. fig [personne] to seethe. bouillotte [bujDt] «/"hot-water bottle. boul. abr de boulevard. boulanger, -ère [bulâ3e, er] O adj bakery {avant «), baking {avant «). C> nm, /"baker. boulangerie [bulâ3ri] nf -1. [magasin] baker's (shop). -2. [commerce] bakery trade. boulangerie-pâtisserie [bulâ3ripatisri] {pi boulangeries-pâtisseries) nf — baker's (shop). boule [bul] nf -\. [gén] ball; [- de loto] counter; [- de pétanque] bowl; ~ de commande INFORM trackball; ~ de neige snowball; faire ~ de neige to snowball. -2. loc: se mettre en ~ fam to blow one's top; perdre la ~ fam to lose one's marbles. ♦ boules Quiès® nfpl earplugs made of wax. bouleau [bulo] nm silver birch. bouledogue [buldDg] nm bulldog. boulet [bule] nm -1. [munition]: ~ de canon cannonbaU; tirer à —s rouges sur qqn fig to let fly at sb. -2. [de forçat] ball and chain. -3. fig [fardeau] millstone (round one's neck). boulette [bulet] nf -1. [petite boule] pellet. -2. [de viande] meatball. boulevard [bulvar] nm -1. [rue] boulevard; les grands ~s Paris boulevards running from the Place de la République to la Madeleine. -2. THÉÂTRE light comedy {U).

bouleversant 64 bouleversant, -e [bulversâ, ât] adj distressing. bouleversem*nt [bulversamâ] nm disruption. bouleverser [bulverse] [3] vt -1. [objets] to turn upside down. -2. [modifier] to disrupt. -3. [émouvoir] to distress. boulier [bulje] nm abacus. boulimie [bulimi] «/"bulimia. bouliste [bulist] nmf bowls player. Boulle [bul] «: l'école ~ prestigious school training cabinetmakers. boulon [bul5] nm bolt. boulonner [bubne] [3] O vt to bolt. O vi fam to slog (away). boulot1, -otte [bulo, Dt] adj dumpy. boulot2 [bulo] nm fam -1. [travail] work. -2. [emploi] job. bourn [bum] O interj bang! O nm -1. [bruit] bang; faire ~ to go bang. -2. ÉCON & fig boom. O nffam vieilli party. bouquet [buke] nm -1. [de fleurs - gén] bunch (of flowers); [- formel] bouquet. -2. [crevette] prawn. -3. [de vin] bouquet. -4. [de feu d'artince] crowning piece. -5. CULIN: ~ garni bouquet garni. -6. loc: ça c'est le ~! fam that takes the cake OU biscuit Br\ bouquetin [buktê] nm ibex. bouquin [bukc] nm fam book. bouquiner [bukine] [3] vi & vt fam to read. bouquiniste [bukinist] nmf secondhand bookseller. bourbeux, -euse [burbo, ai] adj muddy. bourbier [burbje] nm [lieu] quagmire, mire; fig mess. bourbon [burb5] nm [whisky] bourbon. bourde [burd] nf-1. [baliverne] rubbish (U). -2. fam [erreur] blunder. bourdon [burd5] nm -1. [insecte] bumblebee. -2. [cloche] (large) bell. -3. [ton grave] drone. -4. loc: avoir le ~ fam to be (feeling) down. bourdonnement [burdonmâ] nm -1. [d'insecte, de voix, de moteur] buzz (U). -2. loc: avoir des ~s d'oreilles to have a ringing in one's ears. bourdonner [burdone] [3] vi -1. [insecte, machine, voix] to buzz. -2. [oreille] to ring. bourg [bur] nm market town. bourgade [burgad] «f village. bourgeois, -e [bur3wa, az] o adj -1. [valeur] middle-class. -2. [cuisine] plain. -3. péj [personne] bourgeois. O nm, f bourgeois. bourgeoisie [bur3wazi] nf middle classes bourgeon [burçS] nm bud. bourgeonner [burçone] [3] vi to bud. bourgmestre [burgmestr] nm burgomaster.

bourgogne [burgsji] nm Burgundy (wine). Bourgogne [burgDji] nf: la ~ Burgundy. bourguignon, -onne [burgiji5, on] adj [de Bourgogne] Burgundian. ♦ Bourguignon, -onne nm, /"Burgundian. bourlinguer [burlêge] [3] vi fam [voyager] to bum around the world. bourrade [burad] «/"thump. bourrage [bura3] nm [de coussin] stuffing. ♦ bourrage de crâne nm -1. [bachotage] swotting. -2. [propagande] brainwashing. bourrasque [burask] nf gust of wind. bourratif, -ive [buratif, iv] adj stodgy. bourre [bur] nf-1. [de coussin] stuffing. -2. [de laine] flock. -3. [de bourgeon] down. -4. loc: être à la ~ fam [dans travail] to be behind; [dans activité] to be running late. bourré, -e [bure] adj fam -1. [plein]: ~ (de) [salle] packed (with); fig chock-full (of). -2. [ivre] plastered. bourreau, -x [buro] nm -1. HIST executioner. -2. [personne cruelle] torturer; ~ de travail workaholic. bourrelé [burie] —» remords. bourrelet [burle] nm -1. [de graisse] roll of fat. -2. [de porte] draft Am OU draught Br excluder. bourrer [bure] [3] vt -1. [remplir - coussin] to stuff; [- pipe] to fill; [- sac, armoire]: ~ qqch (de) to cram sthg full (with). -2. fam [gaver]: ~ qqn (de) to stuff sb (with). -3. fam [estomac]: ça bourre! it's really filling! ♦ se bourrer vp fam -1. [se gaver]: se ~ (de qqch) to stuff o.s. (with sthg). -2. [se soûler] : se ~ la gueule to get plastered. bourricot [buriko] nm (small) donkey. bourrique [burik] nf-1. [ânesse] she-ass; faire tourner qqn en ~ fam to drive sb up the wall. -2. fam [personne] pigheaded person. bourru, -e [bury] adj [peu aimable] surly. bourse [burs] nf -1. [porte-monnaie] purse; sans ~ délier without spending anything. -2. [d'études] grant. ♦ Bourse nf-1. [lieu] = Wall Street Am, — Stock Exchange Br. -2. [opérations]: Bourse des valeurs stock market, stock exchange; Bourse de commerce commodity market. boursicoter [bursikote] [3] vi to dabble on the stock market. boursier, -ière [bursje, jcr] O adj -1. [élève] on a grant. -2. FIN stock-market (avant n).

65 braise O nm, f -1. [étudiant] student on a grant. -2. FIN stockbroker. boursouflé, -e [bursufle] adj -1. [enflé] swollen. -2. [emphatique] overblown. boursoufler [bursufle] [3] vt to puff up, to swell. ♦ se boursoufler vp [peinture] to blister. bous, bout etc —> bouillir. bousculade [buskylad] nf -\. [cohue] crush. -2. [agitation] rush. bousculer [buskyle] [3] vt -1. [pousser] to shove. -2. [faire tomber] to knock over. -3. [presser] to rush. -4. [modifier] to overturn. ♦ se bousculer vp to jostle each other. bouse [buz] nf: ~ de vache cow dung. bousiller [buzije] [3] vt fam -1. [abîmer] to ruin, to knacker Br. -2. [bâcler] to botch. boussole [bussl] «/"compass. bout [bu] nm -1. [extrémité, fin] end; ~ à ~ end to end; au ~ de [temps] after; [espace] at the end of; d'un ~ à l'autre [de ville etc] from one end to the other; [de livre] from beginning to end; ~ filtre filter tip. -2. [morceau] bit. -3. loc. au ~ du compte all things considered; à tout ~ de champ every five minutes; être à ~ to be exhausted; il n'est pas au ~ de ses peines his troubles are not over yet; à ~ de souffle out of breath, breathless; être à ~ de forces to have no strength left; mener qqn par le ~ du nez to lead sb by the nose; à ~ portant at point-blank range; pousser qqn à ~ to drive sb to distraction; être au ~ du rouleau to have come to the end of the road; venir à ~ de [personne] to get the better of; [difficulté] to overcome. boutade [butad] «/"[plaisanterie] jest. boute-en-train [butâtrê] nm inv live wire; il était le ~ de la soirée he was the life and soul of the party. bouteille [butej] «/"bottle; mettre en ~ OU ~s to bottle; prendre de la ~ fam fig to be getting on a bit. boutique [butik] nf [gén] shop; [de mode] boutique; ~ hors-taxe duty-free shop; fermer ~ to shut up shop; parler ~ to talk shop. bouton [but5] nm -1. COUTURE button; ~ de manchette cuff link. -2. [sur la peau] spot. -3. [de porte] knob. -4. [commutateur] switch. -5. [bourgeon] bud. bouton-d'or [but5dor] {pi boutons-d'or) nm buttercup. boutonner [butone] [3] vt to button (up). ♦ se boutonner vp [vêtement] to button. boutonneux, -euse [butsno, oz] adj spotty-

boutonnière [butonjer] nf [de vêtement] buttonhole. bouton-pression [but5presj5] {pi boutonspression) nm snap fastener Am, press-stud Br. bouture [butyr] «/"cutting. bouvier [buvje] nm -1. [personne] herdsman. -2. [chien] sheepdog. bouvreuil [buvrcej] nm bullfinch. bovidé [bDvide] nm bovine. bovin, -e [bovê, in] adj bovine. ♦ bovins nmpl cattle (U). bowling [bulirj] nm -1. [jeu] bowling. -2. [lieu] bowling alley. box [boks] {pi boxes) nm -1. [d'écurie] loose box. -2. [compartiment] cubicle; le ~ des accusés the dock. -3. [parking] lock-up garage. boxe [boks] «/"boxing. boxer1 [bskse] [3] o vi to box. o vt fam to thump. boxer2 [bakser] nm [chien] boxer. boxeur [bokscer] nm SPORT boxer. boyau [bwajo] nm -1. [chambre à air] inner tube. -2. [corde] catgut. -3. [galerie] narrow gallery. ♦ boyaux nmpl [intestins] guts. boycott [bojkDt] nm boycott. boycotter [bsjkDte] [3] vt to boycott. boy-scout [bDjskut] {pi boy-scouts) nm vieilli boy scout. BP {ahr de boîte postale) «f P.O. Box. BPF {ahr de bon pour francs) printed on cheques hefore space where amount is to he inserted. bracelet [brasle] nm -1. [bijou] bracelet. -2. [de montre] strap. bracelet-montre [braslemStr] {pi braceletsmontres) nm wristwatch. braconnage [brakona3] nm poaching. braconner [brakone] [3] vi to go poaching, to poach. braconnier [brakanje] nm poacher. brader [brade] [3] vt [solder] to sell off; [vendre à bas prix] to sell for next to nothing. braderie [bradri] «f clearance sale. braguette [braget] «/"flies {pt). braille [braj] nm Braille. brailler [braje] [3] C> vi to bawl. C> vt to bawl (out). braire [brer] [112] vi -1. [âne] to bray. -2. fam [personne] to bellow. braise [brez] «/"embers {pt); cuire sous la ~

braiser 66 to cook in the embers of a fire; de ~ fig fiery. braiser [breze] [4] vt to braise. bramer [brame] [3] vi [cerf] to bell. brancard [brâkar] nm -1. [civière] stretcher. -2. [de charrette] shaft; ruer dans les ~s fig to rebel, to protest. brancardier, -ière [brâkardje, jer] nm, f stretcher-bearer. branchage [brâja3] nm branches {pi). branche [brâj] nf-1. [gén] branch. -2. [de lunettes] arm. -3. [de compas] leg. branché, -e [brâje] adj -1. ÉLECTR plugged in, connected. -2. fam [a la mode] trendy. branchement [brâjmâ] nm -1. [raccordement] connection, plugging in. -2. [bifurcation] branch. brancher [brâje] [3] vt -1. [raccorder & INFORM] to connect; ~ qqch sur ÉLECTR to plug sthg into. -2. fam [orienter] to steer; ~ qqn sur qqch to start sb off on sthg; ~ la conversation sur to steer the conversation toward Am OU towards Br. -3. fam [plaire] to appeal to. branchies [brâji] nfpl [de poisson] gills. brandade [brâdad] nf. ~ de morue creamed salt cod. brandir [brâdir] [32] vt to wave. branlant, -e [brâlâ, ât] adj [escalier, mur] shaky; [meuble, dent] wobbly. branle [brâl] nm: mettre en ~ to set in motion. branle-bas [brâlba] nm inv pandemonium {U); ~ de combat action stations {yt). branler [brâle] [3] o vt -1. [hocher]: ~ la tête to shake one's head. -2. tfam [faire]: qu'est-ce qu'il branlet what is he playing at£ o vi [escalier, chaise] to be shaky; [dent, meuble] to be wobbly. ♦ se branler vp vulg to jerk off, to wank Br. braquage [braka3] nm -1. AUTOM lock. -2. [attaque] holdup. braquer [brake] [3] O vt -1. [diriger]: ~ qqch sur [arme] to aim sthg at; [télescope] to train sthg on; [regard] to fix sthg on. -2. [contrarier] to antagonize. -3. fam [attaquer] to hold up. O vi to turn (the wheel). ♦ se braquer vp [personne] to take a stand. bras [bra] nm -1. [gén] arm; ~ dessus ~ dessous arm in arm; le ~ en écharpe with one's arm in a sling; ~ droit right-hand man OU woman; ~ de fer [jeu] arm wrestling; fig trial of strength; baisser les ~ to throw in the towel; en ~ de chemise in one's shirtsleeves; se croiser les — just to

sit there; avoir le ~ long [avoir de l'influence] to have pull. -2. [main-d'œuvre] hand, worker. -3. [de cours d'eau] branch; ~ de mer arm of the sea. brasier [brazje] nm [incendie] blaze, inferno. Brasilia [brazilja] n Brasilia. bras-le-corps [bralkor] ♦ à bras-le-corps toc adv bodily. brassage [brasa3] nm -1. [de bière] brewing. -2. fig [mélange] mixing. brassard [brasar] nm armband. brasse [bras] nf [nage] breaststroke; ~ coulee breaststroke; ~ papillon butterfly (stroke). brassée [brase] «/"armful. brasser [brase] [3] vt -1. [bière] to brew. -2. [mélanger] to mix. -3. fig [manier] to handle. brasserie [brasri] nf-1. [usine] brewery. -2. [industrie] brewing (industry). -3. [caférestaurant] brasserie. brasseur, -euse [brascer, oz] nm, /"-l. [de bière] brewer. -2, fig: ~ d'affaires wheelerdealer. -3. [nageur] breaststroke swimmer. brassière [brasjer] nf -1. [de bébé] (baby's) undershirt Am OU vest Br. -2. [gilet de sauvetage] life jacket. -3. Can [soutien-gorge] bra. bravade [bravad] nf bravado; par ~ out of bravado. brave [brav] O adj -1. {après n) [courageux] brave. -2. {avant n) [honnête] decent. -3. [naïf, gentil] nice. O nmf: mon ~ my good man. bravement [bravmâ] adv -1. [courageusem*nt] bravely. -2. [résolument] determinediy braver [brave] [3] vt -1. [parents, règlement] to defy. -2. [mépriser] to brave. bravo [bravo] interj bravo! ♦ bravos nmpl cheers. bravoure [bravur] nf bravery. BRB {abr de Brigade de répression du banditisme) nf French serious crime squad. break [brek] nm -1. [voiture] station wagon Am, estate (car) Br. -2. [jazz] break. -3. [pause] break. brebis [brabi] nf ewe; ~ galeuse black sheep. brèche [brej] nf -1. [de mur] gap. -2. MIL breach. -3. toc: battre qqn en ~ [attaquer] to knock sb down; battre qqch en ~ fig to demolish sthg; être sur la ~ to be hard at work. bredouille [braduj] adj: être/rentrer ~ to be/to return empty-handed.

67 brioché bredouillement [bradujmâ] nm stammering. bredouiller [brsduje] [3] o vi to stammer. O vt to stammer (out). bref, brève [bref, brev] adj -1. [gén] short, brief; soyez ~! make it brief! -2. LING short. ♦ bref adv in short, in a word; en ~ briefly. ♦ brève nf PRESSE brief news item. brelan [bralâ] nm: un ~ three of a kind; un ~ de valets three jacks. breloque [brabk] «/"charm. brème [brem] «/"[poisson] bream. Brésil [brezil] nm: le ~ Brazil; au ~ in Brazil. brésilien, -ienne [breziljë, jen] adj Brazilian. ♦ Brésilien, -ienne nm, /"Brazilian. Bretagne [brataji] nf: la ~ Brittany. bretelle [bratel] nf -1. [d'autoroute] access road, slip road Br. -2. [de fusil] sling. -3. [de pantalon]: —s suspenders Am, braces Br. -4. [de bustier] strap. breton, -onne [brat5, on] adj Breton. ♦ breton nm [langue] Breton. ♦ Breton, -onne nm, /"Breton. breuvage [brœva3] nm [boisson] beverage. brève —> bref. brevet [brave] nm -1. [certificat] certificate; ~ de secouriste first-aid certificate. -2. [di plôme] diploma. -3. [d'invention] patent; déposer un ~ to file a patent. -4. fig [assurance] guarantee. breveter [bravte] [27] vt to patent; faire ~ qqch to take out a patent on sthg, to patent sthg. bréviaire [brevjcr] nm breviary. bribe [brib] nf [fragment] scrap, bit; fig snippet; ~s de conversation snatches of conversation. brie [brik] ♦ de bric et de broc loc adv any old how. bric-à-brac [brikabrak] nm inv bric-a-brac. bricolage [brikDla3] nm -1. [travaux] do-ityourself7 DIY. -2. [réparation provisoire] patching up. bricole [brikal] nf -1. [babiole] trinket. -2. [chose insignifiante] trivial matter. bricoler [brikole] [3] o vi to do odd jobs (around the house), o w -1. [réparer] to fix, to mend. -2. [fabriquer] to make, to knock up Br. bricoleur, -euse [brikoloer, oz] o adj handy (about the house), o nm, f home handyman (f handywoman). bride [brid] nf -1. [de cheval] bridle; à ~

abattue at full tilt; lâcher la ~ à qqn to give sb his/her head. -2. [de chapeau] string. -3. couture bride, bar. -4. technol flange. bridé [bride] —> ceil. brider [bride] [3] vt [cheval] to bridle; fig to rein (in). bridge [brid3] nm bridge. brie [bri] nm [fromage] Brie. briefer [brife] [3] vt to brief. briefing [brifirj] nm briefing. brièvement [brijevmâ] adv briefly. brièveté [brijevte] «f brevity, briefness. brigade [brigad] nf-1. [d'ouvriers, de soldats] brigade. -2. [détachement] squad; ~ antigang police squad concerned with combating terrorism and organized crime; ~ des mœurs/des stups vice/drugs squad; ~ volante flying squad. brigadier [brigadje] nm -1. MIL corporal. -2. [de police] sergeant. brigand [brigâ] nm -1. [bandit] bandit. -2. [homme malhonnête] crook. brigandage [brigâda3] nm -1. [vol à main armée] armed robbery. -2. [action malhonnête] robbery. briguer [brige] [3] vt sout to aspire to; ~ un second mandat to seek re-election. brillamment [brijamâ] adv [gén] brilliantly; [réussir un examen] with flying colours. brillant, -e [brijà, ât] adj -1. [qui brille - gén] sparkling; [- cheveux] glossy; [- yeux] bright. -2. [remarquable] brilliant. ♦ brillant nm -1. [diamant] brilliant. -2. [éclat] shine. brillantine [brijâtin] «/"brilliantine. briller [brije] [3] vi to shine. brimade [brimad] nf -1. [vexation] harassment (U). -2. [de bizutage] bullying (U). brimer [brime] [3] vt to victimize, to bully. brin [brê] nm -1. [tige] twig; ~ d'herbe blade of grass; un beau ~ de fille a fine figure of a girl. -2. [fil] strand. -3. [petite quantité]: un ~ (de) a bit (of); faire un ~ de toilette to have a quick wash. brindille [brêdij] «/"twig. bringue [brêg] nf fam binge; faire la ~ to go on a binge. bringuebaler, brinquebaler [brêgbale] [3] vi [voiture] to jolt along. brio [brijo] «m -1. MUS brio. -2. [talent]: avec ~ brilliantly. brioche [brijDj] nf -1. [pâtisserie] brioche. -2. fam [ventre] paunch. brioché, -e [brijDje] adj [pain] brioche-style.

brique 68 brique [brik] o ttf-1. [pierre] brick. -2. [emballage] carton. -3. fam [argent] 10,000 francs. O adj inv brick red. briquer [brike] [3] vt to scrub. briquet [brike] nm (cigarette) lighter. briqueterie [briketri] «/"brickworks (sg). bris [bri] nm [destruction] breaking; ~ de glace broken windows. brisant [brizâ] nm [écueil] reef. ♦ brisants nmpl [récif] breakers. brise [briz] «/"breeze. brisé, -e [brize] adj fig broken; ~ de chagrin overwhelmed by sorrow; — de fatigue exhausted. brise-glace (s) [brizglas] nm inv [navire] icebreaker. brise-jet [briz3e] nm inv nozzle (for tap). brise-lames [brizlam] nm inv breakwater. brise-mottes [brizmDt] nm inv harrow. briser [brize] [3] vt -1. [gén] to break. -2. fie [carrière] to ruin; [conversation] to break off; [espérances] to shatter. ♦ se briser vp> -1. [gén] to break. -2. fig [espoir] to be dashed; [efforts] to be thwarted. briseur, -euse [brizoer, 0z] nm, f: ~ de grève strike-breaker. bristol [bristol] nm -1. [papier] Bristol board. -2. vieilli [carte de visite] visiting card. britannique [britanik] adj British. ♦ Britannique nmf British person, Briton; les Britanniques the British. broc [bro] nm jug. brocante [brokât] nf-1. [commerce] secondhand trade. -2. [objets] secondhand goods brocanteur, -euse [brskatoer, oz] nm, f dealer in secondhand goods. brocart [brokar] nm brocade. broche [broj] nf-1. [bijou] brooch. -2. CULIN spit; cuire à la — to spit-roast. -3. ÉLECTR & MÉD pin. -4. [de métier à filer] spindle. broché, -e [broje] adj -1. [tissu] brocade (avant «), brocaded. -2. livre ~ paperback (book). brochet [broJe] nm pike. brochette [broJet] nf-1. [ustensile] skewer. -2. [plat] kebab. -3. fam fig [groupe] string, row. brochure [brajyr] nf-1. [imprimé] brochure, booklet. -2. [de livre] binding. -3. [de tissu] brocaded pattern. brocoli [brokoli] nm broccoli (U). brodequin [brodkë] nm boot. broder [brode] [3] vt & vi to embroider. broderie [brodri] nf-1. [art] embroidery. -2. [ouvrage] (piece of) embroidery.

broie, broies etc —> broyer. bromure [bromyr] nm bromide. bronche [br5J] nf bronchus; j'ai des problèmes de —s I've got chest problems. broncher [br5Je] [3] vi to stumble; sans ~ without complaining, uncomplainingly. bronchite [br5Jit] «/"bronchitis (V). bronzage [br5za3] nm -1. [de peau] tan, suntan. -2. [de métal] bronzing. bronzant, -e [br5zâ, ât] adj suntan (avant «). bronze [br5z] nm bronze. bronzé, -e [br5ze] adj tanned, suntanned. bronzer [br5ze] [3] vi [peau] to tan; [personne] to get a tan. brosse [bros] nf brush; ~ à cheveux hairbrush; ~ à dents toothbrush; ~ à habits clothes brush; avoir les cheveux en ~ to have a crew cut. brosser [brose] [3] vt -1. [habits, cheveux] to brush. -2. [paysage, portrait] to paint. ♦ se brosser vp> to brush one's clothes, to brush o.s. down; se ~ les cheveux/les dents to brush one's hair/teeth. brou [bru] ♦ brou de noix nm -1. [liqueur] walnut liqueur. -2. [teinture] walnut stain. brouet [brue] nm gruel. brouette [bruet] «/"wheelbarrow. brouhaha [bruaa] nm hubbub. brouillard [brujar] nm [léger] mist; [dense] fog; ~ givrant freezing fog; être dans le ~ fig to be lost. brouille [bruj] «/"quarrel. brouillé, -e [bruje] adj -1. [fâché]: être ~ avec qqn to be on bad terms with sb; être ~ avec qqch fig to be hopeless OU useless at sthg. -2. [teint] muddy. -3. —> œuf. brouiller [bruje] [3] vt -1. [désunir] to set at odds, to put on bad terms. -2. [vue] to blur. -3. RADIO to cause interference to; [- délibérément] to jam. -4. [rendre confus] to muddle (up). ♦ se brouiller vp> -1. [se fâcher] to fall out; se ~ avec qqn (pour qqch) to fall out with sb (over sthg). -2. [se troubler] to become blurred. -3. [devenir confus] to get muddled (up), to become confused. -4. METEOR to cloud over. brouilleur [brujoer] nm INFORM scrambler. brouillon, -onne [bruj5, on] adj careless, untidy. ♦ brouillon nm rough copy, draft.

69 BTS broussaille [brusaj] nf: les —s the underfrowth; en ~ fig [cheveux] untidy; [sourcils] ushy. broussailleux, -euse [brusajo, oz] adj -1. [région] scrubby. -2. [sourcils] bushy. brousse [brus] «/"GÉOGR scrubland, bush. brouter [brute] [3] o vt to graze on. o vi -1. [animal] to graze. -2. TECHNOLto judder. broutille [brutij] «/"trifle. broyer [brwaje] [13] vt to grind, to crush. broyeur [brwajœr] nm: évier à — sink with waste disposal unit. bru [bry] nfsout daughter-in-law. brucelles [brysel] nfpl -1. [pince] (pair of) tweezers. -2. Heh [pince à épiler] (pair of) eyebrow tweezers. brugnon [bryjiS] nm nectarine. bruine [brqin] «/"drizzle. bruire [brqir] [105] vi [feuilles, étoffe] to rusde; [eau] to murmur. bruissem*nt [brqismâ] nm [de feuilles, d'étoffe] rusde, rustling (U); [d'eau] murmur, murmuring (U). bruit [brqi] nm -1. [son] noise, sound; ~ de fond background noise. -2. [vacarme & TECHNOL] noise; faire du ~ to make a noise; sans ~ silently, noiselessly. -3. [rumeur] rumor Am, rumour Br. -4. [retentissem*nt] fuss; faire du — to cause a stir. bruitage [brqita3] nm sound-effects (pt). brûlant, -e [brylâ, ât] adj -1. [gén] burning (hot); [liquide] boiling (hot); [plat] piping hot. -2. fig [amour, question] burning. brûle-pourpoint [brylpurpwë] ♦ à brûle-pourpoint loc adv point-blank, straight out. brûler [bryle] [3] O vt -1. [gén] to burn; [suj: eau bouillante] to scald; la fumée me brûle les yeux the smoke is making my eyes sting. -2. [café] to roast. -3. [feu rouge] to drive through; [étape] to miss out, to skip. O vi -1. [gén] to burn; [maison, forêt] to be on fire. -2. [être brûlant] to be burning (hot); ~ de fig to be consumed with; ~ de faire qqch to be longing OU dying to do sthg; ~ de fièvre to be running a high temperature. ♦ se brûler vp to burn o.s. brûlis [bryli] nm burn-off. brûlure [brylyr] nf -1. [lésion] burn; ~ au premier/troisième degré first-degree/thirddegree burn. -2. [sensation] burning (sensation); avoir des ~s d'estomac to have heartburn. brume [brym] «/"mist. brumeux, -euse [brymo, az] adj misty; fig hazy.

brun, -e [broe, bryn] o adj brown; [cheveux] dark, o nm, /"dark-haired man (/woman). ♦ brun nm [couleur] brown. ♦ brune nf -1. [cigarette] cigarette made of dark tobacco. -2. [bière] brown ale. brunâtre [brynatr] adj brownish. brunir [brynir] [32] o vt -1. [peau] to tan. -2. [métal] to polish, to burnish. O vi [personne] to get a tan; [peau] to tan. brushing [braeJin] nm: faire un ~ à qqn to give sb a blow-dry, to blow-dry sb's hair. brusque [brysk] adj abrupt. brusquement [bryskamâ] adv abruptly. brusquer [bryske] [3] vt to rush; [élève] to push. brusquerie [bryskari] «/"abruptness. brut, -e [bryt] adj -1. [pierre précieuse, bois] rough; [sucre] unrefined; [métal, soie] raw; [champagne] extra dry; (pétrole) ~ crude (oil). -2. fig [fait, idées] crude, raw. -3. ÉCON gross. ♦ brute «/"brute. brutal, -e, -aux [brytal, o] adj -1. [violent] violent, brutal; être ~ avec qqn to be brutal to sb. -2. [soudain] sudden. -3. [manière] blunt. brutalement [brytalmâ] adv -1. [violemment] brutally. -2. [soudainement] suddenly. -3. [sèchement] bluntly. brutaliser [brytalize] [3] vt to mistreat. brutalité [brytalite] nf -1. [violence] violence, brutality. -2. [caractère soudain] suddenness. ♦ brutalités nfpl brutality (V). Bruxelles [bry(k)sel] « Brussels. bruxellois, -e [bryselwa, az] adj of7from Brussels. ♦ Bruxellois, -e nm, f native OU inhabitant of Brussels. bruyamment [brqijamâ] adv noisily. bruyant, -e [brqijâ, ât] adj noisy. bruyère [brqjer] «/"-l. [plante] heather. -2. [lande] heathland. BT o nm (abr de brevet de technicien) vocational training certificate (taken at age 18). O nf (abr de basse tension) LT. BTA (abr de brevet de technicien agricole) nm agricultural training certificate (taken at age 18). BTP (abr de bâtiments et travaux publics) nmpl building and public works sector. BTS (abr de brevet de technicien supérieur) nm advanced vocational training certificate (taken at the end of a 2-year higher education course).

bu 70 bu, -e [by] /?/? —» boire. BU (tf/?r de bibliothèque universitaire) nf university library. buanderie [byâdri] «/"laundry. buccal, -e, -aux [bykal, o] adj buccal; par voie ~e orally. bûche [by/] nf -1. [bois] log; ~ de Noël Yule log; prendre OU ramasser une ~ fam to fall flat on one's face. -2. fam [personne] lump. bûcher1 [by/e] nm -1. [supplice]: le ~ the stake. -2. [funéraire] pyre. bûcher2 [byje] [3] c> v/' to swot, o vt to swot up. bûcheron, -onne [byjrô, on] nm, f forestry worker. bûcheur, -euse [by/oer, oz] o **// hardworking. O nm, f fam swot. bucolique [bykolik] adj pastoral. budget [byd3e] nm budget. budgétaire [byd3et£r] adj budgetary; année ~ fiscal Am OU financial Br year. budgétiser [byd3etize] [3] vt to budget for. buée [bqe] nf [sur vitre] condensation. buffet [byfe] nm -1. [meuble] sideboard. -2. [repas] buffet. -3. [café-restaurant]: ~ de gare station buffet. buis [bqi] nm box(wood). buisson [bqis5] nm bush. buissonnière [bqisonjer] —► école. bulbe [bylb] nm bulb. bulgare [bylgar] adj Bulgarian. ♦ bulgare nm [langue] Bulgarian. ♦ Bulgare nmf Bulgarian. Bulgarie [bylgari] nf la ~ Bulgaria. bulldozer [byldozer] nm bulldozer. bulle [byl] nf -1. [gén] bubble; ~ de savon soap bubble. -2. [de bande dessinée] speech balloon. -3. RELIC (papal) bull. bulletin [byltê] nm -1. [communiqué] bulletin, ~ (de la) météo weather forecast; ~ de santé medical bulletin. -2. [imprimé] form; ~ de vote ballot paper. -3. SCOL report. -4. [certificat] certificate; ~ de consigne luggage room OU checkroom ticket Am, left luggage ticket Br, ~ de salaire OU de paye pay slip. bulletin-réponse [byltêrep5s] {pi bulletinsréponse) nm reply form. bungalow [bœgalo] nm [maison] bungalow; [de vacances] chalet. bunker [bunkœr] nm bunker. buraliste [byralist] nmf -1. [d'un bureau de tabac] tobacconist. -2. [préposé] clerk. bure [byr] nf-1. [étoffe] coarse brown woollen cloth. -2. [de moine] frock. bureau [byro] nm -1. [gén] office; ~ d'aide

sociale social security office; ~ de change bureau de change; ~ d'études design office; ~ de poste post office; ~ de tabac tobacconist's; ~ de vote polling station. -2. [meuble] desk. -3. [comité] committee. bureaucrate [byrokrat] nmf bureaucrat. bureaucratie [byrokrasi] «/"bureaucracy. bureaucratique [byrokratik] adj péj bureaucratie. bureautique [byrotik] «/"office automation. burette [byret] nf-1. [flacon] cruet. -2. [de chimiste] burette. -3. [de mécanicien] oilcan. burin [byrê] nm -1. [outil] chisel. -2. [gravure] engraving. buriné, -e [byrine] adj engraved; [visage, traits] lined. Burkina [byrkina] nm: le ~ Burkina Faso; au ~ in Burkina Faso. burkinabé [byrkinabe] adj from Burkina Faso. ♦ Burkinabé nmf native OU inhabitant of Burkina Faso. burlesque [byrlesk] O adj -1. [comique] funny. -2. [ridicule] ludicrous, absurd. -3. THÉÂTRE burlesque. O nm: le ~ the burlesque. burnous [bymu] nm -1. [manteau] burnous. -2. [de bébé] hooded cape. burundais, -e [burunde, ez] adj Burundian. ♦ Burundais, -e nm, f Burundian. Burundi [burundi] nm: le ~ Burundi; au ~ in Burundi. bus [bys] nm bus. buse [byz] nf -1. [oiseau] buzzard. -2. [tuyau] pipe, duct. -3. fam fig idiot, twit Br. busqué [byske] —> nez. buste [byst] nm [torse] chest; [poitrine de femme, sculpture] bust. bustier [bystje] nm [corsage] strapless top; [soutien-gorge] longline bra. but [byt] nm -1. [point visé] target; -2. [objectif] goal, aim, purpose; errer sans ~ to wander aimlessly; il touche au ~ he's nearly there; à ~ non lucratif JUR non-profit Am, non-profit-making Br; aller droit au ~ to go straight to the point; dans le ~ de faire qqch with the aim OU intention of doing sthg. -3. SPORT goal; marquer un ~ to score a goal. -4. be: de ~ en blanc pointblank, straight out. butane [bytan] nm: (gaz) ~ butane; [domestique] butane, Calor gas® Br. buté, -e [byte] adj stubborn.

71 cabosser ♦ butée w/*-l. ARCHIT abutment. -2. TECHNOL stop. buter [byte] [3] C> vi -1. [se heurter]: ~ sur/ contre qqch to stumble on/over sthg, to trip on/over sthg; fig to run into/come up against sthg. -2. SPORT to score a goal, o vt -1. [étayer] to support. -2. tfam [tuer] to do in, to bump off. ♦ se buter vp to dig one's heels in; se ~ contre fig to refuse to listen to. butin [bytê] nm [de guerre] booty; [de vol] loot; [de recherche] finds {pi). butiner [bytine] [3] o vi to collect nectar. o vt [suj: abeille] to collect nectar from; fig to gather. butoir [bytwar] nm -1. [de porte] doorstop. -2. [de chemin de fer] buffer. butte [byt] «/"[colline] mound, rise; ~ de tir butts (j?t); être en ~ à fig to be exposed to. buvable [byvabl] adj [boisson] drinkable; [ampoule] (to be) taken orally. buvard [byvar] nm [papier] blotting-paper; [sous-main] blotter. buvette [byvet] nf -1. [café] refreshment room, buffet. -2. [de station thermale] pump room. buveur, -euse [byvoer, oz] nm, /"drinker. buvez, buvons etc —» boire. BVA {abr de Brûlé Ville Associés) n French market research company. BVP {abr de Bureau de vérification de la publicité) nm French advertising standards authority, — ASA Br. Byzance [bizâs] n -1. HIST Byzantium. -2. loc: c'est ~! it's fantastic! BZH {abr de Breizh) Brittany {as nationality sticker on a car). C c1, C [se] nm inv c, C. ♦ C -1. {abr de celsius, centigrade) C. -2. {abr de coulomb) C. -3. abr de code. c2 abr de centime. c' —► ce. ca abr de centiare. CA O nm -1. abr de chiffre d'affaires. -2. abr de conseil d'administration. -3. abr de corps d'armée. O nf {abr de chambre d'agriculture) local government body responsible for agricultural matters. ça [sa] pron dém -1. [pour désigner] that; [- plus près] this. -2. [sujet indéterminé] it, that; comment ~ va£ how are you£, how are things^; ~ ira comme ~ that will be fine; ~ y est that's it; c'est ~ that's right. -3. [renforcement expressif]: où —S where£; qui —S who£ ça [sa] adv. ~ et là here and there.

caban [kabâ] nm reefer (jacket). cabane [kaban] nf -\. [abri] cabin, hut; [remise] shed; ~ à lapins hutch. -2. fant [prison]: en ~ in the clink. cabanon [kaban5] nm -1. [à la campatme] cottage. -2. [sur la plage] chalet. -3. [cellule] padded cell. -4. [de rangement] shed. cabaret [kabare] nm cabaret. cabas [kaba] nm shopping-bag. cabillaud [kabijo] nm (fresh) cod. cabine [kabin] nf -1. [de navire, d'avion, de véhicule] cabin. -2. [compartiment, petit local] cubicle; ~ d'essayage fitting room; ~ téléphonique phone box. cabinet [kabine] nm -1. [pièce]: ~ de toilette — bathroom; ~ de travail study. -2. [toilettes] toilet. -3. [local professionnel] office; ~ dentaire/médical dentist's/doctor's office Am, dentist's/doctor's surgery Br. -4. [de ministre] advisers (p>t). ♦ cabinets nmpl toilet (sg). câble [kabl] nm cable; télévision par ~ cable television. câblé, -e [kable] adj TÉLÉ equipped with cable TV. cabosser [kabsse] [3] vt to dent.

cabot 72 cabot [kabo] o adj theatrical, o nm -1. [personne] poser. -2. fam [chien] mutt. cabotage [kabDta3] nm coastal navigation. caboteur [kabstœr] nm [navire] coaster. cabotin, -e [kabstë, in] péj o adj theatrical. O nm, f-1. fam [acteur] ham (actor). -2. [frimeur] poser. cabrer [kabre] [3] ♦ se cabrer vp -1. [cheval] to rear (up); [avion] to climb steeply. -2. fig [personne] to take offense Am ou offence Br. cabri [kabri] nm kid. cabriole [kabrijol] «/"[bond] caper; [pirouette] somersault. cabriolet [kabripic] nm convertible. CAC, Cac [kak] (abr de Compagnie des agents de change) nf: l'indice ~-40 the French stock exchange shares index. caca [kaka] nm fam pooh; faire ~ to do a pooh; ~ d'oie greeny-yellow. cacahouète, cacahuète [kakawet] nf peanut. cacao [kakao] nm -1. [poudre] cocoa (powder). -2. [boisson] cocoa. -3. [graine] cocoa bean. cachalot [kajalo] nm sperm whale. cache [kaj] o nf [cachette] hiding place, o nm -1. [masque] card (for masking text etc). -2. CIN & PHOT mask. cache-cache [kajkaj] nm inv. jouer à ~ to play hide and seek. cache-col [kafkol] nm inv scarf. cachemire [kajmir] nm -1. [laine] cashmere. -2. [dessin] paisley. cache-nez [kafne] nm inv scarf. cache-oreilles [kaforej] nm inv earmuffs. cache-pot [kafpo] nm inv flowerpot-holder. cacher [kafe] [3] vt -1. [gén] to hide; je ne vous cache pas que ... to be honest, .... -2. [vue] to mask. ♦ se cacher vp: se ~ (de qqn) to hide (from sb). cache-sexe [kajseks] nm inv G-string. cachet [kaje] nm -1. [comprimé] tablet, pill. -2. [marque] postmark. -3. [style] style, character; avoir du ~ to have character. -4. [rétribution] fee. -5. [sceau] seal. cacheter [kajte] [27] vt to seal. cachette [kafet] nf hiding place; en ~ secredy. cachot [kajo] nm [cellule] cell. cachotterie [kajbtri] nf little secret; £aire des —s (à qqn) to hide things (from sb). cachottier, -ière [kafstje, jer] o adj secretive. O nm, f secretive person. cachou [kaju] nm sweet taken to freshen the breath.

cacophonie [kalobni] nf dm. cactus [kaktys] nm cactus. c.-à-d. (abr de c'est-à-dire) i.e. cadastre [kadastr] nm [registre] = land register; [service] = land registry, = land office Am. cadavérique [kadaverik] adj deathly. cadavre [kadavr] nm corpse, (dead) body; un ~ ambulant a walking skeleton. caddie [kadi] nm GOLF caddie. Caddie® [kadi] nm [chariot] trolley. cadeau, -x [kado] C> nm present, gift; £aire ~ de qqch à qqn to give sthg to sb (as a present); ~ d'anniversaire birthday present; il ne nous a pas fait de ~ fam he didn't do us any favours. O adj inv. idée ~ gift idea; paquet ~ gift-wrapped parcel. cadenas [kadna] nm padlock. cadenasser [kadnase] [3] vt to padlock. ♦ se cadenasser vp to padlock. cadence [kadâs] nf -1. [rythme musical] rhythm; en ~ in time. -2. [de travail] rate. cadencé, -e [kadâse] adj rhythmical. cadet, -ette [kade, et] C> adj younger, o nm, /"-l. [de deux enfants] younger; [de plusieurs enfants] youngest; il est mon ~ de deux ans he's two years younger than me; c'est le ~ de mes soucis fig that's the least of my worries. -2. SPORT junior. cadran [kadrâ] nm dial; ~ solaire sundial. cadre [kadr] nm -1. [de tableau, de porte] frame. -2. [contexte] context; dans le ~ de as part of; [limite] within the limits OU scope of; sortir du ~ de to go beyond (the scope of). -3. [décor, milieu] surroundings (pt). -4. [responsable]: ~ moyen/supérieur middle/senior manager; jeune ~ dynamique iron dynamic young executive; être rayé des ~s to be dismissed. -5. [sur formulaire] box. cadrer [kadre] [3] o vi to agree, to tally, o vt CIN, PHOT & TÉLÉ to frame. cadreur [kadrœr] nm cameraman. caduc, caduque [kadyk] adj -1. [feuille] deciduous. -2. [qui n'est plus valide] obsolete. CAF O nf (abr de Caisse d'allocations familiales) family allowance office. O (abr de coût, assurance, fret) cif. cafard [kafar] nm -1. fam SCOL sneak; [à la police] grass. -2. [insecte] co*ckroach. -3. fig [mélancolie]: avoir le ~ to feel low OU down. cafarder [kafarde] [3] vi -1. [dénoncer - SCOL] to sneak; [- à la police] to grass. -2. [déprimer] to feel low OU down.

73 calcaire cafardeux, -euse [kafardo, oz] adj low, down. cafë [kafe] O nm -1. [plante, boisson] coffee; ~ crème coffee with frothy milk; ~ glacé iced coffee; ~ en grains coffee beans; ~ au lait white coffee (with hot milk); ~ liégeois coffee ice cream with whipped cream poured over; ~ moulu ground coffee; ~ noir black coffee; ~ en poudre OU soluble instant coffee. -2. [lieu] bar, cafe. C> adj inv coffeecolored Am, coffee-coloured Br. CAFÉ: In French cafes, a small cup of strong black coffee is called 'un (petit) café', 'un express' or, colloquially, 'un petit noir'. This may be served 'serré' (extra-strong), 'léger' (weak) or 'allongé' (diluted with hot water). An 'express' with a tiny amount of milk added is called 'une noisette'. A large cup of black coffee is 'un grand café', 'un double express' or, colloquially, 'un grand noir'. Coffee with frothy, steam-heated milk is called 'un (grand/petit) crème'. The term 'café au lait' is almost never used in cafes caféine [kafein] nf caffeine; sans ~ caffeine-free. cafeteria [kafeterja] «/"cafeteria. cafe-théatre [kafeteatr] (pi cafés-théâtres) nm = cabaret. cafetier [kaftje] nm café owner. cafetière [kaftjer] nf -1. [récipient] coffeepot. -2. [électrique] coffee-maker; [italienne] percolator. cafouiller [kafuje] [3] vi fam -1. [s'embrouiller] to get into a mess. -2. [moteur] to misfire; TÉLÉ to be on the blink. cage [ka3] nf -1. [pour animaux] cage. -2. [dans une maison]: ~ d'escalier stairwell. -3. AN AT: ~ thoradque rib cage. cageot [ka3o] nm [caisse] crate. cagibi [ka3ibi] nm storage room Am, boxroom Br. cagneux, -euse [kano, oz] adj: avoir les genoux ~ to be knock-kneed. cagnotte [kajiot] nf-1. [caisse commune] kitty. -2. [économies] savings (pi). cagoule [kagul] nf-1. [passe-montagne] balaclava. -2. [de moine] cowl. -3. [de voleur, de pénitent] hood. cahier [kaje] nm -1. [de notes] exercise book, notebook; ~ de brouillon rough book; ~ de textes homework book. -2. COMM: ~ des charges specification. cahin-caha [kaêkaa] adv. aller ~ to be jogging along. cahot [kao] nm bump, jolt. cahoter [kaote] [3] C> vi to jolt around. O vt

[secouer] to jolt. cahute [kayt] nf shack. caïd [kaid] nm -1. [chef de bande] leader. -2. fam [homme fort] big shot. caillasse [kajas] nf fam loose stones (pi). caille [kaj] «/"quail. caillé, -e [kaje] adj [lait] curdled; [sang] clotted. ♦ caillé nm CULIN curds (pt). cailler [kaje] [3] vi -1. [lait] to curdle; [sang] to clot. -2. fam [avoir froid] to be freezing. ♦ se cailler vp -1. [lait] to curdle; [sang] to clot. -2. fam [avoir froid]: on se caille it's freezing. caillot [kajo] nm clot. caillou, -x [kaju] nm -1. [pierre] stone, pebble. -2. fam [pierre précieuse] rock. -3. fam [crâne] head. caillouteux, -euse [kajuto, oz] adj stony. caïman [kaimâ] nm cayman. Caire [ker] n: Le ~ Cairo. caisse [kes] nf -1. [boîte] crate, box; ~ à outils toolbox. -2. TECHNOL case. -3. MUS: grosse ~ bass drum. -4. [guichet] cash desk, till; [de supermarché] checkout, till; ~ enregistreuse cash register. -5. [recette] takings (pt); tenir la ~ fig to hold the purse-strings; ~ noire slush fund. -6. [organisme]: ~ d'allocation = social security office; ~ d'épargne [fonds] savings fund; [établissem*nt] savings bank; ~ de prévoyance contingency fund; ~ de retraite pension fund. caissette [keset] «/"small box. caissier, -ière [kesje, jer] nm, /"cashier. caisson [kes5] nm -1. MIL & TECHNOL caisson. -2. ARCHIT coffer. cajoler [ka3Dle] [3] vt to make a fuss of, to cuddle. cajolerie [ka3Dlri] «/"cuddle. cajou [ka3u] —* noix. cake [kek] nm fruit-cake. cal1 [kal] nm callus. cal2 (abr de calorie) cal. calamar [kalamar], calmar [kalmar] nm squid. calaminé, -e [kalamine] adj co*ked up. calamité [kalamite] «/"disaster. calandre [kalâdr] nf-1. [de voiture] radiator grille. -2. [machine] calender. calanque [kalâk] «/"rocky inlet. calcaire [kalker] C> adj [eau] hard; [sol] chalky; [roche] limestone (avant n). O nm limestone.

calciner 74 calciner [kalsine] [3] vt to burn to a cinder. calcium [kalspm] nm calcium. calcul [kalkyl] nm -1. [opération]: le ~ arithmetic; ~ mental mental arithmetic. -2. [compte] calculation. -3. fig [plan] plan; agir par ~ to act out of self-interest. -4. MÉD: ~ (rénal) kidney stone. calculateur, -trice [kalkylatcer, tris] adj péj calculating. ♦ calculateur nm computer. ♦ calculatrice nf calculator; calculatrice de poche pocket calculator. calculer [kalkyle] [3] o vt -1. [déterminer] to calculate, to work out. -2. [prévoir] to plan; mal/bien ~ qqch to judge sthg badly/well. O vi -1. [faire des calculs] to calculate. -2. péj [dépenser avec parcimonie] to count the pennies. calculette [kalkylet] nf pocket calculator. Calcutta [kalkyta] n Calcutta. cale [kal] nf -1. [de navire] hold; ~ sèche dry dock. -2. [pour immobiliser] wedge. calé, -e [kale] adj fam -1. [personne] clever, brainy; être ~ en to be good at. -2. [problème] tough. calebasse [kalbas] nf gourd. calèche [kaleJ] nf (horse-drawn) carriage. caleçon [kals5] nm -1. [sous-vêtement masculin] boxer shorts {pi), pair of boxer shorts; ~ long longjohns {pt), pair of longjohns. -2. [vêtement féminin] leggings {pt), pair of leggings. Calédonie [kaledoni] nf. la ~ Caledonia. calembour [kalâbur] nm pun, play on words. calendes [kalâd] nfpl: renvoyer qqch aux ~ grecques to postpone sthg indefinitely. calendrier [kalâdrije] nm -1. [système, agenda, d'un festival] calendar. -2. [emploi du temps] timetable. -3. [d'un voyage] schedule. cale-pied [kalpje] {pi cale-pieds) nm toe-clip. calepin [kalpê] nm notebook. caler [kale] [3] o vt -1. [avec cale] to wedge. -2. [stabiliser, appuyer] to prop up. -3. fam [remplir]: ça cale (Testomac) it's filling. O vi -1. [moteur, véhicule] to stall. -2. fam [personne] to give up. calfeutrer [kalfotre] [3] vt to draughtproof. ♦ se calfeutrer vp to shut o.s. up ou away. calibre [kalibr] nm -1. [de tuyau] diameter, bore; [de fusil] calibre; [de fruit, d'ceuf] size; de gros ~ large-calibre. -2. fam fig [envergure] calibre. calibrer [kalibre] [3] vt -1. [machine, fusil] to calibrate. -2. [fruit, œuf] to grade. calice [kalis] nm -1. RELIC chalice. -2. BOT

calyx. calicot [kaliko] nm -1. [tissu] calico. -2. [banderole] banner. Californie [kaliforni] nf. la ~ California; la Basse ~ Lower California. californien, -ienne [kalifDrnjê, jen] adj Californian. ♦ Californien, -ienne nm, f Californian. califourchon [kalifurJ5] ♦ à califourchon be adv astride; être (assis) à ~ sur qqch to sit astride sthg. câlin, -e [kalê, in] adj affectionate. ♦ câlin nm cuddle; faire un ~ à qqn to give sb a cuddle. câliner [kaline] [3] vt to cuddle. calisson [kalis5] nm small iced cake made with almond paste. calleux, -euse [kale, az] adj calloused. call-girl [kslgoerl] {pi call-girls) «/"call girl. calligraphie [kaligrafi] nf calligraphy. callosité [kalozite] «/"callus. calmant, -e [kalmâ, àt] adj soothing. ♦ calmant nm [pour la douleur] painkiller; [pour l'anxiété] tranquilizer Am, tranquillizer Br, sedative. calmar —► calamar. calme [kalm] O adj quiet, calm, o nm -1. [gén] calm, calmness; dans le ~ quietly, calmly; du ~! calm down!; rétablir le ~ to restore order; le ~ plat [de la mer] dead calm; c'est le ~ plat en ce moment fig things are very quiet at the moment. -2. [absence de bruit] peace (and quiet). calmer [kalme] [3] vt -1. [apaiser] to calm (down). -2. [réduire - douleur] to soothe; [- inquiétude] to allay. ♦ se calmer vp -1. [s'apaiser - personne, discussion] to calm down; [- tempête] to abate; [- mer] to become calm. -2. [diminuer douleur] to ease; [- fièvre, inquiétude] to subside. calomnie [kabmni] nf [écrits] libel; [paroles] slander. calomnier [kabmnje] [9] vt [par écrit] to libel; [verbalement] to slander. calomnieux, -ieuse [kabmnjo, jez] adj [écrits] libelous Am, libellous Br; [propos] slanderous. calorie [kabri] «/"calorie. calorifère [kabrifer] O nm stove. O adj heat-giving. calorifique [kabrifik] adj calorific. calorifuge [kabrify3] o adj insulating, o nm insulation. calorique [kabrik] adj calorific.

75 campagnard calot [kalo] nm -1. [de militaire] =* béret. -2. [bille] (large) marble. calotte [kabt] nf -1. [bonnet] skullcap. -2. fam [gifle] slap. -3. GÉOGR: ~ glaciaire ice cap. calque [kalk] nm -1. [dessin] tracing. -2. [papier]: (papier) ~ tracing paper. -3. fig [imitation] (exact) copy; il est le ~ de son père he's the spitting image of his father. -4. [traduction] caique, loan translation. calquer [kalke] [3] vt -1. [carte] to trace. -2. [imiter] to copy exactly; ~ qqch sur qqch to model sthg on sthg. -3. [traduire littéralement] to translate literally. calvados [kalvados] nm Calvados. calvaire [kalver] nm -1. [croix] wayside cross. -2. fig [épreuve] ordeal. ♦ Calvaire nm: le Calvaire Calvary. calviniste [kalvinist] adj 62 nmf Calvinist. calvitie [kalvisi] nf baldness; ~ précoce premature baldness. camaïeu [kamajo] nm monochrome; en ~ in monochrome, monochrome (avant n). camarade [kamarad] nmf -1. [compagnon, ami] friend; ~ de classe classmate; ~ d'école schoolfriend. -2. POLIT comrade. camaraderie [kamaradri] nf -1. [familiarité, entente] friendship. -2. [solidarité] comradeship, camaraderie. cambiste [kâbist] FIN O adj foreignexchange (avant n). O nmf foreign, exchange dealer. Cambodge [kâbDd3] nm: le ~ Cambodia; au ~ in Cambodia. cambodgien, -ienne [kâbDd3jê, jen] adj Cambodian. ♦ Cambodgien, -ienne nm, /"Cambodian. cambouis [kâbwi] nm dirty grease. cambré, -e [kâbre] adj arched. cambrer [kâbre] [3] vt: ~ les reins OU la taille to arch one's back. ♦ se cambrer vp [se redresser] to arch one's back. cambriolage [kâbriJDla3J nm burglary. cambrioler [kâbrijole] [3] vt to burglarize Am, to burgle Br. cambrioleur, -euse [kabrijoloer, az] nm, f burglar. cambrousse [kâbrus] nf fam: en pleine ~ out in the sticks. cambrure [kâbryr] nf-\. [de pied] instep; ~ des reins OU du dos small or the back. -2. [de poutre] curve; [de chaussure] arch. came [kam] nf -1. TECHNOL cam. -2. tfam [drogue] stuff. camé, -e [kame] tfam o adj [drogué] stoned. O nm, f junkie.

camée [kame] nm cameo. caméléon [kamele5] nm litt & fig chameleon. camélia [kamelja] nm camellia. camelote [kambt] nf [marchandise de mauvaise qualité] rubbish. camembert [kamâber] nm -1. [fromage] Camembert. -2. [graphique] pie chart. caméra [kamera] nf -1. CIN & TÉLÉ camera. -2. [d'amateur] cinecamera. cameraman [kameraman] (pi cameramen [kameramen] OU caméramans) nm cameraman. Cameroun [kamrun] nm: le ~ Cameroon; au ~ in Cameroon. camerounais, -e [kamryne, ez] adj Cameroonian. ♦ Camerounais, -e nm, f Cameroonian. Caméscope® [kameskop] nm camcorder. camion [kamj5] nm truck Am, lorry Br; ~ de déménagement moving van Am, removal van Br. camion-citerne [kamj5sitcrn] (pi camionsciternes) nm tanker truck Am, tanker Br. camionnage [kampna3] nm trucking Am, road haulage Br. camionnette [kamjsnet] nfVan. camionneur [kamjDnoer] nm -1. [conducteur] truck-driver Am, lorry-driver Br. -2. [entrepreneur] trucker Am, road haulier Br. camisole [kamizol] ♦ camisole de force nf straitjacket. camomille [kamamij] nf -1. [plante] camomile. -2. [tisane] camomile tea. camouflage [kamufla3] nm [déguisem*nt] camouflage; fig [dissimulation] concealment. camoufler [kamufle] [3] vt [déguiser] to camouflage; fig [dissimuler] to conceal, to cover up; ~ qqch en qqch to camouflage sthg as sthg. ♦ se camoufler vp [se cacher] to hide. camouflet [kamufle] nm littéraire [affront] snub; infliger un ~ à qqn to snub sb. camp [kâ] nm -1. [gén] camp; ~ de concentration concentration camp; ~ retranché fortified camp, fortress; ~ de vacances holiday camp; ~ volant temporary camp; ficher le ~ fam to get lost, to clear off; lever le ~ to break camp; fig to clear off OU out. -2. SPORT half (of the field). -3. [parti] side. campagnard, -e [kâpajiar, ard] o adj -1. [de la campagne] country (avant n). -2. [rusti-

campagne 76 que] rustic. O nm, /"countryman (f countrywoman). campagne [kâpaji] «/" -1. [régions rurales] country; à la ~ in the country; en rase ~ in open country; battre la ~ [police] to comb the countryside; [divaguer] to wander. -2. MIL, POLIT & PUBLICITÉ campaign; partir en ~ POLIT to start campaigning; faire ~ pour/contre to campaign for/against; ~ d'affichage poster campaign; ~ électorale election campaign; ~ de presse press campaign; ~ publicitaire advertising campaign; ~ de vente sales campaign. campanule [kâpanyl] nf bellflower, campanula. campé, -e [kâpe] adj: bien ~ [personnage] well-rounded; [récit] well-constructed; être bien ~ (sur ses jambes) to stand firmly on one's feet. campement [kâpmâ] nm camp, encampment. camper [kâpe] [3] O vi to camp. O vt -1. [poser solidement] to place firmly. -2. fig [esquisser] to portray. ♦ se camper vp: se ~ devant qqn/qqch to plant o.s. in front of sb/sthg. campeur, -euse [kâpcer, az) nm, /"camper. camphre [kâfr] nm camphor. camphré, -e [kâfre] adj camphorated. camping [kâpirj] «m -1. [activité] camping; faire du ~ to go camping; ~ sauvage camping in the wild, wilderness camping Am. -2. [terrain] campsite. camping-car [kâpinkar] {pi camping-cars) nm camper, Dormobile® Br. Camping-Gaz® [kâpirjgaz] nm inv = Primus® stove. campus [kâpys] nm campus. camus [kamy] —> nez. Canada [kanada] nm: le ~ Canada; au ~ in Canada. Canadair® [kanader] nm plane equipped with water tanks to fight forest fires. canadianisme [kanadjanism] nm Canadianism. canadien, -ienne [kanadjê, jen] adj Canadian. ♦ canadienne nf [veste] sheepskin jacket. ♦ Canadien, -ienne nm, /Canadian. canaille [kanaj] O adj -1. [coquin] roguish. -2. [vulgaire] crude. O «/"-1. [scélérat] scoundrel. -2. hum [coquin] little devil. canal, -aux [kanal, o] nm -1. [gén] channel; par le ~ de qqn fig [par l'entremise de] through sb; ~ de distribution distribution channel. -2. [voie d'eau] canal. -3. ANAT canal, duct.

♦ Canal nm: Canal-I- French TV pay channel. CANAL+: Canal + broadcasts programmes that have to be unscrambled using a special decoding unit, although for part of the day its programmes can be seen without this device canalisation [kanalizasp] nf -1. [conduit] pipe. -2. lift & fig [action de canaliser] channelling. canaliser [kanalize] [3] vt -1. [cours d'eau] to canalize. -2. fig [orienter] to channel. canapé [kanape] nm -1. [siège] sofa; ~ convertible sofa bed. -2. CULIN canapé. canapé-lit [kanapeli] {pi canapés-lits) nm sofa bed. canaque, kanak [kanak] adj Kanak. ♦ Canaque nmf Kanak. canard [kanar] nm -1. [oiseau] duck. -2. [fausse note] wrong note. -3. fam [journal] rag. canari [kanari] O nm canary. O adj inv. jaune ~ canary yellow. Canaries [kanari] nfpl: les ~ the Canaries; aux ~ in the Canaries. Canberra [kâbera] n Canberra. cancan [kâkâ] nm -1. [ragot] piece of gossip; dire des —s sur qqn to spread gossip about sb. -2. [danse] cancan. cancaner [kâkane] [3] vi -1. [canard] to quack. -2. [médire] to spread gossip; ~ sur qqn to spread gossip about sb. cancanier, -ière [kâkanje, jer] O adj gossipy. O nm, f gossip. cancer [kâser] nm MÉD cancer. ♦ Cancer nm -1. ASTROL Cancer; être Cancer to be (a) Cancer. -2. GÉOGR: le tropique du Cancer the tropic of Cancer. cancéreux, -euse [kâsera, az] o adj -1. [personne] suffering from cancer. -2. [tumeur] cancerous. O nm, f [personne] cancer sufferer. cancérigène [kâseri3en] adj carcinogenic. cancre [kâkr] nm fam dunce. cancrelat [kâkrala] nm co*ckroach. candélabre [kâdelabr] nm candelabra. candeur [kâdœr] «/"ingenuousness. candi [kâdi] adj: sucre — (sugar) candy. candidat, -e [kâdida, at] nm, f. ~ (à) candidate (for). candidature [kâdidatyr] nf -1. [à un poste] application; poser sa ~ pour qqch to apply for sthg. -2. [à une élection] candidature.

77 CAPES candide [kâdid] adj ingenuous. cane [kan] «/"(female) duck. caneton [kant5] nm (male) duckling. canette [kanet] nf-1. [de fil] spool. -2. [petite cane] (female) duckling. -3. [de boisson bouteille] bottle; [- boîte] can. canevas [kanva] nm -1. COUTURE canvas. -2. [plan] structure. caniche [kanij] nm poodle. canicule [kanikyl] «/"heatwave. canif [kanif] nm penknife. canin, -e [kanê, in] adj canine; exposition ~e dog show. ♦ canine «/"canine (tooth). caniveau [kanivo] nm gutter. cannabis [kanabis] nm cannabis. canne [kan] «/"-l. [bâton] walking stick; ~ à pêche fishing rod. -2. fam [jambe] pin. ♦ canne à sucre nfsugar cane. canné, -e [kane] adj cane {avant «). cannelé, -e [kanle] adj fluted. cannelle [kanel] o nf -1. [aromate] cinnamon. -2. [robinet] faucet Am, tap Br. O adj inv [couleur] cinnamon. cannelure [kanlyr] nf-1. [de colonne] flute. -2. BOT & GÉOL striation. Cannes [kan] « Cannes; le festival de ~ the Cannes film festival. cannibale [kanibal] nmf & adj cannibal. cannibalisme [kanibalism] nm cannibalism. canoë [kanoe] nm canoe. canoë-kayak [kanoekajak] {yl canoëskayaks) nm kayak. canon [kan5] o nm -1. [arme] gun; HIST cannon. -2. [tube d'arme] barrel. -3. fam [verre de vin] glass (of wine). -4. MUS: chanter en ~ to sing in canon. -5. [norme & RELIC] canon, o adj —► droit. canonique [kanonik] adj canonical; d'un âge ~ fig of a venerable age. canoniser [kanonize] [3] vt to canonize. canot [kano] nm dinghy; — pneumatique inflatable dinghy; ~ de sauvetage lifeboat. canotage [kanota3] nm rowing, boating; faire du ~ to go rowing OU boating. canotier [kanotje] nm -1. [rameur] rower. -2. [chapeau] boater. cantal [kâtal] nm semi-hard cheese from the Auvergne. cantate [kâtat] «/"cantata. cantatrice [kâtatris] «/"prima donna. cantine [kâtin] nf -1. [réfectoire] canteen. -2. [malle] trunk. cantique [kâtik] nm hymn. canton [kât5] nm -1. [en France] = district. -2. [en Suisse] canton. cantonade [kâtonad] ♦ à la cantonade loc adv. parler à la ~ to

speak to everyone (in general). cantonais, -e [ketone, ez] adj Cantonese; râ ~ egg fried rice. ♦ cantonais nm [langue] Cantonese. ♦ Cantonais, -e nm, f native OU inhabitant of Canton. cantonal, -e, -aux [kâtonal, o] adj -1. [en France] = district {avant «). -2. [en Suisse] cantonal. cantonnement [kôtonmâ] nm [MIL - action] billeting; [- lieu] billet. cantonner [kâtsne] [3] vt -1. MIL to quarter, to billet Br. -2. [maintenir] to confine; ~ qqn à OU dans to confine sb to. ♦ se cantonner vp: se ~ dans to confine O.S. tO. cantonnier [kâtDnje] nm roadman. canular [kanylar] nm fam hoax. CAO (abr de conception assistée par ordinateur) «f CAD. caoutchouc [kautfu] nm -1. [substance] rubber; en ~ rubber {avant «); ~ mousse foam rubber. -2. [plante] rubber plant. -3. [élastique] elastic OU rubber band. caoutchouteux, -euse [kautjute, 0z] adj rubbery. cap [kap] nm -1. GÉOGR cape; le cap de Bonne-Espérance the Cape of Good Hope; le cap Horn Cape Horn; passer le ~ de qqch fig to get through sthg; passer le ~ de la quarantaine fig to turn forty. -2. [direction] course; changer de ~ to change course; mettre le ~ sur to head for. ♦ Cap nm: Le Cap Cape Town. CAP {abr de certificat d'aptitude professionnelle) nm vocational training certificate (taken at secondary school). capable [kapabl] adj -1. [apte]: ~ (de qqch/ de faire qqch) capable (of sthg/of doing sthg). -2. [à même]: ~ de faire qqch likely to do sthg; ~ de réussir likely to succeed. -3. JUR competent. capacité [kapasite] nf -t. [de récipient] capacity. -2. [de personne] ability. -3. JUR [mentale] capacity. -4. UNIV.- ~ en droit [diplôme] qualifying certificate in law gained by examination after 2 years' study. cape [kap] nf [vêtement] cloak; rire sous ~ fig to laugh up one's sleeve. CAPES, Capes [kapes] {abr de certificat d'aptitude au professorat de l'enseignement du second degré) nm secondary school teaching certificate.

capesien 78 capesien, -ienne [kapesje, jen] nm, f person holding a secondary school teaching qualification. CAPET, Capet [kapet] (abr de certificat d'aptitude au professorat de renseignement technique) nm specialized teaching certificate. capharnaûm [kafarnaom] nm mess. capillaire [kapiler] O adj -1. [lotion] hair {avant n). -2. ANAT & BOT capillary. O nm -1. BOT maidenhair fem. -2. anat capillary. capillarité [kapilarite] nf PHYS capillarity. capitaine [kapitcn] nm captain; ~ au long cours NAVIG master mariner. capitainerie [kapitenri] nf harbor Am OU harbour Br master's office. capital, -e, -aux [kapital, o] adj -1. [décision, événement] major. -2. JUR capital. ♦ capital nm FIN capital; ~ d'exploitation working capital; ~ santé fig reserves (j?f) of health; ~ social authorized OU share capital. ♦ capitale «/"[ville, lettre] capital. ♦ capitaux nmpl capital (U). capitaliser [kapitalize] [3] o vt FIN to capitalize; fig to accumulate, o vi to save. capitalisme [kapitalism] nm capitalism. capitaliste [kapitalist] nmf & adj capitalist. capiteux, -euse [kapito, oz] adj -1. [vin] intoxicating; [parfum] heady. -2. [charme] alluring. capitonné, -e [kapitone] adj padded; ~ de cuir with leather upholstery. capituler [kapityle] [3] vi to surrender; ~ devant qqn/qqch to surrender to sb/sthg. caporal, -aux [kaporal, o] nm -1. MIL lancecorporal. -2. [tabac] caporal. caporal-chef [kaporaljef] {pi caporauxchefs [kaporojef]) nm corporal. capot [kapo] o adj inv [aux jeux de cartes]: mettre qqn ~ to take all the tricks from sb. O nm -1. [de voiture] hood Am, bonnet Br. -2. [de machine] (protective) cover. capote [kapDt] nf -1. [de voiture] top Am, hood Br. -2. [manteau] greatcoat, overcoat. -3. [chapeau] bonnet. -4. fam [préservatif]: ~ (anglaise) condom. capoter [kapDte] [3] vi -1. [se retourner] to overturn. -2. Can [perdre la tête] to lose one's head. -3. [échouer] to come to nothing. câpre [kapr] nf caper. caprice [kapris] nm whim; les —s de la météo the vagaries of the weather; faire des ~s to be temperamental. capricieux, -ieuse [kaprisje, joz] o adj [changeant] capricious; [coléreux] temperamental, o nm, f temperamental person.

capricorne [kaprikorn] nm ZOOL Capricorn beetle. ♦ Capricorne nm -1. ASTROL Capricorn; être Capricorne to be (a) Capricorn. -2. GÉOGR: le tropique du Capricorne the tropic of Capricorn. capsule [kapsyl] nf -\. [de bouteille] cap. -2. ASTRON, BOT & MÉD Capsule. capter [kapte] [3] vt -1. [recevoir sur émetteur] to pick up. -2. [source, rivière] to harness. -3. fig [attention, confiance] to gain, to win. capteur [kaptoer] nm PHYS sensor; ~ solaire solar panel. captieux, -ieuse [kapsjo, joz] adj specious. captif, -ive [kaptif, iv] o adj captive; être ~ de qqch fig to be a slave to sthg. o nm, f prisoner. captivant, -e [kaptivâ, ât] adj [livre, film] enthralling; [personne] captivating. captiver [kaptive] [3] vt to captivate. captivité [kaptivite] nf captivity; en ~ in captivity. capture [kaptyr] nf-1. [action] capture. -2. [prise] catch. capturer [kaptyre] [3] vt to catch, to capture. capuche [kapyj] «/"(detachable) hood. capuchon [kapyJ5] nm -1. [bonnet d'imperméable] hood; [- de religieux] cowl. -2. [bouchon] cap, top. capucin [kapysê] nm RELIC Capuchin. capucine [kapysin] «/"[fleur] nasturtium. capverdien, -ienne [kapverdjë, jen] adj Cape Verdean. ♦ Capverdien, -ienne nm, f Cape Verdean. Cap-Vert [kapver] nm Cape Verde. caquelon [kakl5] nm fondue dish. caquet [kake] nm -1. [de poule] cackling {U). -2. péj [bavardage] chatter {U); rabattre le ~ à OU de qqn to shut sb up. caqueter [kakte] [27] vi -1. [poule] to cackle. -2. péj [personne] to charter. car1 [kar] nm bus Am, coach Br. car2 [kar] conj for, because. carabine [karabin] «/"rifle. carabiné, -e [karabine] adj fam [tempête] violent; [rhume] stinking; [amende] heavy. Caracas [karakas] « Caracas. caraco [karako] nm loose blouse. caracoler [karakole] [3] vi -1. [cheval] to prance; [cavalier] to caracole. -2. fig [sautiller] to prance about.

79 carillonner caractère [karakter] nm -1. [gén] character; avoir du ~ to have character; avoir mauvais ~ to be bad-tempered; en petit*/gros ~s in small/large print; —s d'imprimerie block capitals. -2. [caractéristique] feature, characteristic. caractériel, -ielle [karakterjel] O adj [troubles] emotional; [personne] emotionally disturbed. O nm, f emotionally disturbed person. caractérisé, -e [karakterize] adj [net] clear; être d'une grossièreté ~e to be downright rude. caractériser [karakterize] [3] vt to be characteristic of. ♦ se caractériser vp: se ~ par qqch to be characterized by sthg. caractéristique [karakteristik] O «/"characteristic, feature, o adj: ~ (de) characteristic (of). carafe [karaf] nf [pour vin, eau] carafe; [pour alcool] decanter; rester en ~ fam to be left stranded. carafon [karaf5] nm small carafe. caraïbe [karaib] adj Caribbean. ♦ Caraïbe «wfCarib. ♦ Caraïbes nfpl: les Caraïbes the Caribbean; dans les Caraïbes in the Caribbean. carambolage [karabola3] nm pile-up. caramel [karamel] o nm -1. CULIN caramel. -2. [bonbon - dur] toffee, caramel; [- mou] fudge, o adj inv [couleur] caramel. caraméliser [karamelize] [3] vt [sucre] to caramelize; [gâteau] to coat with caramel. ♦ se caraméliser vp to caramelize. carapace [karapas] nf shell; fig protection, shield. carapater [karapate] [3] ♦ se carapater vp to scarper, to hop it. carat [kara] nm carat; or à 9 ~s 9-carat gold. caravane [karavan] nf-1. [de camping, de desert] caravan. -2. [de personnes] procession. caravaning [karavanirj] nm caravanning. carbone [karbon] nm carbon; (papier) ~ carbon paper. carbonique [karbsnik] adj: gaz ~ carbon dioxide; neige ~ dry ice. carboniser [karbonize] [3] vt to burn to a cinder. carbonnade [karbanad] nf CULIN type of stew. carburant [karbyrâ] o adj m: melange ~ (fuel) mixture, o nm fuel. carburateur [karbyratœr] nm carburetor Am, carburettor Br. carbure [karbyr] nm carbide. carburer [karbure] [3] vi -1. [moteur]: ~

bien/mal to be well/badly tuned. -2. fam [être en forme] to be fine. carcajou [karka3u] nm wolverine. carcan [karkâ] nm HIST iron collar; fig yoke. carcasse [karkas] nf -1. [d'animal] carcass. -2. [de bâtiment, navire] framework. -3. [de véhicule] shell. carcéral, -e, -aux [karseral, o] adj prison (avant n). carcinome [karsinDm] nm carcinoma. cardan [kardâ] nm universal joint. carder [karde] [3] vt to card. cardiaque [kardjak] O adj cardiac; être ~ to have a heart condition; crise ~ heart attack. O nmf heart patient. cardigan [kardigâ] nm cardigan. cardinal, -e, -aux [kardinal, o] adj cardinal. ♦ cardinal nm RELIG cardinal. cardiologue [kardpbg] nmf heart specialist, cardiologist. cardio-vasculaire [kardjovaskyler] (^/cardiovasculaires) adj cardiovascular. Carême [karem] nm: le ~ Lent. carence [karâs] nf -\. [de personne, gouvernement] inadequacy, incompetence. -2. [manque]: ~ (en) deficiency (in). carène [karen] «/"navig hull. caréner [karene] [18] vt -1. [navire] to careen. -2. [carrosserie] to streamline. caressant, -e [karesà, ât] adj affectionate. caresse [kares] nf caress; faire une ~ à qqn to caress sb. caresser [karese] [4] vt -1. [personne] to caress; [animal, objet] to stroke. -2. fig [espoir] to cherish. car-ferry [karferi] {pi car-ferries) nm car ferrycargaison [kargezS] nf-1. TRANSPORT cargo. -2. fam [grande quantité] load, pile. cargo [kargo] nm -1. [navire] freighter. -2. [avion] cargo plane. cari = curry. caribou [karibu] nm caribou. caricatural, -e, -aux [karikatyral, o] adj [récit] exaggerated. caricature [karikatyr] nf-1. [gén] caricature. -2. péj [personne] sight. carie [kari] nf-1. MÉD caries. -2. BOT blight. carillon [karijS] nm -1. [cloches] bells {pi). -2. [d'horloge, de porte] chime. carillonner [karijDne] [3] O vi to ring. O vt -1. [heure] to strike, to chime. -2. fig [nouvelle] to announce.

caritatif 80 caritatif, -ive [karitatif, iv] adj charitable. carlingue [karlêg] nf -1. [d'avion] cabin. -2. [de navire] keelson. carmélite [karmelit] «/"Carmelite (nun). carmin [karmê] O adj inv crimson, o nm [couleur] crimson; [colorant] cochineal. carnage [karna3] nm slaughter, carnage. carnassier, -ière [karnasje, jer] adj carnivorous. ♦ carnassier nm carnivore. carnaval [karnaval] nm carnival. carnet [karne] nm -1. [petit cahier] notebook; ~ d'adresses address book; ~ de notes SCOL report card. -2. [bloc de feuilles] book; ~ de chèques checkbook Am, chequebook Br; ~ de tickets book of tickets. carnivore [karnivor] o adj carnivorous, o nm carnivore. carotide [karotid] ANAT o adj carotid, o nf carotid artery. carotte [karot] O nf carrot; —s râpées grated carrots; ~s Vichy glazed carrots; les —s sont cuites fam they've/we've etc had it. O adj inv [couleur] carroty. carpe [karp] o nf carp; être muet comme une ~ fig not to say a word, o nm ANAT carpus. carpette [karpct] nf -1. [petit tapis] rug. -2. fam péj [personne] doormat. carquois [karkwa] nm quiver. carré, -e [kare] adj -1. [gén] square; 20 mètres ~s 20 square metres. -2. [franc] straightforward. ♦ carré nm -1. [quadrilatère] square; élever un nombre au ~ MATHS to square a number; ~ blanc TV white square in the corner of the screen indicating that a television programme is not recommended for children; ~ de soie [foulard] silk square. -2. [sur un navire] wardroom. -3. CARTES: un ~ d'as four aces. -4. CULIN: ~ d'agneau rack of lamb. -5. [petit terrain] patch, plot. carreau [karo] nm -1. [carrelage] tile. -2. [sol] tiled floor; rester sur le — fig to be knocked out. -3. [vitre] window pane. -4. [motif carré] check; à ~x [tissu] checked; [papier] squared. -5. CARTES diamond; l'atout est ~ diamonds are trumps. -6. be: se tenir à ~ to watch one's step. carrefour [karfur] nm -1. [de routes, de la vie] crossroads (sg). -2. [forum] forum, conference. carrelage [karla3] nm -1. [action] tiling. -2. [surface] tiles (pt). carreler [karle] [24] vt to tile. carrelet [karle] nm -1. [poisson] plaice. -2. [filet de pêche] net.

carreleur [karlcer] nm tiler. carrément [karemâ] adv -1. [franchement] blundy. -2. [complètement] completely, quite. -3. [sans hésiter] straight. carrer [kare] [3] ♦ se carrer vp: se ~ dans to settle o.s. in. carrière [karjer] nf -1. [profession] career; embrasser une ~ to take up a career; faire ~ dans qqch to make a career (for o.s.) in sthg. -2. [gisem*nt] quarry. carriériste [karjerist] nmfpéj careerist. carriole [karjol] nf-1. [petite charrette] cart. -2. Can [traîneau] sleigh. carrossable [karosabl] adj suitable for vehicles. carrosse [karos] nm (horse-drawn) coach. carrosserie [karssri] nf -1. [de voiture] bodywork, body. -2. [industrie] coachbuilding. carrossier [karosje] nm coachbuilder. carrousel [karuzel] nm EQUITATION carousel; ~ d'avions fig aerial display. carrure [karyr] nf -1. [de personne] build; fig stature. -2. [de vêtement] width across the shoulders. cartable [kartabl] nm schoolbag. carte [kart] nf -1. [gén] card; ~ bancaire cash card Br; ~ de crédit credit card; ~ d'étudiant student card; ~ graphique IN FORM graphics board; ~ à gratter scratch card; ~ grise — car registration papers Am, = logbook Br; ~ d'identité identity card; ~ à mémoire memory card; ~ mère INFORM motherboard; ~ nominative personal identity card; ~ orange season ticket (for use on public transport in Paris); ~ postale postcard; ~ à puce smart card; ~ de séjour residence permit; ~ vermeil card entitling senior citizens to reduced rates in cinemas, on public transport etc; ~ de visite calling card Am, visiting card Br; donner ~ blanche à qqn fig to give sb a free hand. -2. [de jeu]: ~ (à jouer) (playing) card; abattre ses —s to lay down one's cards; fig to show one's hand; battre les —s to shuffle the cards; brouiller les ~s fig to cloud OU obscure the issue; tirer les —s à qqn to read sb's cards. -3. CEOGR map; ~ d'état-major — Geological Survey map Am, = Ordnance Survey map Br; ~ routière road map. -4. [au restaurant] menu; à la ~ [menu] à la carte; [horaires] flexible; ~ des vins wine list. cartel [kartel] nm -1. ÉCON cartel. -2. POUT coalition.

81 casse-tête carter [karter] nm -1. [de bicyclette] chain guard. -2. [de moteur] crankcase. carte-réponse [kartrep5s] {pi cartesréponses) «f reply card. cartésien, -ienne [kartezjê, jen] O adj -1. [rationnel] logical, rational. -2. [relatif à Descartes] Cartesian. O nm, /"Cartesian. cartilage [kartila3] nm cartilage. cartilagineux, -euse [kartila3in0, oz] adj -1. [tissu] cartilaginous. -2. [viande] gristly. cartographie [kartDgrafi] «/"cartography. cartomancien, -ienne [kartDmâsjê, jen] nm, f fortune-teller (using cards). carton [kart5] nm -1. [matière] cardboard; en ~ cardboard; ~ ondulé corrugated cardboard. -2. [emballage] cardboard box; — à dessin portfolio. -3. [cible] target; faire un ~ fam to target-shoot; fig to take potshots. -4. [carte]: ~ d'invitation formal invitation. cartonné, -e [kartone] adj [livre] hardback. carton-pâte [kartôpat] {pi cartons-pâtes) nm pasteboard; de OU en — cardboard. cartouche [kartuf] nf -1. [gén & INFORM] cartridge. -2. [de cigarettes] carton. cas [ka] nm case; au ~ où in case; auquel ~ in which case; dans OU en ce ~ in that case; en aucun ~ under no circ*mstances; en tout ~ in any case, anyway; en ~ de in case of; en ~ d'urgence in an emergency; en ~ de besoin if need be; c'est le ~ de le dire you've hit the nail on the head; le ~ échéant if the need arises, if need be; ~ de conscience matter of conscience; ~ de force majeure emergency; ~ social person with social problems; faire grand ~ de to set great store by. casanier, -ière [kazanje, jer] adj 62 nm, f stay-at-home. casaque [kazak] nf -1. [veste] overblouse; tourner ~ fig to change sides. -2. HIPPISME blouse. cascade [kaskad] nf -\. [chute d'eau] waterfall; fig stream, torrent; en ~ fig one after the other. -2. CIN stunt. cascadeur, -euse [kaskadœr, oz] nm, /"-l. [au cirque] acrobat. -2. CIN stuntman (f stuntwoman). case [kaz] nf -1. [habitation] hut. -2. [de boîte, tiroir] compartment; [d'échiquier] square; [sur un formulaire] box. casemate [kazmat] «/bunker. caser [kaze] [3] vt -1. fam [trouver un emploi pour] to get a job for. -2. fam [loger] to put up. -3. fam [marier] to marry off. -4. [placer] to put. ♦ se caser vp fam -1. [trouver un emploi] to get (o.s.) a job. -2. [se marier] to get

hitched. -3. [se loger] to find a place to live. caserne [kazern] «/"barracks. cash [kaj] nm cash; payer ~ to pay (in) cash. casher —► kasher casier [kazje] nm -1. [compartiment] compartment; [pour le courrier] pigeonhole. -2. [meuble - à bouteilles] rack; [- à courrier] set of pigeonholes. -3. PÊCHE lobster pot. ♦ casier judiciaire nm police record; ~ judiciaire vierge clean (police) record. casino [kazino] nm casino. Caspienne [kaspjen] n: la ~ the Caspian Sea. casque [kask] nm -1. [de protection] helmet; ~ intégral crash helmet. -2. [séchoir] hairdryer. -3. [à écouteurs] headphones (j?f). ♦ Casques bleus nmpl: les Casques bleus the UN peace-keeping force. casqué, -e [kaske] adj wearing a helmet. casquer [kaske] [3] vi fam to cough up. casquette [kaske't] nf cap. cassant, -e [kasâ, ât] adj -1. [fragile - verre] fragile; [- cheveux] brittle. -2. [dur] brusque. cassation [kasasjS] —► cour. casse [kas] O nf -1. [action] breakage. -2. fam [violence] aggro. -3. [de voitures] scrapyard. -4. TYPO: haut/bas de ~ upper/lower case. O nm fam [cambriolage] break-in. cassé, -e [kase] adj -1. [voûté, courbé] stooped. -2. [voix] trembling, breaking. casse-cou [kasku] nmf inv [personne] daredevil. casse-croûte [kaskmt] nm inv snack. casse-noisettes [kasnwazet], casse-noix [kasnwa] nm inv nutcrackers (pt). casse-pieds [kaspje] O adj inv fam annoying. O nmf inv pain (in the neck). casser [kase] [3] O vt -1. [briser] to break; à tout ~ fam fig [extraordinaire] fabulous, fantastic; [tout au plus] at (the) most. -2. JUR to quash. -3. COMM: ~ les prix to slash prices. O vi to break. ♦ se casser vp -1. [se briser] to break. -2. [membre]: se ~ un bras to break one's arm. -3. fam [se fatiguer] to strain o.s. -4. fam [s'en aller] to hop it, to push off. casserole [kasrol] nf -1. [ustensile] saucepan; à la ~ CULIN braised. -2. [voiture] (old) banger. -3. fam [instrument]: être une vraie ~ to sound tinny. -4. he: passer à la ~ fam to be bumped off; [sexuellement] to get laid. casse-tête [kastet] nm inv -1. fig [problème] headache. -2. [jeu] puzzle.

cassette 82 cassette [kaset] nf -1. [coffret] casket. -2. [de musique, vidéo] cassette. -3. INFORM: ~ audionumérique DAT tape. casseur [kasœr] nm -1. [cambrioleur] burglar. -2. [manifestant] rioting demonstrator. cassis [kasis] nm -1. [fruit] blackcurrant; [arbuste] blackcurrant bush; [liqueur] blackcurrant liqueur. -2. [sur la route] dip. cassonade [kasonad] nf brown sugar. cassoulet [kasule] nm stew of haricot beans and meat. cassure [kasyr] «/"break. castagnettes [kastajiet] nfyl castanets. caste [kast] nf caste. casting [kastirj] nm [acteurs] cast; [sélection] casting; aller à un ~ to go to an audition. castor [kastDr] nm beaver. castration [kastrasjS] nf castration. castrer [kastre] [3] vt to castrate; [chat] to neuter; [chatte] to spay. cataclysme [kataklism] nm cataclysm. catacombes [katak5b] nfpl catacombs. catadioptre [katadjoptr], Cataphote® [kataht] nm -1. [sur la route] highway reflector Am, cat's eye Br. -2. [de véhicule] reflector. catalan, -e [katalâ, an] adj Catalan, Catalonia n. ♦ catalan nm [langue] Catalan. ♦ Catalan, -e nm, f Catalan, Catalonian. Catalogne [katabji] nf. la ~ Catalonia. catalogue [katabg] nm catalog Am, catalogue Br. cataloguer [katabge] [3] vt -1. [classer] to catalog Am, to catalogue Br. -2. péj [juger] to label. catalyseur [katalizœr] nm CHIM & fig catalyst. catarytique [katalitik] —► pot. catamaran [katamarâ] nm -1. [voilier] catamaran. -2. [d'hydravion] floats (pt). Cataphote® = catadioptre. cataplasme [kataplasm] nm poultice. catapulter [katapylte] [3] vt to catapult. cataracte [katarakt] «/"cataract. catarrhe [katar] nm catarrh. catastrophe [katastrof] «/"disaster, catastrophe; atterrir en ~ to crashland; partir en ~ to leave in a mad rush. catastrophé, -e [katastraje] adj shocked, upset. catastrophique [katastrofik] adj disastrous, catastrophic. catch [katj] nm wrestling. catéchisme [katejism] nm catechism. catégorie [kategori] nf[gén] category; ~ socioprofessionnelle ÉCON socio-economic group; [de personnel] grade; [de viande, fruits]

quality. catégorique [kategorik] adj categorical. catégoriquement [kategDrikmâ] adv categorically. cathédrale [katedral] «/"cathedral. cathode [katod] «/"cathode. cathodique [katDdik] —► tube. catholicisme [katDlisism] nm Catholicism. catholique [katolik] adj Catholic; pas (très) ~ fig dubious, dodgy. catimini [katimini] ♦ en catimini loc adv secredy. catogan [katDgâ] nm ribbon (securing hair at the back of the neck). cauchemar [ko/mar] nm litt & fig nightmare. cauchemardesque [kojmardesk] adj nightmarish. caudal, -e, -aux [kodal, o] adj caudal, tail (avant «). causal, -e, -als OU -aux [kozal, o] adj causal. causalité [kozalite] «/"causality. causant, -e [kozâ, ât] adj: peu ~ not very chatty. cause [koz] «/"-l. [gén] cause; gagner qqn à sa ~ to win sb over (to one's cause); à ~ de because of; pour ~ de on account of, because of; et pour ~! and for good reason!; faire ~ commune avec qqn to make common cause with sb. -2. JUR case. -3. loc: être en ~ [intérêts] to be at stake; [honnêteté] to be in doubt OU in question; être hors de — to be beyond suspicion; remettre en ~ to challenge, to question. causer [koze] [3] o vt: ~ qqch à qqn to cause sb sthg. o vi -1. [bavarder]: ~ (de) to chat (about). -2. [jaser]: ~ (sur) to gossip (about). causerie [kozri] «/"talk. causette [kozet] nf fam chat; faire la ~ avec qqn to have a chat with sb. causticité [kostisite] nf causticness, causticity. caustique [kostik] adj 62 nm caustic. cauteleux, -euse [kotlo, az] adj sly. cautériser [koterize] [3] vt to cauterize. caution [kosj5] «/"-l. [somme d'argent] guarantee; libérer qqn sous ~ JUR to tree sb on bail; payer la ~ de qqn to stand bail for sb. -2. [personne] guarantor; se porter ~ pour qqn to act as guarantor for sb. -3. [soutien] support, backing.

83 CEA CAUTION: When renting accommodation in France, the future tenant is usually required to pay a deposit (normally twice the monthly rent), returnable if the property is maintained in good condition. À 'caution solidaire' is a statement signed by a third party guaranteeing payment of rent in the event of nonpayment by the tenant. The term 'caution parentale' is used when the guarantor is the tenant's mother or father cautionner [kosjone] [3] vt -1. [se porter garant de] to guarantee. -2. fig [appuyer] to support, to back. cavalcade [kavalkad] nf -1. [de cavaliers] cav- alcade. -2. [d'enfants] stampede. cavale [kaval] nf fam: être en ~ to be on the run. cavaler [kavale] [3] vi fam [courir] to run OU rush around; ~ après qqn/qqch to chase (after) sb/sthg. cavalerie [kavalri] nf-1. MIL cavalry. -2. [de cirque] horses (yt). cavalier, -1ère [kavalje, jer] o adj -1. [destiné aux cavaliers]: allée cavalière bridle path. -2. sont [impertinent] offhand. O nm, f -1. [à cheval] rider. -2. [partenaire] partner; faire ~ seul fig to go it alone. ♦ cavalier nm [aux échecs] knight. cavalièrement [kavaljermâ] adv in an offhand manner. cave [kav] o nf-1. [sous-sol] cellar. -2. [de vins] (wine) cellar. -3. [cabaret] cellar nightclub. O nm arg crime outsider, o adj [joues] hollow; [yeux] sunken. caveau [kavo] nm -1. [petite cave] small cellar. -2. [cabaret] nightclub. -3. [sépulture] vault. caverne [kavern] nf cave. caverneux, -euse [kavemo, oz] —* voix. caviar [kavjar] nm caviar. cavité [kavite] nf cavity. CB (ahr de citizen's band, canaux banalisés) nfCB. ce -1. (abr de cuillère à café) tsp. -2. abr de charges comprises. CC {abr de corps consulaire) CC. CCE (abr de Commission des communautés européennes) nffcCC. CCI (abr de Chambre de commerce et d'industrie) nf CCI. CCP (abr de compte chèque postal, compte courant postal) nm post office account, = Giro Br. CD nm -1. (abr de chemin départemental) minor road. -2. (abr de compact dise) CD. -3. (abr de comité directeur) steering

committee. -4. (abr de corps diplomatique) CD. CDD (abr de contrat à durée déterminée) nm fixed term contract; elle est ~ she's on a fixed term contract. CdF (abr de Charbonnages de France) nmpl French national coal board, =» NCB Br. CDI nm -1. (abr de centre de documentation et d'information) school library. -2. (abr de contrat à durée indéterminée) permanent work contract; elle est ~ she's got a permanent work contract. CD-Rom [sederDm] (abr de compact dise read only memory) nm CD-Rom. CDS (abr de Centre des démocrates sociaux) nm French political party. CDU (abr de Classification décimale universelle) nf DDS. ce [sa] o adj dém (cet [set] devant voyelle ou h muet, f cette [set], pi ces [se]) [proche] this, (yî) these; [éloigné] that, (pt) those; ~ mois, ~ mois-ci this month; cette année, cette année-là that year; regarde de ~ côté-ci et pas de ~ côté-là look on this side, riot that side. O pron dém (c' devant voyelle): c'est it is, it's; ~ sont they are, they're; c'est mon bureau this is my office, it's my office; ~ sont mes enfants these are my children, they're my children; c'est à Paris it's in Paris; c'était hier it was yesterday; qui est—? who is it?; ~ qui, ~ que what; ils ont eu ~ qui leur revenait they got what they deserved; ..., ~ qui est étonnant ..., which is surprising; elle n'achète même pas ~ dont elle a besoin she doesn't even buy what she needs; vous savez bien ~ à quoi je pense you know exactly what I'm thinking about; faites donc ~ pour quoi on vous paie do what you're paid to do. ♦ n'est-ce pas? loc adv isn't it?/aren't you? etc; ~ café est bon, n'est— pas? this coffee's good, isn't it?; tu connais Pierre, n'est— pas? you know Pierre, don't you?; elle est jolie, n'est— pas? she's pretty, isn't she?; n'est— pas que tu aimes la soupe? you like the soup, don't you? CE O nm -1. abr de comité d'entreprise. -2. (abr de cours élémentaire) ~1 second year of primary school; ~2 third year of primary school. O nf (abr de Communauté européenne) EC. CEA (abr de Commissariat à l'énergie ato-

CECA 84 mique) nm French atomic energy commission, =* AEC Am, = AEA Br. CECA, Ceca [seka] (abr de Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier) nf ECSC. ceci [sasi] pron dém this; ~ pour vous dire que ... this is just to say (that) ...; ~ n'explique pas cela this doesn't explain that; ~ (étant) dit having said that; à ~ près que with the exception that, except that. cécité [sesite] «/"blindness. céder [sede] [18] o vt -1. [donner] to give up. -2. [revendre] to sell. O vi -1. [personne]: ~ (à) to give in (to), to yield (to). -2. [chaise, plancher] to give way. CEDEX, Cedex [sedeks] (abr de courrier d'entreprise à distribution exceptionnelle) nm accelerated postal service for bulk users. cédille [sedij] «/"cedilla; c ~ c cedilla. cèdre [sedr] nm cedar. CEE (abr de Communauté économique européenne) nf EEC. CEI (abr de Communauté d'Etats Indépendants) nf CIS. ceindre [sêdr] [81] vt -1. [entourer]: ~ qqch de qqch to put sthg around sthg. -2. [met tre] to put on. ceinture [sêtyr] nf -1. [gén] belt; attachez vos —s fasten your seat OU safety belts; ~ à enrouleur inertia-reel seat belt; ~ noire JUDO black belt; ~ de sauvetage life belt; ~ de sécurité safety OU seat belt; ~ verte green belt; se serrer la — fig to tighten one's belt. -2. ANAT waist. -3. COUTURE waistband. ceinturon [sêtyr5] nm belt. cela [sala] pron dém that; ~ ne vous regarde pas it's OU that's none of your business; il y a des années de ~ that was many years ago; c'est ~ that's right; ~ dit ... having said that ...; malgré ~ in spite of that, nevertheless. celebration [selebrasj5] «/"celebration. célèbre [selebr] adj famous. célébrer [selebre] [18] vt -1. [gén] to celebrate. -2. [faire la louange de] to praise. célébrité [selebrite] nf -t. [renommée] fame. -2. [personne] celebrity. céleri [selri] nm celery; ~ rémoulade CULIN grated celeriac in mustard dressing. ♦ céleri rave, céleri-rave nm celeriac. célérité [selerite] «/"speed. céleste [selest] adj heavenly. célibat [seliba] nm celibacy. célibataire [selibater] o adj single, unmarried. O nmf single person, single man (f woman); ~ endurci confirmed bachelor.

celle —► celui. celle-ci —► celui-ci. celle-là —► celui-là. celles —► celui. celles-ci —► celui-ci. celles-là —► celui-là. cellier [selje] nm storeroom. Cellophane® [sebfan] nf Cellophane®; sous ~ (wrapped) in cellophane. cellulaire [selyler] adj -1. BIOL & TÉLÉCOM cellular. -2. [destiné aux prisonniers]: régime ~ solitary confinement; voiture ~ prison van. cellule [selyl] nf-1. [gén & INFORM] cell; ~ photoélectrique photoelectric cell. -2. [groupe] unit; ~ de crise [groupe] emergency committee; [réunion] emergency committee meeting. cellulite [selylit] «/"cellulite. celluloïd [selybid] nm celluloid. cellulose [selyloa] «/"cellulose. celte [selt] adj Celtic. ♦ Celte nmf Celt. celtique [seltik] O adj Celtic, o nm [langue] Celtic. celui [saly] (f celle [sel], mpl ceux [so], fpl celles [sel]) pron dém -1. [suivi d'un complément prépositionnel] the one; celle de devant the one in front; ceux d'entre vous qui ... those of you who .... -2. [suivi d'un pronom relatif]: ~ qui [objet] the one which OU that; [personne] the one who; c'est celle qui te va le mieux that's the one which OU that suits you best; ~ que vous voyez the one (which OU that) you can see, the one whom you can see; ceux que je connais those I know. -3. [suivi d'un adjectif, d'un participe] the one. celui-ci [salqisi] (f celle-ci [selsi], mpl ceux-ci [sosi], fpl celles-ci [selsi]) pron dém this one, these ones (pt). celui-là [sdlqila] (f celle-là [sella], mpl ceuxlà [sola], fpl celles-là [sella]) pron dém that one, those ones (/?/); ~ ... celui-ci the former ... the latter. cénacle [senakl] nm [coterie] circle. cendre [sâdr] nf ash; réduire qqch en ~s to reduce sthg to ashes. ♦ cendres nfpl [restes des morts] ashes; renaître de ses —s fig to rise from the ashes. ♦ Cendres nfpl: le mercredi des Cendres Ash Wednesday. cendré, -e [sâdre] adj [chevelure]: blond ~ ash blond.

85 cerf cendrier [sâdrije] nm -1. [de fumeur] ashtray. -2. [de poêle] ashpan. cène [sen] nf (Holy) Communion. ♦ Cène nf: la Cène the Last Supper. censé, -e [sâsç] adj: être ~ faire qqch to be supposed to do sthg. censément [sâsemâ] adv sout supposedly. censeur [sâsœr] nm -1. SCOL = viceprincipal Am, = deputy head Br. -2. CIN & PRESSE censor. -3. fig [juge] critic. censure [sâsyr] nf-1. [CIN & PRESSE - contrôle] censorship; [- censeurs] censors {pi). -2. FOUT censure. -3. PSYCHOL censor. censurer [sâsyre] [3] vt -1. CIN, PRESSE & PSYCHOL to censor. -2. [juger] to censure. cent [sa] o adj num one hundred, a hundred; voir aussi six. O nm -1. [nombre] a hundred; voir aussi six. -2. [mesure de proportion]: pour ~ per cent; ~ pour ~ a hundred per cent. -3. [monnaie] cent. centaine [sâtcn] nf-1. [cent unités] hundred. -2. [un grand nombre]: une ~ de about a hundred; des —s (de) hundreds (of); plusieurs —s de several hundred; par ~s in hundreds. centenaire [sâtner] O adj hundred-yearold {avant n); être ~ to be a hundred years old. O nmf centenarian. O nm [anniversaire] centennial Am, centenary Br. centiare [sâtjar] nm square meter Am OU metre Br. centième [sâtjem] O adj num, nm & nmf hundredth; voir aussi sixième. O nf THÉÂTRE hundredth performance. centigrade [sâtigrad] —► degré. centigramme [sâtigram] nm centigram. centilitre [sâtilitr] nm centiliter Am, centilitre Br. centime [sâtim] nm centime. centimètre [sâtimetr] nm -1. [mesure] centimeter Am, centimetre Br; ~ cube cubic centimeter Am OU centimetre Br. -2. [ruban, règle] tape measure. central, -e, -aux [sâtral, o] adj central. ♦ central nm -1. TENNIS center Am OU centre Br court. -2. [de réseau]: ~ téléphonique telephone exchange. ♦ centrale nf -1. [usine] power plant OU station; ~e hydroélectrique hydroelectric power station; ~e nucléaire nuclear power plant OU station. -2. [syndicale] group of affiliated trade unions. -3. COMM: ~e d'achat buying group. ♦ Centrale nf grande école training highlyqualified engineers. centralien, -ienne [sâtraljê, jen] nm, f engineering student.

centralisation [sâtralizasj5] a// centralization. centraliser [sâtralize] [3] vt to centralize. centre [sâtr] nm [gén] center Am, centre Br, ~ aéré outdoor center Am OU centre Br, ~ antipoison poison center Am OU centre Br, ~ commercial shopping mall Am, shopping centre Br; ~ culturel arts center Am OU centre Br; ~ de documentation reference library; ~ équestre riding school; ~ de gravité center Am OU centre Br of gravity; ~ nerveux nerve center Am OU centre Br; ~ de rééducation rehabilitation center Am OU centre Br. centrer [sâtre] [3] vt to center Am, to centre Br. centre-ville [sâtravil] (yl centres-villes) nm city center Am OU centre Br, town center Am OU centre Br. centrifuge [sâtriry3] —► force. centrifugeuse [sâtrify30z] nf-1. TECHNOL centrifuge. -2. CULIN juice extractor. centriste [sâtrist] POLIT O adj center {avant n) Am, centre {avant n) Br. O nmf centrist. centuple [sâtypl] nm: être le ~ de to be a hundred times; au ~ a hundredfold. centupler [sûtyple] [3] vt & vi to increase a hundredfold. cep [sep] nm stock. CEP {ahr de certificat d'études primaires) nm school-leaving certificate formerly taken at end of primary education. cépage [sepa3] nm (type of) vine. cèpe [sep] nm cep. cependant [sapâdâ] conj however, yet. céramique [seramik] nf -1. [matière, objet] ceramic. -2. [art] ceramics (l/), pottery. cerbère [serber] nm strict doorkeeper. cerceau [serso] nm hoop. cercle [serkl] nm circle; ~ vicieux vicious circle. cerclé, -e [serkle] adj ringed; des lunettes —es d'écaillé hom-rimmea glasses. cercueil [serkoej] nm coffin. céréale [sereal] nf cereal. cérébral, -e, -aux [serebral, o] O adj -1. [du cerveau] cerebral. -2. [personne, activité] intellectual. O nm, /"intellectual. cérémonial, -als [seremonjal] nm ceremonial. cérémonie [seremoni] nf ceremony; faire des —s to make a fuss. cérémonieux, -ieuse [seremonjo, joz] adj ceremonious. cerf [ser] nm stag.

cerfeuil 86 cerfeuil [serfœj] nm chervil. cerf-volant [servolâ] {pi cerfs-volants) nm -1. [jouet] kite. -2. [insecte] stag beetle. cerise [sariz] nf & adj inv cherry; ~ à grappes choke berry. cerisier [sarizje] nm [arbre] cherry (tree); [bois] cherry (wood). CERN, Cern [sern] {abr de Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire) nm CERN. cerne [sern] nm ring. cerné [serne] —► oeil. cerner [serne] [3] vt -1. [encercler] to surround. -2. fig [sujet] to define. certain, -e [sertê, en] o adj certain; c'est une chose ~e there's no doubt about it; être ~ de qqch to be certain OU sure of sthg; être ~ que to be certain OU sure (that); je suis pourtant ~ d'avoir mis mes clés là but I'm certain OU sure I left my keys there. O adj indéf {avant n) certain; il a un ~ talent he has some talent OU a certain talent; à un ~ moment at some point; ~s jours some days; un ~ temps for a while; dans une certaine mesure to a certain extent; avoir un ~ âge to be getting on, to be past one's prime; c'est un monsieur d'un ~ âge he's getting on a bit; un ~ M. Lebrun a Mr Lebrun. ♦ certains (fpl certaines) pron indéf pi some. certainement [sertenmâ] adv certainly. certes [sert] adv of course. certificat [sertifika] nm -1. [attestation, diplôme] certificate; ~ d'aptitude professionnelle vocational training certificate; ~ d'études primary school-leaving certificate; ~ médical medical certificate; ~ de scolarité certificate of regular attendance at school or university. -2. [référence] reference. certifié, -e [sertifje] adj: professeur ~ qualified teacher. certifier [sertifje] [9] vt -1. [assurer]: ~ qqch à qqn to assure sb of sthg. -2. [authentifier] to certify. certitude [sertityd] «/"certainty. cérumen [serymen] nm wax, earwax. cerveau [servo] nm brain. cervelas [servala] nm saveloy. cervelle [servel] nf-\. anat brain. -2. [facultés mentales, aliment] brains (vl). -3. he: se brûler la — to blow one's Drains out; se creuser la — to rack one's brains. cervical, -e, -aux [servikal, o] adj cervical; (vertèbre) ~e cervical vertebra. ces —► ce.

CES {abr de collège d'enseignement secondaire) nm former secondary school. César [sezar] nm: les —s French cinema awards. césarienne [sezarjen] nf caesarean (section). cessante [sesât] —► affaire. cessation [sesasj5] nf suspension. cesse [ses] nf: n'avoir de ~ que (+ subjonctif) sout not to rest until. ♦ sans cesse loc adv continually, constantly. cesser [sese] [4] o vi to stop, to cease. O vt to stop; ~ de faire qqch to stop doing sthg. cessez-le-feu [seselfo] nm inv cease-fire. cession [sesj5] nf transfer. c'est-à-dire [setadir] conj -1. [en d'autres termes]: ~ (que) that is (to say). -2. [introduit une restriction, précision, réponse]: ~ que well ..., actually .... cet [set] —► ce. cétacé [setase] nm cetacean. cette —► ce. ceux —► celui. ceux-ci —» celui-ci. ceux-là —► celui-là. cévenol, -e [sevnol] adj ofyfrom the Cévennes region. Ceylan [selâ] nm Ceylon. cf. {abr de confer) cf. CFA O nf {abr de Communauté financière africaine): franc ~ currency used in former French African colonies. O nm {abr de centre de formation des apprentis) centre for apprenticeship training. CFAO {abr de conception de fabrication assistée par ordinateur) nf CAM. CFC {abr de chlorofluorocarbone) nm CFC. CFDT {abr de Confédération française démocratique du travail) nf French trade union. CFES {abr de certificat de fin d'études secondaires) nm school-leaving certificate. CFF {abr de Chemins de fer fédéraux) nmpl Swiss railways. CFL {abr de Chemins de fer luxembourgeois) nmpl Luxembourg railways. CFP {abr de Compagnie française des pétroles) nf French oil company. CFTC {abr de Confédération française des travailleurs chrétiens) nf French trade union. CGC {abr de Confédération générale des cadres) nf French management union. CGT {abr de Confédération générale du

87 chamois travail) nf French trade union (affiliated to the Communist party). ch. -1. abr de charges. -2. abr de chauffa*ge. -3. abr de cherche. CH (abr de Confédération helvétique) Switzerland (as nationality sticker on a car). chacal [fakal] nm jackal. chacun, -c [fakœ, yn] pron indéf each (one); [tout le monde] everyone, everybody; ~ de nous/de vous/d'eux each of us/you/them; ~ pour soi every man for himself; tout un ~ every one of us/them. chagrin, -c Lfa*grë, in] adj [personne] grieving; [caractère, humeur] morose. ♦ chagrin nm grief; avoir du ~ to grieve. chagriner [fa*grine] [3] vt -1. [peiner] to grieve, to distress. -2. [contrarier] to upset. chahut [fay] nm uproar. chahuter [fayte] [3] o vi to cause an uproar. O vt -1. [importuner - professeur] to rag, to tease; [- orateur] to heckle. -2. [bousculer] to jostle. chahuteur, -euse [faytœr, az] o adj disruptive, rowdy. O nm, f -\. [enfant] disruptive child. -2. [manifestant] heckler. chai [fe] nm wine and spirits store OU storehouse. chaîne [fen] nf -\. [gén] chain; ~ de montagnes mountain range. -2. IND: ~ de fabrication de montage production/assembly line; travail à la ~ production-line work; produire qqch à la ~ to massproduce sthg. -3. TÉLÉ channel. -4. [appareil] stereo (system); ~ hi-fi hi-fi system. ♦ chaînes nfpl fig chains, bonds. chaînette [fenet] nf small chain. chaînon [fen5] nm litt & fig link. chair [fer] o «/"flesh; bien en ~ plump; en ~ et en os in the flesh; ~ à saucisse sausage meat; avoir la ~ de poule fig to have goosebumps Am, to have goosepimples Br. O adj inv flesh-colored Am, flesh-coloured Br. chaire [fer] nf -1. [estrade - de prédicateur] pulpit; [- de professeur] rostrum. -2. UNIV chair. chaise [fez] nf chair; ~ électrique electric chair; ~ haute high chair; ~ longue deckchair; être assis entre deux —s fig to be in an awkward situation. chaland [Jalâ] nm [bateau] barge. châle [fal] nm shawl. chalet [fale] nm -1. [de montagne] chalet. -2. Can [maison de campagne] (holiday) cottage. chaleur [falœr] nf heat; [agréable] warmth; avec ~ [accueillir] warmly; en ~ [animal] on

heat. chaleureusem*nt [falœrazmâ] adv warmiy chaleureux, -euse [faloero, qz] adj warm. challenge [falâ3] nm -1. SPORT tournament. -2. fig [défi] challenge. challenger [tfalend3oer] nm SPORT & fig challenger. chaloupe [falup] nf rowboat Am, rowing boat Br. chalumeau [falymo] nm -1. TECHNOL blowtorch Am, blowlamp Br. -2. [paille] (drinking) straw. chalutier [falytje] nm -1. [bateau] trawler. -2. [pêcheur] trawlerman. chamade [famad] nf battre la ~ [cœur] to pound. chamailler [famaje] [3] ♦ se chamailler vp fam to squabble. chambardement [fâbardamâ] nm fam [bouleversem*nt] upheaval. chambarder [fâbarde] [3] vt fam -1. [pièce] to turn upside down. -2. [projet] to upset. chambouler [fabule] [3] vt fam to make a mess of, to turn upside down. chambranle [fâbrâl] nm [de porte, fenêtre] frame; [de cheminée] mantelpiece. chambre [fâbr] nf -1. [où l'on dort]: ~ (à coucher) bedroom; garder la ~ to stay in one's room; faire ~ à part to sleep in separate rooms; ~ à un lit, ~ pour une personne single room; ~ pour deux personnes double room; ~ à deux lits twinbedded room; ~ d'amis spare room; ~ d'hôte bed and breakfast. -2. [local] room; ~ forte strongroom; ~ froide cold store; ~ noire darkroom. -3. JUR division; ~ d'accusation court of criminal appeal. -4. POLIT chamber, house; Chambre des députés = House of Representatives Am, — House of Commons Br. -5. COMM: ~ de commerce chamber of commerce; ~ des métiers guild chamber. -6. TECHNOL chamber; ~ à air [de pneu] inner tube. chambrée [fâbre] nf room, roomful; [de soldats] barrack room. chambrer [fâbre] [3] vt -1. [vin] to bring to room temperature. -2. fam [se moquer]: ~ qqn to pull sb's leg, to wind sb up Br. chameau, -x [famo] nm-1. [mammifère] camel. -2. fam injurieux [homme] pig; [femme] cow. chamois [famwa] O nm chamois; [peau] chamois (leather), o adj inv [couleur] fawn.

champ 88 champ [fâ] nm -1. [gén & INFORM] field; ~ de bataille battlefield; ~ de courses racecourse; ~ magnétique magnetic field; fleurs des ~s wild flowers; ~ visuel field of vision OU view; laisser le ~ libre à qqn fig to leave the field open OU clear for sb. -2. [étendue] area; ~ d'action sphere of activity. champagne [Japaji] nm champagne; ~ rosé pink champagne. champagnisé [fâpajiize] —► vin. champenois, -e [fôpanwa, az] adj: méthode ~e champagne-style. champêtre [fâpetr] adj rural. champignon [fâpijiS] nm -1. BOT & MÉD fungus; pousser comme des —s fig to mushroom. -2. [comestible] mushroom; ~ de Paris button mushroom; ~ vénéneux toadstool. -3. fam [accélérateur] accelerator; appuyer sur le ~ to step on the gas Am, to put one's foot down Br. champion, -ionne [fâpjô, pn] o nm, f champion; ~ du monde world champion. O adj fam brilliant. championnat [fâppna] nm championship; ~ du monde world championship. chance [fâs] «/"-l. [bonheur] luck (U); avoir de la ~ to be lucky; ne pas avoir de ~ to be unlucky; bonne ~! good luck!; quelle ~! what luck!, how lucky!; porter ~ to bring good luck. -2. [probabilité, possibilité] chance, opportunity; avoir des —s de faire qqch to have a chance of doing sthg; donner sa ~ à qqn to give sb a chance; il y a peu de ~s que ... there's not much chance that .... chancelant, -e [fâslâ, ât] adj -1. [titubant, bancal] unsteady. -2. fig [mémoire, santé] shaky. chanceler [fâsle] [24] vi [personne, gouvernement] to totter; [meuble] to wobble. chancelier [fâsalje] nm -1. [premier ministre] chancellor. -2. [de consulat, d'ambassade] secretary. ♦ Chancelier nm: le Chancelier de l'Échiquier the Chancellor of the Exchequer. chancellerie [fâselri] nf -\. [ministère de la justice] Department of Justice Am, chancery Br. -2. [en Allemagne] chancellor's office. -3. [de consulat, d'ambassade] chancery. chanceux, -euse [fûso. oz] adj lucky. chancre [fâkr] nm -1. MÉD chancre. -2. BOT canker. chandail [fâdaj] nm (thick) sweater. Chandeleur [fâdlœr] «/"Candlemas. chandelier [fâdalje] nm [pour une bougie] candlestick; [à plusieurs branches] candelabra.

chandelle [fâdel] nf [bougie] candie; dîner aux —s candlelit dinner; brûler la ~ par les deux bouts fig to burn the candle at both ends; devoir une fière ~ à qqn fig to owe sb a big favor Am OU favour Br; tenir la ~ to play gooseberry; voir trente-six ~s fam fig to see stars. change [fâ3] nm -1. [troc & FIN] exchange; donner le ~ à qqn to pull the wool over sb's eyes; gagner au ~ to be better off; perdre au ~ to lose out. -2. [couche de bébé] diaper Am, disposable nappy Br. changeant, -e [fâ3â, ât] adj -1. [temps, humeur] changeable. -2. [reflet] shimmering. changement [fâ3mâ] nm change; ~ de programme change of plan; ~ de vitesse gearshift Am, gear lever Br. changer [fâ3e] [17] o vt -1. [gén] to change; ~ qqch contre to change OU exchange sthg for; ~ qqn en to change sb into. -2. [modifier] to change, to alter; ne rien ~ à qqch not to make any changes to sthg; ça me/te changera that will be a (nice) change for me/you. O vi -1. [gén] to change; ~ de train (à) to change trains (at); ~ d'avis to change one's mind; ça changera! that'll make a change!; ~ de direction to change direction; ~ de place (avec qqn) to change places (with sb); ~ de vitesse AUTOM to change gear; ~ de voiture to change one's car; pour ~ for a change. -2. [modifier] to change, to alter; ~ de comportement to alter one's behavior Am ou behaviour Br. ♦ se changer vp -1. [se rhabiller] to change, to get changed. -2. [se transformer]: se ~ en to change into. changeur [fâ3œr] nm -1. [personne] moneychanger. -2. [appareil]: ~ de monnaie change machine. chanoine [fanwan] nm canon. chanson [fâs5] nf song; c'est toujours la même ~ fig it's the same old story. chansonnette [fâssnet] «/"ditty. chansonnier, -1ère [fâsonje, jer] nm, /"cabaret singer-songwriter. chant [fâ] nm -1. [chanson] song, singing (l/); [sacré] hymn; ~ du cygne fig swansong; ~ grégorien Gregorian chant. -2. [art] singing. chantage [fâta3] nm litt & fig blackmail; faire du ~ to use OU resort to blackmail; faire du ~ à qqn to blackmail sb. chantant, -e [fâtâ, ât] adj -1. [accent, voix] lilting. -2. [musique, air] catchy.

89 charge chanter [fate] [3] O vt -1. [chanson] to sing. -2. fam [raconter] to tell. -3. littéraire [célébrer] to sing OU tell of; ~ les louanges de qqn to sing sb's praises. O vi -1. [gén] to sing; ~ juste to sing in tune; ~ faux to sing off key. -2. loc: faire ~ qqn to blackmail sb; si ça vous chante! fam if you feel like OU fancy it! chanterelle Lfâtrel] nf [champignon] chanterelle. chanteur, -euse Lfâtcer, oz] nm, f singer. chantier Lfâtje] nm -1. CONSTR (building) site; [sur la route] roadworks (pi); en ~ fig in progress; ~ naval shipyard, dockyard. -2. fig [désordre] shambles (sg), mess. Chantilly Lfâtiji] nf: (crème) ~ stiffly whipped cream sweetened and flavoured. chantonner Lfatsne] [3] vt & vi to hum. chanvre Lfâvr] nm hemp. chaos [kao] nm chaos. chaotique [kaotik] ad] chaotic. chap, (abr de chapitre) ch. chaparder [faparde] [3] vt to steal. chapeau, -x Lfapo] nm -1. [coiffure] hat; ~ melon bowler hat; tirer son ~ à qqn to take one's hat off to sb. -2. PRESSE introductory paragraph. -3. loc: ~! fam nice one!; démarrer sur les ~x de roues fam to take off like a bat out of hell. chapeauter Lfapote] [3] vt [service] to head; [personnes] to supervise. chapelain [faplc] nm chaplain. chapelet [faplc] nm -1. RELIC rosary; dire son ~ to say one's rosary, to tell one's beads. -2. [de saucisses, d'oignons] string. -3. fig [d'injures] string, torrent. chapelier, -ière [fapalje, jer] O ad] hat {avant n). O nm, f [pour hommes] hatter; [pour femmes] milliner. chapelle Lfapel] nf-1. [petite église] chapel; [partie d'église] choir; ~ ardente chapel of rest. -2. [coterie] clique. chapelure Lfaplyr] nf (dried) breadcrumbs Hchaperon [fapr5] nm -1. LITTÉRATURE: le Petit ~ Rouge Litde Red Riding Hood. -2. [personne] chaperone. chapiteau Lfapito] nm -1. [de colonne] capital. -2. [de cirque] big top. chapitre Lfapitr] nm -1. [de livre & RELIC] chapter. -2. [de budget] head, item. -3. fig [sujet] subject. chapitrer Lfapitre] [3] vt sout to reprimand. chapon Qfap5] nm -1. [volaille] capon. -2. [en-cas] piece of bread rubbed with garlic and chaque Lfak] ad] indéf each, every; ~ personne each person, everyone; j'ai payé ces livres 100 francs ~ I paid 100 francs each

for these books. char [Jar] nm -1. MIL: ~ (d'assaut) tank. -2. [charrette] cart, waggon. -3. [de carnaval] float. -4. Can [voiture] car. -5. HIST chariot. charabia [farabja] nm gibberish. charade [farad] nf charade. charbon Lfarb5] nm -1. [combustible] coal; ~ de bois charcoal; être sur des —s ardents fig to be like a cat on a hot roof Am OU on hot bricks Br. -2. [maladie] anthrax. charbonnage LfarbDna3] nm coalmining; les —s collieries, coalmines. charbonnier, -ière Lfarbsnje, jer] ad] coal (avant n). ♦ charbonnier nm -1. [cargo] collier. -2. [vendeur] coal merchant; [livreur] coalman. charcuterie Lfarkytri] nf -\. [magasin] pork butcher's. -2. [produits] pork meat products. -3. [commerce] pork meat trade. charcutier, -ière Lfarkytje, jer] nm, f [commerçant] pork butcher. chardon Lfard5] nm -1. [plante] thistle. -2. [sur un mur] spikes (ft). char en tais, -e Lfarâte, cz] ad] of/from Charente. ♦ charentaise «/"(bedroom) slipper. charge Lfar3] nf -1. [fardeau] load. -2. [fonction] office. -3. [responsabilité] responsibility; être à la ~ de [personne] to be dependent on; les travaux sont à la ~ du propriétaire the owner is liable for the cost of the work; prendre qqch en ~ [payer] to pay (for) sthg; [s'occuper de] to take charge of sthg; prendre qqn en ~ to take charge of sb. -4. ÉLECTR, JUR & MIL charge; revenir à la ~ to return to the fray. -5. loc: j'accepte, à ~ de revanche I accept, provided that you'll let me do the same for you some time. ♦ charges nfpl -1. [d'appartement] service charge. -2. ÉCON expenses, costs; —s sociales — employer's contributions. CHARGES: Householders and tenants in blocks of flats are required to pay 'charges', a monthly contribution to pay for the general upkeep of the building. In estate agencies, rent is expressed either including this sum ('charges comprises' or 'cc') or excluding it ('hors charges' or 'charges en sus'). Sometimes the 'charges' include heating costs

chargé 90 chargé, -e Lfar3e] o adj -t. [véhicule, personne]: ~ (de) loaded (with). -2. [responsable]: ~ (de) responsible (for). -3. [occupé] full, busy. O nm, f: ~ d'affaires chargé d'affaires; ~ de cours — lecturer; ~ de mission head of mission. chargement [far39mâ] nm -1. [action] loading. -2. [marchandises] load. charger Lfar3e] [17] vt -1. [gén & INFORM] to load. -2. [remplir] to fill. -3. ÉLECTR, JUR & MIL to charge. -4. [donner une mission à]: ~ qqn de faire qqch to put sb in charge of doing sthg. ♦ se charger vp: se ~ de aqn/qqch to take care of sb/sthg, to take charge of sb/ sthg; se ~ de faire qqch to undertake to do sthg. chargeur [farcer] nm -1. ÉLECTR charger. -2. [d'arme] magazine. -3. [d'appareil photo] cartridge, cassette. -4. [personne - qui expédie une charge] shipper; [- qui charge] longshoreman Am, stevedore Am, docker Br. chariot Lfarjo] nm -1. [charrette] handcart. -2. [à bagages, dans un hôpital] wagon Am, trolley Br, ~ élévateur forklift truck. -3. [de machine à écrire] carriage. charismatique [karismatik] adj charismatic. charisme [karism] nm charisma. charitable [faritabl] adj charitable; [conseil] friendly. charité Lfarite] nf-1. [aumône & RELIG] charity; faire la ~ à qqn to give sb charity. -2. [bonté] kindness. charivari [farivari] nm hullabaloo. charlatan [farlatâ] nm péj charlatan. charlotte [farbt] «/"CULIN charlotte. charmant, -e [Jar m à, ât] adj charming. charme [farm] nm -1. [séduction] charm; faire du ~ (à qqn) to turn on the charm (for sb). -2. [enchantement] spell; rompre le ~ to break the spell. -3. [arbre] ironwood, hornbeam. -4. loc: se porter comme un ~ fa m to be as fit as a fiddle. charmer [farme] [3] vt to charm; être charmé de faire qqch to be delighted to do sthg. charmeur, -euse [farmcer, oz] o adj charming, o nm, f charmer; ~ de serpents snake charmer. charnel, -elle Lfarnel] adj carnal. charnier Lfarnje] nm mass grave. charnière [farnjer] o nf hinge; fig turning point, o adj [période] transitional. charnu, -e Lfarny] adj fleshy. charognard [farDjiar] nm litt & fig vulture. charogne [farDji] nf -1. [d'animal] carrion

(U). -2. tfam [crapule - homme] bastard; [- femme] bitch. charpente Lfarpât] nf-1. [de bâtiment, de roman] framework. -2. [ossature] frame. charpenté, -e [farpâte] adj: être bien ~ [personne] to be well-built; [roman] to be well-constructed. charpentier [farpâtje] nm carpenter. charretier, -ière [fartje, jer] o adj cart (avant n). o nm, fcarter; jurer comme un ~ to swear like a trooper. charrette [faret] nf cart. charrier [farje] [9] o vt -1. to carry. -2. fam [se moquer de]: ~ qqn to take sb for a ride. o vi fam [exagérer] to go too far. charrue [fary] nf plow Am, plough Br; mettre la ~ avant les bœufs fam fig to put the cart before the horse. charte [fart] nf charter; l'École nationale des ~s grande école for archivists and librarians. charter [farter] o nm chartered plane, o adj inv (en apposition) charter (avant n). chartreuse [fartroz] nf -1. RELIG Carthusian monastery. -2. [liqueur] Chartreuse. Charybde [Jaribd] n Charybdis; tomber de ~ en Scylla to go from the frying pan into the fire. chas [fa] nm eye (of needle). chasse [fas] nf -1. [action] hunting; aller à la ~ to go hunting; ~ à courre hunting (on horseback with hounds). -2. [période]: la ~ est ouverte/fermée it's the open/close season. -3. [domaine]: ~ gardée private hunting OU shooting preserve; fig preserve. -4. [poursuite] chase; faire la ~ à qqch to chase sthg; faire la ~ à qqn qqch fig to hunt (for) sb/ sthg, to hunt sb/sthg down; prendre qqn/ qqch en ~ to give chase to sb/sthg; ~ à l'homme manhunt. -5. [des cabinets]: ~ (d'eau) flush; tirer la ~ to flush the toilet. chasse-croisé [fasekrwaze] {pi chassescroisés) nm toing and froing. chasse-neige [fasne3] nm inv snowplow Am, snowplough Br. chasser [Jase] [3] o w -1. [animal] to hunt. -2. [faire partir - personne] to drive OU chase away; [- odeur, souci] to dispel, o vi -1. [aller à la chasse] to go hunting, to hunt. -2. [roues] to skid. chasseur, -euse [fasœr, oz] nm, /"hunter. ♦ chasseur nm -1. [d'hôtel] page, messenger. -2. MIL: ~ alpin soldier specially trained for operations in mountainous terrain. -3. [avion] fighter. ♦ chasseur de têtes nm headhunter.

91 chausser châssis [fasi] nm -1. [de fenêtre, de porte, de machine] frame. -2. [de véhicule] chassis. -3. [de tableau] stretcher. chaste [fast] adj chaste. chasteté [fastate] «/"chastity. chasuble [fazybl] O nf chasuble. O adj —► robe. chat, chatte [fa, Jat] nm, f cat; ~ de gouttière ordinary cat, alley cat Am; ~ sauvage wildcat; Can [raton laveur] raccoon; ~ persarL siamois Persian Siamese cat; il n'y a pas un ~ fam there's not a soul; appeler un ~ un ~ to call a spade a spade; avoir d'autres ~s à fouetter to have other fish to fry; avoir un ~ dans la gorge to have a frog in one's throat. châtaigne [fateji] nf-1. [fruit] chestnut. -2. fam [coup] clout. châtaignier [fatejie] nm [arbre] chestnut (tree); [bois] chestnut. châtain [fatê] adj memDrasj5] nf commemoration. commémorer [komemare] [3] vt to commemorate. commencement [komâsmâ] nm beginning, start; au ~ at first, in the beginning. commencer [komâse] [16] o vt [entreprendre] to begin, to start; [être au début de] to begin. O vi to start, to begin; ~ à faire qqch to begin OU start to do sthg, to begin OU start doing sthg; ~ par faire qqch to begin OU start by doing sthg; ~ mal/bien to start badly/well. comment [karnâ] o adv how; ~£ whati; ~ ça va£ how are you£; ~ cela$ how cornea o interj: ~ done! of course!, sure thing!; et ~! fam and how!, absolutely! o nm inv —► pourquoi.

107 communion commentaire [kDmâter] nm -1. [explication] commentary. -2. [observation] comment; sans ~! enough said! commentateur, -trice (komâtatœr, tris] nm, f RADIO & TÉLÉ commentator; ~ sportif sports commentator. commenter [komâte] [3] vt to comment on. commérage [kDmera3] nm péj gossip (U). commerçant, -e [komersâ, ât] O adj [rue] shopping {avant «); [quartier] commercial; [personne] business-minded, o nm, f shopkeeper; petit ~ small trader. commerce [komers] nm -1. [achat et vente] commerce, trade; dans le ~ in the stores Am OU shops Br; ~ de gros/détail wholesale/retail trade; ~ extérieur foreign trade. -2. [magasin] business; le petit ~ small shopkeepers (pi). -3. be: être d'un ~ agréable sout to be easy to get on with. commercial, -e, -iaux [kDmersjal, jo] o adj [entreprise, valeur] commercial; [politique] trade {avant n). o nm, f marketing man (f woman). commercialisation [kDmersjalizasjô] nf marketing. commercialiser [komersjalize] [3] vt to market. commère [komer] nf péj gossip. commets —► commettre. commettre [kametr] [84] vt to commit. ♦ se commettre vp sout: se ~ avec to become involved with. commis, -e [kami, iz] pp —> commettre. ♦ commis nm assistant; ~ voyageur commercial traveler Am OU traveller Br. commisération [komizerasjô] nf sout commiseration. commissaire [komiser] nm commissioner; ~ aux comptes auditor; ~ de police (police) captain Am, (police) superintendent Br. commissaire-priseur [komiserprizoer] {pi commissaires-priseurs) nm auctioneer. commissariat [komisan'a] nm: ~ de police police station. commission [kDmisj'5] nf -1. [délégation] commission, committee; ~ d'enquête commission of inquiry; la Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés watchdog committee supervising the application of data protection legislation; ~ parlementaire parliamentary committee. -2. [message] message. -3. [rémunérauon] commission. ♦ commissions nfpl shopping ((7); faire les —s to do the shopping. commissionnaire [komisjoner] nm [intermédiaire] agent; [d'un message] messenger; [d'un objet] delivery boy OU man.

commissure [komisyr] nf: la ~ des lèvres the corner of the mouth. commode [komod] o nf chest of drawers. O adj -1. [pratique - système] convenient; [- outil] handy. -2. [aimable]: pas ~ awkward. -3. [facile] easy. commodité [komodite] «/"convenience. ♦ commodités nfpl [conforts] comforts. commotion [ksmosjD] nf MÉD shock; ~ cérébrale concussion. commuer [ksmqe] [7] vt: ~ qqch en to commute sthg to. commun, -e [kDmœ, yn] adj -1. [gén] common; [- décision, effort] joint; [- salle] shared; ~ à common to; avoir qqch en ~ to have sthg in common; faire qqch en ~ to do sthg together. -2. [courant] usual, common. ♦ commun nm: le ~ the ordinary; hors du ~ out of the ordinary; le ~ des mortels ordinary people. ♦ commune «/"town. ♦ Commune nf HIST Paris Commune. ♦ communs nmpl outhouses. communal, -e, -aux [ksmynal, o] adj [école] local; [bâtiments] council {avant n). communautaire [kDmynotcr] adj community {avant «). communauté [komynote] nf -1. [groupe] community; vivre en ~ to live communally. -2. [de sentiments, d'idées] identity. -3. POL: la Communauté européenne the European Community; la Communauté d'États indépendants the Commonwealth of Independent States. communément [kDmynemâ] adv commonly. communiant, -e [komynja, ât] nm, f communicant; premier ~ child taking first communion. communicatif, -ive [komynikatif, iv] adj -1. [rire, étemuement] infectious. -2. [personne] communicative. communication [komynikasp] nf -1. [gén] communication; ~ en entreprise communication; ~ de masse mass media. -2. TÉLÉCOM: ~ (téléphonique) (phone) call; être en ~ avec qqn to be talking to sb; obtenir la ~ to get through; recevoir/prendre une ~ to receive/take a (phone) call; ~ interurbaine long-distance (phone) call. communier [komynje] [9] vi RELIG to take communion; ~ (dans) fig to be united (in). communion [kDmynjS] nf RELIG communion; être en ~ avec fig & littéraire to commune with.

communique 108 communiqué [komyriike] nm communiqué; ~ de presse press release. communiquer [komyriike] [3] O vt: ~ qqch à [information, sentiment] to pass on OU communicate sthg to; [chaleur] to transmit sthg to; [maladie] to pass sthg on to. o vi: ~ avec to communicate with. ♦ se communiquer vp [se propager] to spread. communisme [komynism] nm communism. communiste [komynist] nmf & adj communist. commutateur [komytatcer] nm switch. commutation [komytasjô] nf-1. JUR: ~ de peine commutation of sentence. -2. TECH NOL switching. Comores [karriDr] nfpl: les ~ the Comoro Islands, the Comoros; aux ~ in the Comoro Islands. comorien, -ienne [komoi-jê, jen] adj Comoran, Comorian. ♦ Comorien, -ienne nm, f Comoran, Comorian. compact, -e [k5pakt] adj -1. [épais, dense] dense. -2. [petit] compact. ♦ compact nm [disque laser] compact disc, CD. compagne —► compagnon compagnie [k5pajii] nf -1. [gén & COMM] company; fausser ~ à qqn to slip away from sb; tenir ~ à qqn to keep sb company; et ~ and company; iron and the rest; ~ aérienne airline (company); ~ d'assurances insurance company; ~ de navigation shipping company; en ~ de in the company of. -2. [assemblée] gathering. compagnon [k5paji5], compagne [k5paji] nm, /companion. ♦ compagnon nm HIST journeyman. comparable [k5parabl] adj comparable. comparaison [k5parez5] nf [parallèle] comparison; en ~ de, par ~ avec compared with, in OU by comparison with. comparaître [k5paretr] [91} vi JUR: ~ (devant) to appear (before). comparatif, -ive [kôparatif, iv] adj comparative. ♦ comparatif nm GRAM comparative. comparativement [kôparativmâ] adv comparatively. comparé, -e [kôpare] adj comparative; [mérites] relative. comparer [k5pare] [3] vt -1. [confronter]: ~ (avec) to compare (with). -2. [assimiler]: ~ qqch à to compare OU liken sthg to. comparse [kôpars] nmf péj stooge.

compartiment [k5partimâ] nm compartment. compartimenter [kSpartimâte] [3] vi [meuble] to partition; fig [administration] to compartmentalize. comparu, -e [kopary] pp —► comparaître comparution [k5parysj5] nf JUR appearance. compas [k5pa] nm -1. [de dessin] pair of compasses, compasses (pt). -2. navig compass. compassé, -e [k5pase] adj sout staid, stuffy. compassion [k5pasj5] nf sout compassion. compatible [kôpatibl] adj: ~ (avec) compatible (with). compatir [k5patir] [32] vi: ~ (à) to sympathize (with). compatissant, -e [kSpatisù, ùt] adj sympathetic. compatriote [kôpatnpt] nmf compatriot, fellow countryman (/"countrywoman). compensation (k5pâsasj5] nf-1. [dédommagement] compensation; en ~ in compensation. -2. [équilibrage] balance. compensé, -e [kSpâse] adj built-up. compenser [kôpâse] [3] o vt to compensate OU make up for. o vi to compensate, to make up. compétence [k5petâs] nf-1. [qualification] skill, ability. -2. JUR competence; cela n'entre pas dans mes —s that's outside my scope. compétent, -e [k5petâ, ât] adj -1. [capable] capable, competent. -2. ADMIN & JUR competent; les autorités ~es the relevant authorities. compétitif, -ive [kôpetitif, iv] adj competitive. compétition [k5petisj5] «/"competition; faire de la ~ to go in for competitive sport; ~ automobile motor race. compétitivité [kSpetitivite] nf competitiveness. compilation [k5pilasj5] «/compilation. complainte [kôplêt] «/"lament. complaire [kSpler] [110] vi: ~ à qqn sout to please sb. ♦ se complaire vp: se ~ dans qqch/à faire qqch to revel in sthg/in doing sthg. complaisance [kSplezâs] nf-1. [obligeance] kindness. -2. [indulgence] indulgence. -3. [autosatisfaction]: avec ~ indulgently. complaisant, -e [kSplezâ, ât] adj -1. [aimable] obliging, kind. -2. [indulgent] indulgent.

109 comprenne complément [k5plemâ] nm -1. [gén & GRAM] complement; ~ d'information additional OU further information; ~ du nom possessive phrase; ~ d'objet direct direct object; ~ d'objet indirect indirect object. -2. [reste] remainder. complémentaire [kSplemâter] adj -1. [supplémentaire] supplementary. -2. [caractères, couleurs] complementary. complet, -ète [k5ple, et] adj -1. [gén] complete; c'est ~! fam that's all I/we need; la famille au (grand) ~ the whole family. -2. [plein] full. ♦ complet(-veston) nm suit. complètement [kSpletmâ] adv -1. [vraiment] absolutely, totally. -2. [entièrement] completely. compléter [kSplete] [18] vt [gén] to complete, to complement; [somme d'argent] to make up. ♦ se compléter vp to complement one another. complexe [k5pleks] o nm -1. PSYCHOL complex; avoir des ~s to have hang-ups, to be hung up; sans ~ OU —s well-adjusted; ~ d'infériorité/de supériorité inferiority/ superiority complex. -2. [ensemble] complex; ~ hospitalier scolaire sportif hospital/school/sports complex, o adj complex, complicated. complexé, -e [k5plekse] adj hung up, mixed up. complexifier [kSpleksifje] w to make (more) complex. complexité [k5pleksite] «/"complexity. complication [k5plikasj5] «/"intricacy, complexity. ♦ complications nfpl complications. complice [kôplis] o nmf accomplice, o adj [sourire, regard, air] knowing. complicité [kSplisite] «/"complicity. compliment [kSplima] nm compliment. complimenter [k5plimâte] [3] vt to compliment. compliqué, -e [kSplike] adj [problème] complex, complicated; [personne] complicated. compliquer [kSplike] [3] vt to complicate. ♦ se compliquer vp to get complicated. complot [k5plo] nm plot. comploter [k5pbte] [3] vt & vi to plot. comportement [kSpDrtamâ] nm behavior Am, oehaviour Br. comportemental, -e, -aux [kSportamatal, o] adj behavioral Am, behavioural Br. comporter [kSporte] [3] vt -1. [contenir] to include, to contain. -2. [être composé de] to consist of, to be made up of.

♦ se comporter vp to behave. composant, -e [k5pozâ, àt] adj constituent, component. ♦ composant nm component. ♦ composante «f component. composé, -e [kSpoze] adj compound. ♦ composé nm -1. [mélange] combination. -2. CHIM & LING compound. composer [k5poze] [3] o vt -1. [constituer] to make up, to form; être composé de to be made up of. -2. [créer - roman, lettre, poème] to write; [- musique] to compose, to write. -3. [numéro de téléphone] to dial, o vi to compromise. ♦ se composer vp [être constitué]: se ~ de to be composed of, to be made up of. composite [kSpozit] o nm composite, o adj -1. [disparate - mobilier] assorted, of various types; [- foule] heterogeneous. -2. [matériau] composite. compositeur, -trice [kSpozitœr, tris] nm, f -1. MUS composer. -2. TYPO typesetter. composition [k5pozisj5] nf -1. [gén] composition; [de roman] writing, composition. -2. TYPO typesetting. -3. SCOL test; ~ française French composition. -4. [caractère]: être de bonne ~ to be good-natured. compost [k5pDst] nm compost. composter [kSpsste] [3] vt [ticket, billet] to date-stamp. compote [k5pDt] nf compote; ~ de pommes stewed apple; j'ai les jambes en ~ fam fig my legs feel like jelly. compotier [kSpotje] nm fruit bowl. compréhensible [k5preâsibl] adj [texte, parole] comprehensible; fig [réaction] understandable. compréhensif, -ive [k5preâsif, iv] adj understanding. compréhension [k5preâsj5] «/"-l. [de texte] comprehension, understanding. -2. [indulgence] understanding. comprenais, comprenions etc —> comprendre. comprendre [k5prâdr] [79] o w -1. [gén] to understand; je comprends! I see!; se faire ~ to make o.s. understood; mal ~ to misunderstand. -2. [comporter] to comprise, to consist of. -3. [inclure] to include, o vi to understand. ♦ se comprendre vp to understand one another; ça se comprend that's understandable. comprenne, comprennes etc —> comprendre.

compresse 110 compresse [k5pres] nf compress. compresseur [k5presœr] —> rouleau. compression [k5presj5] nf [de gaz] compression; fig cutback, reduction. comprimé, -e [kSprime] ad] compressed. ♦ comprimé nm tablet; ~ effervescent effervescent tablet. comprimer [k5prime] [3] vt -1. [gaz, vapeur] to compress. -2. [personnes]: être comprimés dans to be packed into. compris, -e [kôpri, iz] O pp —» comprendre, o ad] -1. [situé] lying, contained. -2. [inclus]: charges (non) comprises (not) including bills, bills (not) included; tout ~ all inclusive, all in; y ~ including. compromets —► compromettre. compromettant, -e [kôprametâ, ât] ad] compromising. compromettre [kôprometr] [84] vt to compromise. ♦ se compromettre vp: se ~ (avec qqn/ dans qqch) to compromise o.s. (with sb/in sthg). compromis, -e [kôpromi, iz] pp —► compromettre. ♦ compromis nm compromise. compromission [lôpromisp] nf péj base action. comptabiliser [kôtabilize] [3] vt to enter in an account. comptabilité [kStabilite] nf [comptes] accounts (pi); [service]: la ~ accounts, the accounts department. comptable [k5tabl] O nmf accountant. O ad] accounting (avant n). comptant [k5tâ] o ad] inv cash, in cash, o adv. payer OU régler ~ to pay cash. ♦ au comptant loc adv. payer au ~ to pay cash. compte [k5t] nm -1. [action] count, counting (^); [total] number; ~ à rebours countdown; ~ rond round number. -2. BANQUE, COMM & COMPTABILITÉ account; ouvrir un ~ to open an account; régler un ~ to settle an account; ~ bancaire OU en banque bank account; ~ courant current account, checking account Am-, ~ créditeur account in credit; ~ débiteur overdrawn account; ~ de dépôt deposit account; ~ d'épargne savings account; ~ d'exploitation operating account; ~ postal post office account. -3. loc: avoir son ~ to have had enough; être/se mettre à son — to be/become selfemployed; prendre qqch en ~, tenir ~ de qqch to take sthg into account; régler son ~ à qqn fam Hg to sort sb out; rendre ~ de to account for; se rendre ~ de qqch to

realize sthg; se rendre ~ que to realize (that); s'en tirer à bon ~ to get off lighdy; tout ~ fait all things considered. ♦ comptes nmpl accounts; devoir des ~s à to be accountable to; faire ses ~s to do one's accounts; faire des —s d'apothicaire to account for every last penny; régler ses —s avec qqch to come to terms with sthg; régler ses ~s avec qqn to have it out with sb. compte-chèques (pi comptes-chèques), compte chèques (pi comptes chèques) [k5tfek] nm current account, checking account Am. compte-gouttes [k5tgut] nm inv dropper; au ~ fig sparingly. compter [k5te] [3] o vt -1. [dénombrer] to count. -2. [avoir l'intention de]: ~ faire qqch to intend to do sthg, to plan to do sthg. o vi -1. [calculer] to count. -2. [être important] to count, to matter; ~ pour to count for. -3. ~ sur [se fier à] to rely OU count on. -4. ~ avec [tenir compte de] to reckon with, to take account of. ^-5. ~ parmi [faire partie de] to be included amongst, to rank amongst. ♦ à compter de loc prép as from, starting from. ♦ sans compter o loc prép [excepté] not including, o loc adv. se dépenser sans ~ fig to give unsparingly of o.s. ♦ sans compter que loc con] besides which. compte rendu (pi comptes rendus), compte-rendu (pi comptes-rendus) [k5trâdy] nm report, account. compte-tours [k5ttur] nm inv rev counter, tachometer. compteur [k5tœr] nm meter. comptine [k5tin] nf nursery rhyme. comptoir [k5twar] nm -1. [de bar] bar; [de magasin] counter. -2. HIST trading post. -3. Helv [foire] trade fair. compulser [k5pylse] [3] vt to consult. comte [k5t] nm count. comté [k5te] nm -1. [fromage] type of cheese similar to Gruyère. -2. ADMIN [au Canada] county. -3. HIST earldom. comtesse [k5tcs] «/"countess. con, conne [k5, kon] tfam o ad] damned OU bloody Br stupid, o nm, f stupid bastard (/"bitch). Conakry [konakri] n Conakry. concasser [k5kase] [3] vt to crush; [poivre] to grind. concave [k5kav] ad] concave.

Ill concret concéder [k5sede] [18] vt: ~ qqch à [droit, terrain] to grant sthg to; [point, victoire] to concede sthg to; ~ que to admit (that), to concede (that). concentration [k5sâtrasj5] nf concentration. concentré, -e [kSsâtre] adj -1. [gén] concentrated. -2. [personne]: elle était très ~e she was concentrating hard. -3. —► lait. ♦ concentré nm concentrate; ~ de tomates CULIN tomato paste OU purée. concentrer [k5sâtre] [3] vt to concentrate. ♦ se concentrer vp -1. [se rassembler] to be concentrated. -2. [personne] to concentrate. concentrique [k5sâtrik] adj concentric. concept [k5sept] nm concept. concepteur, -trice [k5septœr, tris] nm, f designer. conception [k5sepsj5] nf -1. [gén] conception. -2. [d'un produit, d'une campagne] design, designing (U). concernant [kôsernâ] prép regarding, concerning. concerner [kSserne] [3] vt to concern; être/ se sentir concerné par qqch to be/feel concerned by sthg; en ce qui me concerne as far as I'm concerned. concert [k5ser] nm -1. MUS concert. -2. [entente] accord; de ~ avec together with. concertation [k5sertasj5] «/"[dialogue] dialogue; [consultation] consultation; travailler en ~ to work together. concerter [kSserte] [3] vt [organiser] to devise (jointly). ♦ se concerter vp to consult (each other). concerto [kSserto] nm concerto. concession [k5sesj5] nf -1. [compromis & GRAM] concession; faire des —s (à qqn) to make concessions (to sb). -2. [autorisation] rights {ft), concession. concessionnaire [kosesjoner] o nmf -1. [automobile] (car) dealer. -2. [qui possède une franchise] franchise holder. O adj concessionary. concevable [kSsavabl] adj conceivable. concevoir [kSsavwar] [52] vt -1. [enfant, projet] to conceive. -2. [comprendre] to conceive of; je ne peux pas ~ comment/ pourquoi I cannot conceive how/why. -3. sout [éprouver] to feel. ♦ se concevoir vp to be imagined. concierge [k5sjer3] nmf caretaker. concile [k5sil] nm council. conciliabule [kSsiljabyl] nm [discussion] consultation. conciliant, -e [k5siljâ, ât] adj conciliating.

conciliation [k5siljasj5] nf -1. [règlement d'un conflit] reconciliation, reconciling. -2. [accord & JUR] conciliation. concilier [kôsilje] [9] vt -1. [mettre d'accord, allier] to reconcile; ~ qqch et OU avec qqch to reconcile sthg with sthg. -2. [gagner à sa cause]: ~ qqn à to win sb over to. ♦ se concilier vp: se ~ qqn to win sb over; se ~ qqch to gain sthg. concis, -e [k5si, iz] adj [style, discours] concise; [personne] terse. concision [k5sizj5] nf conciseness, concision. concitoyen, -yenne [k5sitwajê, jen] nm, f fellow citizen. conclu, -e [k5kly] pp —► conclure. concluant, -e [k5klyâ, ât] adj [convainquant] conclusive. conclure [k5klyr] [96] O vt to conclude; ~ de qqch que to conclude from sthg that; en ~ que to deduce (that). O vi: ~ à qqch: les experts ont conclu à la folie the experts concluded he/she was mad; le tribunal a conclu au suicide the court returned a verdict of suicide. conclusion [k5klyzj5] nf -1. [gén] conclusion; en arriver à la ~ que to corne to the conclusion that. -2. [partie finale] close. concocter [kSkokte] [3] vt to concoct. concombre [k5k5br] nm cucumber. concomitant, -e [k5lomitâ, ât] adj concomitant. concordance [kôkordâs] nf [conformité] agreement; ~ des temps GRAM sequence of tenses. concorde [k5ksrd] «/"concord. Concorde® [k5ksrd] nm Concorde®. concorder [kSksrde] [3] vi -1. [coïncider] to agree, to coincide. -2. [être en accord]: ~ (avec) to be in accordance (with). -3. [avoir un même but] to coincide. concourir [kSkurir] [45] vi -1. [contribuer]: ~ à to work toward Am OU towards Br. -2. [participer à un concours] to compete. concours [k5kur] nm -1. [examen] competitive examination; ~ de recrutement competitive entry examination. -2. [compétition] competition, contest; hors ~ [dans une compétition] ineligible; fig exceptional; ~ hippique horse show. -3. [collaboration] help; avec le ~ de qqn with sb's help OU assistance. -4. [coïncidence]: ~ de circonstances combination of circ*mstances. concret, -ète [k5kre, et] adj concrete.

concrètement 112 concrètement [kSkretmâ] adv [en réalité] in real OU practical terms. concrétiser [k5kretize] [3] vt [projet] to give shape to; [rêve, espoir] to give solid form to. ♦ se concrétiser vp [projet] to take shape; [rêve, espoir] to materialize. conçu, -e [k5sy] pp —► concevoir. concubin, -e [k5kybë, in] nm, f partner, common-law husband (f wife). concubinage [k5kybina3] nm living together, cohabitation. concupiscent, -e [k5kypisâ, ât] adj concupiscent. concurremment [kSkyramâ] adv joindy. concurrence [k5kyrâs] w/"-l. [rivalité] rivalry. -2. ÉCON competition; ~ déloyale unfair competition, des prix défiant toute ~ unbeatable prices. -3. [montant]: jusqu'à ~ de to the amount of, not exceeding. concurrent, -e [k5kyrâ, ât] o adj rival, competing, o nm, /"competitor. concurrentiel, -ielle [k5kyrâsjel] adj competitive. condamnable [kSdanabl] adj reprehensible. condamnation [k5danasj5] nf -1. JUR sentence. -2. [dénonciation] condemnation. condamné, -e [k5dane] nm, /"convict, prisoner. condamner [k5dane] [3] w -1. JUR: ~ qqn (à) to sentence sb (to); ~ qqn à une amende to fine sb. -2. fig [obliger]: ~ qqn à qqch to condemn sb to sthg. -3. [malade]: être condamné to be terminally ill. -4. [interdire] to forbid. -5. [blâmer] to condemn. -6. [fermer] to fill in, to block up. condensateur [kSdâsatcer] nm condenser. condensation [k5dâsasj5] nf condensation. condensé [k5dâse] o nm summary, o adj — lait. condenser [k5dâse] [3] vt to condense. ♦ se condenser vp to condense. condescendant, -e [k5desâdâ, ât] adj condescending. condescendre [kSdesâdr] [73] vi sout: ~ à qqch à faire qqch to condescend to sthg/to do sthg. condescendu [k5desâdy] pp inv —► condescendre. condiment [k5dimâ] nm condiment. condisciple [k5disipl] nm fellow student. condition [k5disj5] «/"-l. [gén] condition; ~ sine qua non essential condition; remplir une ~ to fulfil a condition; se mettre en ~ [physiquement] to get into shape. -2. [place sociale] station; la ~ des ouvriers the workers' lot. ♦ conditions nfpl -1. [circonstances]

conditions; ~s de vie living conditions. -2. [de paiement] terms. ♦ à condition de be prép providing OU provided (that). ♦ à condition que loc conj (+ subjonctif) providing OU provided (that). ♦ sans conditions o be adj unconditional, o be adv unconditionally. conditionné, -e [kSdisjsne] adj -1. [emballé]: ~ sous vide vacuum-packed. -2. —» air. conditionnel, -elle [k5disj5ncl] adj conditional. ♦ conditionnel nm GRAM conditional. conditionnement [k5dispnmù] nm -t. [action d'emballer] packaging, packing. -2. [emballage] package. -3. PSYCHOL & TECHNOL conditioning. conditionner [kôdisjone] [3] vt -1. [déterminer] to govern. -2. PSYCHOL & TECHNOL to condition. -3. [emballer] to pack. condoléances [k5cbleâs] nfpl condolences. conducteur, -trice [kSdyktcer, tris] o adj conductive, o nm, f [de véhicule] driver. ♦ conducteur nm ÉLECTR conductor. conduire [k5dqir] [98] o w -1. [voiture, personne] to drive. -2. [transmettre] to conduct. -3. fig [diriger] to manage. -4. fig [à la ruine, au désespoir]: ~ qqn à qqch to drive sb to sthg. o vi -1. AUTOM to drive. -2. [mener]: ~ à to lead to. ♦ se conduire vp to behave. conduisais, conduisions etc —► conduire. conduit, -e [kôdqi, it] pp —* conduire. ♦ conduit nm -1. [tuyau] conduit, pipe. -2. ANAT duct, canal. ♦ conduite nf-1. [pilotage d'un véhicule] driving; ~ à droite/gauche right-hand/left-hand drive; ~ en état d'ébriété drunken driving. -2. [direction] running. -3. [comportement] behavior (I/) Am, behaviour (U) Br. -4. [canalisation] : ~ de gaz/d'eau gas/water main, gas/ water pipe. cône [kon] nm GÉOM cone. confection [kôfcksjô] nf -1. [réalisation] making. -2. [industrie] clothing industry. confectionner [kofeksjone] [3] vt to make. confédéral, -e, -aux [k5federal, o] adj confederal. confédération [k5federasj5] nf -1. [d'états] confederacy. -2. [d'associations] confederation. conférence [kôferâs] nf-1. [exposé] lecture. -2. [réunion] conference; ~ de presse press conference; ~ au sommet summit conference.

113 confronter conférencier, -1ère [kSferâsje, jer] nm, /"lecturer. conférer [k5fere] [18] vt [accorder]: ~ qqch à qqn to confer sthg on sb. confesse [k5fes] nf aller à ~ to go to confession. confesser [k5fese] [4] vt -1. [avouer] to confess. -2. RELIC: ~ qqn to hear sb's confession. ♦ se confesser vp to go to confession. confession [k5fesj5] nf confession. confessionnal, -aux [k5fespnal, o] nm confessional. confessionnel, -elle [k5fespnel] adj RELIC denominational. confetti [k5feti] nm confetti {U). confiance [k5fjôs] nf confidence; avoir ~ en to have confidence OU faith in; avoir ~ en soi to be self-confident; en toute ~ with complete confidence; de ~ trustworthy; faire ~ à qqn qqch to trust sb/sthg. confiant, -e [kSfjâ, ât] adj -1. [sans méfiance] trusting. -2. [assuré]: ~ (en qqch) confident (of sthg). confidence [k5fidâs] «/"confidence; en ~ in confidence; faire des —s à qqn to confide in sb; être dans la ~ to be in the know. confident, -e [k5fidâ, ât] nm, /"confidant (f confidante). confidentiel, -ielle [kSfidasjel] adj confidential. confier [k5fje] [9] vt -1. [donner]: ~ qqn/ qqch à qqn to entrust sb/sthg to sb. -2. [dire]: ~ qqch à qqn to confide sthg to sb. ♦ se confier vp: se ~ à qqn to confide in sb. configuration [k5figyrasj5] nf TECHNOL configuration; [conception] layout. confiné, -e [k5fine] adj -1. [air] stale; [atmosphère] enclosed. -2. [enfermé] shut away. confins [k5fê] nmpl: aux ~ de on the borders of. confirmation [k5firmasj5] nf confirmation. confirmer [kSfirme] [3] vt [certifier] to confirm; ~ qqn dans qqch to confirm sb in sthg; il n'a pas été confirmé dans ses fonctions he was not retained in the post. ♦ se confirmer vp to be confirmed. confiscation [k5fiskasj5] nf confiscation. confiserie [kSfizri] nf -1. [magasin] candy store Am, confectioner's, sweet shop Br. -2. [sucreries] candy (U) Am, confectionery (U), sweets {pt) Br. confiseur, -euse [k5fizcer, oz] nm, /"confectioner. confisquer [kSfiske] [3] vt to confiscate.

confit, -e [k5fi, it] adj —► fruit. ♦ confit nm conserve. confiture [k5fityr] «/"jam. conflagration [k5flagrasj5] nf cataclysm. conflictuel, -elle [kSfliktyel] adj conflicting. conflit [kôfli] nm -1. [situation tendue] clash, conflict. -2. [entre États] conflict. confluent [kSflyô] nm confluence; au ~ de at the confluence of. confondre [k5f5dr] [75] vt -1. [ne pas distinguer] to confuse. -2. [accusé] to confound. -3. [stupéfier] to astound. ♦ se confondre vp -1. [se mêler] to merge. -2. fig: se ~ en excuses to apologize profusely; il s'est confondu en remerciements he thanked me/him etc profusely. confondu, -e [k5f5dy] pp —► confondre. conformation [k5fDrmasj5] «/"structure. conforme [k5fDrm] adj: ~ à in accordance with. conformé, -e [kSforme] adj: bien ~ wellformed; mal ~ ill-formed. conformément [kSbrmemâ] ♦ conformément à loc prép in accordance with. conformer [k5Brme] [3] vt: ~ qqch à to shape sthg according to. ♦ se conformer vp: se ~ à [s'adapter] to conform to; [obéir] to comply with. conformiste [kSformist] o nmf conformist, o adj -1. [traditionaliste] conformist. -2. [Anglican] Anglican. conformité [kôformite] «/"-l. [ressemblance]: ~ (à) conformity (to). -2. [accord]: être en ~ avec to be in accordance with. confort [kSfor] nm comfort; tout ~ with all modern conveniences Am, with all mod cons Br. confortable [kSfortabl] adj comfortable. confortablement [kSbrtabbmâ] adv comfortably; ~ payé well-paid. conforter [kôforte] [3] vt: ~ qqn (dans qqch) to strengthen sb (in sthg). confrère [kôfrer], consœur [k5scer] nm, f colleague. confrérie [kôfreri] nf brotherhood. confrontation [k5fr5tasj5] «/"-l. [face à face] confrontation. -2. [comparaison] comparison. confronter [k5fr5te] [3] vt -1. [mettre face à face] to confront; fig: être confronté à to be confronted OU faced with. -2. [comparer] to compare.

confus 114 confus, -e [kôfy, yz] adj -1. [indistinct, embrouillé] confused. -2. [gêné] embarrassed; je suis vraiment ~ I'm really very sorry. confusément [k5fyzemâ] adj -1. [pêle-mêle] in confusion. -2. [indistinctement] indistincdy. -3. [vaguement] vaguely. confusion [kôryzj'5] nf -1. [gén] confusion. -2. [embarras] contusion, embarrassment. congé [k53e] nm -1. [arrêt de travail] leave (U); ~ (de) maladie sick leave; ~ de maternité maternity leave. -2. [vacances] vacation Am, holiday Br; en ~ on holiday; ~ annuel annual leave; —s payés paid vacation Am, paid holiday (U) OU holidays OU leave (U) Br; une journée/semaine de ~ a day /week off. -3. [renvoi] notice; donner son ~ à qqn to give sb his/her notice; prendre ~ (de qqn) sout to take one's leave (of sb). congédier [k53edje] [9] vt to dismiss. congé-formation [k53eformas]'5] (yI congésformation) nm training leave. congélateur [k53elatœr] nm freezer. congeler [k53le] [25] vt to freeze. congénital, -e, -aux [k53enital, o] adj congenital. congère [k53er] «/"snowdrift. congestion [k53estj5] «/"congestion; ~ pulmonaire pulmonary congestion. conglomérat [k5gbmera] nm conglomerate. Congo [k5go] nm: le ~ the Congo; au ~ in the Congo. congolais, -e [kôgole, ez] adj Congolese. ♦ congolais nm CULIN coconut cake. ♦ Congolais, -e nm, /"Congolese person. congratuler [k5gratyle] [3] vt to congratulate. congre [k5gr] nm conger eel. congrégation [k5gregasj5] «f congregation. congrès [kôgre] nm -1. [colloque] assembly. -2. HIST [réunion] congress. ♦ Congrès nm [parlement américain]: le Congrès Congress. congressiste [k5gresist] nmf congress participant. congrue [k5gry] —► portion. conifère [ksnifer] nm conifer. conique [ksnik] adj conical. conjecture [k53ektyr] «/"conjecture; se perdre en —s to lose o.s. in conjecture. conjecturer [k53ektyre] [3] vt & vi to conjecture. conjoint, -e [kÔ3wê, et] O adj joint. O nm, f spouse. conjointement [k53wëtmâ] adv. ~ (avec qqn) jointly (with sb). conjonctif, -ive [k535ktif, iv] adj -1. —► tissu. -2. GRAM conjunctive.

conjonction [k535ksj5] nf conjunction; ~ de coordination/de subordination GRAM coordinating/subordinating conjunction. conjonctivite [kô35ktivit] nf conjunctivitis (V). conjoncture [k535ktyr] nf ÉGON situation, circ*mstances {pi). conjoncturel, -elle [k535ktyrel] adj economic. conjugaison [k53ygez5] nf -\. [union] uniting. -2. GRAM conjugation. conjugal, -e, -aux [k53ygal, o] adj conjugal. ^ conjuguer [k53yge] [3] vt -1. [unir] to combine. -2. GRAM to conjugate. conjuration [k53yrasj5] nf -\. [conspiration] conspiracy. -2. [exorcisme] exorcism. conjurer [k53yre] [3] vt -1. [supplier] to beg; je vous en conjure! sout I beg (of) you! -2. [exorciser] to exorcize. -3. [écarter] to avert. ♦ se conjurer vp to plot, to conspire. connaissais, connaissions £/ conquérir. consacré, -e [kSsakre] adj -1. [habituel] established, accepted. -2. RILIG consecrated. consacrer [kSsakre] [3] w -1. RELIC to consecrate. -2. [employer]: ~ qqch à to devote sthg to. ♦ se consacrer vp: se ~ à to dedicate o.s. to, to devote o.s. to. consanguin, -e [k5sâgê, in] adj: frère ~ half-brother; sœur ~e half-sister. consciemment [k5sjamâ] adv knowingly, consciously. conscience [kSsjas] nf -1. [connaissance & PSYCHOL] consciousness; avoir ~ de qqch to be aware of sthg. -2. [morale] conscience; agir selon sa — to follow one's conscience; avoir qqch sur la ~ to have sthg on one's conscience; bonne mauvaise ~ clear/guilty conscience; ~ professionnelle professional integrity, conscientiousness. consciencieusem*nt [kôsjâsozniâ] adv conscientiously. consciencieux, -ieuse [k5sjâsj0, joz] adj conscientious. conscient, -e [kôsjâ, ât] adj conscious; être ~ de qqch [connaître] to be conscious of sthg. conscription [k5skripsj5] nf conscription, draft Am. consent [k5skri] nm conscript, recruit, draftee Am. consécration [k5sekrasj5] nf -1. [reconnaissance] recognition; [de droit, coutume] establishment. -2. RELIG consecration. consécutif, -ive [kSsekytif, iv] adj -1. [successif & GRAM] consecutive. -2. [résultant]: ~ à resulting from. conseil [k5sej] nm -1. [avis] piece of advice, advice (0); dormer un ~ OU des —s (à qqn) to give (sb) advice; suivre le ~ de qqn to take somebody's advice. -2. [personne]: ~ (en) consultant (in). -3. [assemblée] council;

~ d'administration board of directors; ~ de classe staff meeting; le Conseil constitutionnel French government body ensuring that laws, elections and referenda are constitutional; ~ de discipline disciplinary committee; le Conseil d'État the (French) Council of State; le Conseil des ministres — the Cabinet; ~ municipal city council Am, town council Br; le Conseil supérieur de la magistrature French state body that appoints members of the judiciary. LE CONSEIL D'ÉTAT: The French Council of State has 200 members. It acts both as the highest court to which the legal affairs of the state can be referred, and as a consultative body to which bills and rulings are submitted by the government prior to examination by the 'Conseil des ministres' LE CONSEIL DES MINISTRES: The President himself presides over the 'Conseil des ministres', which traditionally meets every Wednesday morning; stricdy speaking, when ministers assemble in the sole presence of the Prime Minister, this is known as 'le Conseil du cabinet' conseiller1 [k5seje] [4] o w -1. [recommander] to advise; ~ qqch à qqn to recommend sthg to sb. -2. [guider] to advise, to counsel. O vi [donner un conseil]: ~ à qqn de faire qqch to advise sb to do sthg. conseiller2, -ère [k5seje, er] nm, f -1. [guide] counselor Am, counsellor Br; ~ matrimonial marriage counselor Am OU counsellor Br. -2. [d'un conseil] councilor Am, councillor Br; ~ municipal city councilman ( f -woman) Am, town councillor Br. consensuel, -elle [k5sàsqel] adj: politique —le consensus politics. consensus [k5sêsys] nm consensus. consentement [kSsâtmâ] nm consent. consentir [kSsâtir] [37] o vt -1. [accorder]: ~ qqch à qqn to grant sb sthg. -2. [accepter]: ~ que (+ subjonctif): je consens qu'il vienne I consent to his coming, o vi: ~ à qqch to consent to sthg. conséquence [kôsekâs] «/"consequence, result; avoir des ~s (sur qqch) to have consequences (for sthg); sans ~ [sans importance] of no importance; ne pas tirer à ~ to be of no consequence. conséquent, -e [k5sekâ, ât] adj -1. [cohérent] consistent. -2. [important] sizeable, considerable.

conservateur 116 ♦ par conséquent loc adv therefore, consequently. conservateur, -trice [kSservatcer, tris] o adj conservative. O nm, f -1. POLIT conservative. -2. [administrateur] curator. ♦ conservateur nm preservative. conservation [k5servasj5] nf -\. [état, entretien] preservation. -2. [d'aliment] preserving. conservatoire [k5servatwar] nm academy; ~ de musique music college; le Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique, le Conservatoire national drama school in Paris. conserve [k5serv] nf canned OU tinned Br food; en ~ [en boîte] tinned, canned; [en bocal] preserved, bottled. ♦ de conserve loc adv together. conserver [kôserve] [3] vt -1. [garder, entretenir] to keep. -2. [entreposer - en boîte] to can; [- en bocal] to bottle; «~ au frais» "keep in a cool place". -3. [personne]: être bien conservé to be well-preserved. ♦ se conserver vp to keep. considérable [kSsiderabl] adj considerable. considération [k5siderasj5] nf -\. [réflexion, motivation] consideration; en ~ de qqch in consideration of sthg; prendre qqch en ~ to take sthg into consideration. -2. [estime] respect. considérer [k5sidere] [18] vt to consider; tout bien considéré all things considered. consigne [k5siji] nf -1. [ordre] orders (pt). -2. (gén pt) [instruction] instructions (pi). -3. [entrepôt de bagages] checkroom Am, baggage room Am, left-luggage office Br; ~ automatique lockers (pt), left-luggage lockers {pt) Br. -4. [somme d'argent] deposit. consigné, -e [kSsijie] adj returnable. consigner [kSsijie] [3] vt -1. [bagages] to leave in the checkroom Am OU baggage room Am OU left-luggage office Br. -2. sout [relater] to record, to set down. -3. MIL to confine to barracks. -4. vieilli SCOL: ~ qqn to give sb detention. consistance [kSsistâs] nf [solidité] consistency; fig substance; sans ~ [fade] colorless Am, colourless Br. consistant, -e [kSsistà, ât] adj -1. [épais] thick. -2. [nourrissant] substantial. -3. [fondé] sound. consister [k5siste] [3] vi: ~ en to consist of; ~ à faire qqch to consist in doing sthg. consœur —» confrère. consolation [k5sDlasj5] nf consolation. console [k5sDl] nf-1. [table] console (table). -2. INFORM: ~ de visualisation VDU, visual display unit.

consoler [kSssle] [3] vt -1. [réconforter]: ~ qqn (de qqch) to comfort sb (in sthg). -2. [apaiser] to soothe. ♦ se consoler vp: se ~ de qqch to get over sthg. consolider [k5sDlide] [3] vt lin & fig to strengthen. consommateur, -trice [lôsomatœr, tris] nm, f [acheteur] consumer; [d'un bar] customer. consommation [kôsomasp] nf-1. [utilisation] consumption; faire une grande OU grosse ~ de to use (up) a lot oF. -2. [boisson] drink. consommé, -e [kSsome] adj sout consummate. ♦ consommé nm consommé. consommer [kSsome] [3] o vt -1. [utiliser] to use (up). -2. [manger] to eat; «à ~ avant le 5 juin 1994» "best before OU use by 5/6/94". -3. [énergie] to consume, to use. O vi -1. [boire] to drink. -2. [voiture]: cette voiture consomme beaucoup this car uses a lot of fuel. consonance [kSsonâs] nf consonance; un nom aux —s harmonieuses a beautiful name. consonne [koson] nf consonant. consort [kSsor] —► prince. ♦ consorts nmpl: et —s péj and his/their sort, and the like. consortium [kSsDrsJDm] nm consortium. conspirateur, -trice [k5spiratœr, tris] nm, f conspirator. conspiration [k5spirasj5] «/conspiracy. conspirer [kSspire] [3] O vt [comploter] to plot. O vi to conspire. conspuer [k5spqe] [7] vt to boo. constamment [kSstamâ] adv constantly. constance [kôstâs] nf-1. [persévérance] perseverance; avoir de la ~ to be indefatigable. -2. [permanence, fidélité] constancy. constant, -e [k5stâ, ât] adj constant. constat [k5sta] nm -1. [procès-verbal] report; ~ à l'amiable joint insurance statement made by drivers after an accident-, ~ d'huissier affidavit made before a bailiff. -2. [constatation] established fact; faire le ~ de qqch to note sthg; ~ d'échec acknowledgement of failure. constatation [k5statasj5] nf -1. [révélation] observation. -2. [fait retenu] finding. constater [kSstate] [3] vt -1. [se rendre compte de] to see, to note. -2. [consigner - fait, infrac-

117 content don] to record; [- décès, authenticité] to certify constellation [k5stelasj5] «/"ASTRON constellation. consternation [k5sternasj5] nf dismay. consterner [kôstcrne] [3] vt to dismay. constipation [k5stipasj5] a// constipation. constipé, -e [k5stipe] adj -1. MÉD constipated. -2. fam fig [manière, air] ill at ease. constituant, -e [kSstitqâ, ât] adj constituent; voir aussi assemblée. constitué, -e [k5stitqe] adj -1. [personne]: normalement/bien ~ of normal/sound constitution. -2. [composé]: ~ de consisting of, composed of. -3. [établi par la loi] constituted. constituer [kSstitqe] [7] vt -1. [élaborer] to set up. -2. [composer] to make up. -3. [représenter] to constitute. -4. [établir] to agree, to settle (on). ♦ se constituer vp>\ se ~ de to be made up of, to consist of; se ~ en to form; se ~ prisonnier to give o.s. up; se ~ partie civile JUR to sue privately for damages. constitution [k5stitysj5] nf-l. [création] setting up. -2. [de pays, de corps] constitution. -3. [composition] composition. -4. [établissem*nt] establishment. constitutionnel, -elle [k5stityspnel] adj constitutional. constructeur [kSstryktoer] nm -1. [fabricant] manufacturer; [de navire] shipbuilder. -2. [bâtisseur] builder. constructif, -ive [kSstryktif, iv] adj -1. [créateur] creative. -2. [positif] constructive. construction [k5stryksj5] nf -1. IND building, construction; ~ navale shipbuilding. -2. [édifice] structure, building. -3. GRAM & fig construction. construire [kôstrqir] [98] vt -1. [bâtir, fabriquer] to build. -2. [roman] to structure. -3. [théorie, phrase] to construct. construisais, construisions etc —► construire. construit, -e [kSstryi, it] yp —► construire. consul [k5syl] nm consul; ~ honoraire honorary consul. consulat [k5syla] nm -1. [charge] consulship. -2. [résidence] consulate. consultatif, -ive [k5syltatif, iv] adj consultative, advisory. consultation [k5syltasj5] nf -1. [d'ouvrage]: de ~ aisée easy to use. -2. MÉD & POLIT consultation. -3. [d'expert] (professional) advice. consulter [kSsylte] [3] o vt -1. [compulser] to consult. -2. [interroger, demander conseil à]

to consult, to ask. -3. [spécialiste] to consult, to see. O vi [médecin] to take OU hold surgery; [avocat] to be available for consultation. ♦ se consulter vp to confer. consumer [k5syme] [3] vt -1. sout [brûler] to burn, to destroy. -2. fig & littéraire [épuiser] to consume, to eat up. ♦ se consumer vy to waste away; se ~ de qqch littéraire to be eaten up OU consumed with sthg. consumérisme [k5symerism] nm consumerism. contact [k5takt] nm -1. [eén] contact; le ~ du marbre est froid marble is cold to the touch; mettre qqn et qqn en —, mettre qqn en - avec qqn to put sb in touch with sb; prendre ~ avec to make contact with; rester en ~ (avec) to stay in touch (with); au ~ de on contact with; au ~ des jeunes through mixing OU associating with young people. -2. AUTOM ignition; mettre/couper le ~ to switch on/off the ignition. contacter [k5takte] [3] vt to contact. contagieux, -ieuse [k5ta3J0, joz] o adj MÉD contagious; fig infectious. O nm, f contagious patient. contagion [k5ta3J5] nf M£D contagion; fig infectiousness. container —► conteneur. contaminer [k5tamine] [3] vt [infecter] to contaminate; fig to contaminate, to infect. conte [k5t] nm story; ~ de fées fairy tale. contemplation [kôtâplasjô] nf contemplation; rester en ~ devant to gaze in contemplation at. contempler [kStâple] [3] vt to contemplate. contemporain, -e [k5tâpDrê, en] o adj: ~ (de) contemporary (with), o nm, /"contemporary. contenance [kôtnâs] nf -t. [capacité volumique] capacity. -2. [attitude]: se donner une ~ to give an impression of composure; perdre ~ to lose one's composure. conteneur [kôtanœr], container [kStener] nm (freight) container. contenir [k5tnir] [40] vt to contain, to hold, to take. ♦ se contenir vp to contain o.s., to control O.S. content, -e [k5tâ, ât] adj -1. [joyeux] happy. -2. [satisfait]: ~ (de qqn/qqch) happy (with sb/sthg), content (with sb/sthg); ~ de faire qqch happy to do sthg.

contentement 118 ♦ content nm: avoir son ~ de to have one's fill of. contentement [kStàtmàj nm satisfaction. contenter [k5tâte] [3] vt to satisfy. ♦ se contenter vp: se ~ de qqch/de faire qqch to content o.s. with sthg/with doing sthg; se ~ de peu to be content with little. contentieux [k5tâsj0] nm [litige] dispute; [service] legal department. contenu, -e [k5tny] pp —* contenir. ♦ contenu nm -1. [de récipient] contents {pt). -2. [de texte, discours] content. conter [k5te] [3] vt to tell. contestable [kStcstabl] adj questionable. contestataire [kStcstatcr] o nmf antiestablishment figure. o adj antiestablishment. contestation [k5tcstasj5] nf -t. [protestation] protest, dispute. -2. POLIT: la ~ antiestablishment activity. conteste [kStcst] ♦ sans conteste loc adv unquestionably. contester [kôtcste] [3] O vt to dispute, to contest, o vi to protest. conteur, -euse [k5tœr, az] nm, /"storyteller. contexte [kôtckst] nm context. contiens, contient etc —> contenir. contigu, -uë [k5tigy] adj: ~ (à) adjacent (to). ^ continent [k5tinâ] nm continent. continental, -e, -aux [kStinàtal, o] adj continental. contingence [k5tc3às] nf (gén pt) contingency. contingent [k5tc3Ô] nm -1. MIL national service conscripts (pt), draft Am. -2. COMM quota, contingenter [k5tê3àte] [3] vt to put a quota on. continu, -e [k5tiny] adj continuous. continuation [k5tinqasj5] a//'continuation. continuel, -elle [kStinqel] adj -1. [continu] continuous. -2. [répété] continuai. continuellement [k5tinqelmâ] adv continually continuer [kStinqe] [7] o vt -1. [poursuivre] to carry on with, to continue (with). -2. [prolonger] to continue. O vi to continue, to go on; ~ à OU de £aire qqch to continue to do OU doing sthg. ♦ se continuer vp to continue, to carry on. continuité [kStinqite] «/"continuity. contondant, -e [k5t5dâ, ât] adj blunt. contorsionner [kStnrspne] [3] ♦ se contorsionner vp to contort (o.s.), to writhe.

contour [k5tur] nm -1. [limite] outline. -2. (gén pt) [courbe] bend. contourner [kSturne] [3] vt litt & fig to bypass, to get round. contraceptif, -ive [k5traseptif, iv] adj contraceptive. ♦ contraceptif nm contraceptive. contraception [k5trasepsj5] nf contraception. contracter [k5trakte] [3] vt -1. [muscle] to contract, to tense; [visage] to contort. -2. [maladie] to contract, to catch. -3. [engagement] to contract; [assurance] to take out. -4. [moralement] to make tense OU nervous. -5. [habitude] to pick up, to acquire. contraction [k5traksj5] nf contraction; [état de muscle] tenseness; avoir des ~s to have contractions. contractuel, -elle [kStraktqel] o adj contractual, o nm, f traffic policeman (f policewoman) Am, traffic warden Br. contradiction [k5tradiksj5] nf contradiction. contradictoire [k5tradiktwar] adj contradictory; débat ~ open debate. contraignais, contraignions etc —► contraindre. contraignant, -e [k5trejiâ, ât] adj restricting. contraindre [kStrêdr] [80] vt: ~ qqn à faire qqch to compel OU force sb to do sthg; être contraint de faire qqch to be compelled OU forced to do sthg. ♦ se contraindre vp -1. sout [se maîtriser] to contain o.s., to control o.s. -2. [s'obliger]: se ~ à faire qqch to make o.s. do sthg, to force o.s. to do sthg. contraint, -e [k5trë, et] O pp —► contraindre, o adj forced; ~ et forcé under duress. ♦ contrainte nf constraint; sans ~e freely. contraire [k5trer] O nm: le ~ the opposite; je n'ai jamais dit le ~ I have never denied it. O adj opposite; ~ à [non conforme à] contrary to. ♦ au contraire toc adv on the contrary. ♦ au contraire de loc prép unlike. contrairement [kôtrermâ] ♦ contrairement à loc prép contrary to. contrariant, -e [kStrarjâ, ât] adj -1. [personne] contrary, perverse. -2. [événement] annoying, tiresome. contrarier [kStrarje] [9] vt -1. [contrecarrer] to thwart, to frustrate. -2. [irriter] to annoy. ♦ se contrarier vp to contrast.

119 contrepoison contrariété [k5trarjete] «/"annoyance. contraste [k5trast] nm contrast; faire ~ avec to contrast with. contraster [k5traste] [3] vt 62 vi to contrast. contrat [k5tra] nm contract, agreement; remplir son ~ fig to keep OU fulfil one's promise; ~ collectif collective agreement; ~ à durée déteniiinée indéterminée fixedterm/permanent contract; ~ reconductible renewable agreement. contravention [kStravâsjô] «/"[amende] fine; — pour stationnement interdit parking ticket; dresser une ~ à qqn to fine sb. contre [k5tr] o prép -1. [juxtaposition, opposition] against. -2. [proportion, comparaison]: élu à 15 voix ~ 9 elected by 15 votes to 9; parier à 10 ~ 1 to bet 10 to 1. -3. [échange] (in exchange) for. o adv -1. [juxtaposition]: prends la rampe et appuie-toi ~ take hold of the rail and lean against it. -2. [opposition]: vous êtes pour ou ~4 are you for or againsté o nm —► pour. ♦ par contre loc adv on the other hand. contre-attaque [kStratak] (pi contreattaques) nf counterattack. contrebalancer [kStrabalâse] [16] vt to counterbalance, to offset. ♦ se contrebalancer vp: se ~ de fa m not to give a damn about. contrebande [kôtrabâd] nf [activité] smuggling; [marchandises] contraband; passer qqch en ~ to smuggle sthg. contrebandier, -ière [kStrabâdje, jer] nm, f smuggler. contrebas [k5traba] ♦ en contrebas loc adv (down) below. contrebasse [k5trabas] nf -1. [instrument] (double) bass. -2. [musicien] (double) bass player. contrecarrer [kôtrakare] [3] vt to thwart, to frustrate. contrecœur [kStrakœr] ♦ à contrecœur loc adv grudgingly. contrecoup [kStraku] nm consequence. contre-courant [k5trakurâ] ♦ à contre-courant loc adv against the current. contredire [kStradir] [103] vt to contradict. ♦ se contredire vp -1. (emploi réciproque) to contradict (each other). -2. (emploi réfléchi) to contradict o.s. contredit, -e [kStradi] pp —* contredire. contrée [k5tre] nf [pays] land; [région] region. contre-écrou [k5trekru] (pi contre-écrous) nm lock-nut.

contre-espionnage [k5tresppna3] nm counterespionage. contre-exemple [kStregzâpl] (pi contreexemples) nm example to the contrary. contre-expertise [k5trekspertiz] (pi contreexpertises) nf second (expert) opinion. contrefaçon [k5trafas5] «/"[activité] counterfeiting; [produit] forgery. contrefaire [k5trafer] [109] vt -1. [signature, monnaie] to counterfeit, to forge. -2. [voix] to disguise. contrefait, -e [kStrafe, et] adj -1. [frauduleux] forged. -2. sout [difforme] deformed. contreficher [kStrafi/e] [3] ♦ se contreficher vp: se ~ de fa m not to give a damn about. contre-filet [kStrafile] (pi contre-filets) nm sirloin. contrefort [kStrafor] nm -1. [pilier] buttress. -2. [de chaussure] back. ♦ contreforts nmpl foothills. contre-indication [k5trêdikasj5] (pi contre-indications) «f contraindication. contre-interrogatoire [kStreterogatwar] (pi contre-interrogatoires) nm crossexamination. contre-jour [k5tr33ur] ♦ à contre-jour loc adv against the light. contremaître, -esse [kStrametr, es] nm, f foreman (f forewoman). contremarque [këtramark] nf [pour sortir d'un spectacle] pass-out ticket. contre-offensive [kStxDfâsiv] (pi contreoffensives) «/"counteroffensive. contre-OPA [kôtropea] nf inv counterbid. contre-ordre = contrordre. contrepartie [kStraparti] nf -1. [compensation] compensation. -2. [contraire] opposing view. ♦ en contrepartie loc adv in return. contre-performance [katraperformâs] (pi contre-performances) nf disappointing performance. contrepèterie [k5trapetri] «f spoonerism. contre-pied [kStrapje] nm: prendre le ~ de to do the opposite of. contreplaqué, contre-plaqué [kStraplake] nm plywood. contrepoids [kStrapwa] nm tin & fig counterbalance, counterweight. contrepoint [kStrapwê] nm counterpoint. contrepoison [k5trapwaz5] nm antidote.

contre -pouvoir 120 contre-pouvoir [kôtrapuvwar] {pi contrepouvoirs) nm counterbalance. contre-publicité [kStrapyblisite] {pi contre-publicités) nf -1. [mauvaise publicité] adverse OU bad publicity (I/). -2. [publicité offensive] negative advertising (I/). contrer [k5tre] [3] vt -1. [s'opposer à] to counter. -2. CARTES to double. contresens [k5trasâs] nm -1. [erreur - de traduction] mistranslation; [- d'interprétation] misinterpretation. -2. [absurdité] nonsense (U). ♦ à contresens loc adv hit & fig the wrong way. contresigner [kôtrasijie] [3] vt to countersign. contretemps [k5tratâ] nm hitch, mishap. ♦ à contretemps loc adv MUS out of time; fig at the wrong moment. contrevenant, -e [kôtravnâ, ât] nm, f offender. contrevenir [k5travnir] [40] vi: ~ à to contravene, to infringe. contrevenu [kStravny] pp inv —*■ contrevenir. contribuable [kStribqabl] nmftaxpayer. contribuer [k5tribqe] [7] vi: ~ à to contribute to. contribution [k5tribysj5] nf: ~ (à) contribution (to); mettre qqn à ~ to call on sb's services. ♦ contributions nfpl taxes; ~s directes/ indirectes direct/indirect taxation. contrit, -e [k5tri, it] adj contrite. contrôle [k5trol] nm -1. [vérification - de déclaration] check, checking (I/); [- de documents, billets] inspection; ~ d'identité identity check; ~ de qualité quality control; ~ radar AUTOM radar speed-trap; ~ de routine routine inspection. -2. [maîtrise, commande] control; perdre le ~ de qqch to lose control of sthg; ~ des naissances birth control; ~ des prix price control. -3. [salle] control room. -4. SCOL test; ~ continu UNIV continuous assessment. -5. [direction] running, supervision. contrôler [kStrole] [3] vt -1. [vérifier documents, billets] to inspect; [- déclaration] to check; [- connaissances] to test. -2. [maîtriser, dinger] to control. -3. TECHNOL to monitor, to control. -4. [superviser] to supervise. ♦ se contrôler vp to control o.s. contrôleur, -euse [kStrolcer, az] nm, f [de train] ticket inspector; [d'autobus] (bus) conductor (f conductress); ~ aérien air traffic controller. contrordre, contre-ordre {pi contre-

ordres) [kôtrordr] nm countermand; sauf ~ unless otherwise instructed. controverse [kStrovers] «/"controversy. controversé, -e [k5tn>verse] adj [personne, décision] controversial. contumace [kôtymas] «/"JUR: condamné par ~ sentenced in absentia. contusion [k5tyzj5] «/"bruise, contusion. conurbation [kDnyrbasj5] nf conurbation. convaincant, -e [k5vêkâ, ât] adj convincing. convaincre [k5vêkr] [114] vt -1. [persuader]: ~ qqn (de qqch) to convince sb (of sthg); ~ qqn (de faire qqch) to persuade sb (to do sthg). -2. JUR: ~ qqn de to find sb guilty of, to convict sb of. convaincu, -e [kôvêky] O pp —> convaincre. O adj [partisan] committed; d'un ton ~, d'un air ~ with conviction. convainquais, convainquions etc —> convaincre. convainquant [k5vêkâ] participe présent —► convaincre. convalescence [k5valesâs] nf convalescence; être en ~ to be convalescing OU recovering. convalescent, -e [kSvalesâ, ât] adj & nm, f convalescent. convenable [kSvnabl] adj -1. [manières, comportement] polite; [tenue, personne] decent, respectable. -2. [approprié] suitable. -3. [acceptable] adequate, acceptable. convenablement [kôvnablamâ] adv -1. [s'habiller, se tenir] properly. -2. [être payé] decently. -3. [travailler] adequately. convenance [kôvenâs] nf: à ma/votre ~ to my /your convenience. ♦ convenances nfpl proprieties. convenir [k5vnir] [40] vi -1. [décider]: ~ de qqch/de faire qqch to agree on sthg/to do sthg. -2. [plaire]: ~ à qqn to suit sb, to be convenient for sb. -3. [être approprié]: ~ à OU pour to be suitable for; il convient de ... it is advisable to .... -4. sout [admettre]: ~ de qqch to admit to sthg; ~ que to admit (that); j'en conviens sout I admit it. convention [k5vâsj5] nf -\. [règle, assemblée] convention. -2. [accord] agreement; ~ collective collective agreement. ♦ conventions nfpl: les —s convention ♦ de convention loc adj conventional. conventionné, -e [kSvàspne] adj subsidized, — National riealth {avant «) Br.

121 coproduction conventionnel, -elle [kSvâsjDnel] adj conventional. convenu, -e [k5vny] O pp —► convenir. O adj -1. [décidé]: comme ~ as agreed. -2. péj [stéréotypé] conventional. convergent, -e [k5ver3â, ât] adj convergent. converger [k5ver3e] [17] vi: ~ (vers) to converge (on). conversation [k5versasj5] nf conversation; détourner la ~ to change the subject; être en grande ~ avec to be deep in conversation with. converser [kSverse] [3] vi sout: ~ (avec) to converse (with). conversion [k5versj5] nf-1. [gén]: ~ (à/en) conversion (to/into). -2. SKI kick turn. converti, -e [kSverti] nm, f prêcher un ~ fig to preach to the converted. convertible [kSvertibl] O nm [canapé-lit] sofa-bed. o adj convertible. convertir [k5vertir] [32] vt: ~ qqn (à) to convert sb (to); ~ qqch (en) to convert sthg (into). ♦ se convertir vp: se ~ (à) to be converted (to). convexe [kôveks] adj convex. conviction [k5viksj5] «f conviction; avoir la ~ que to be convinced (that). conviendrai, conviendrons etc —► convenir. convier [k5vje] [9] W: ~ qqn à to invite sb to. convive [kôviv] nmf guest (at a meat). convivial, -e, -iaux [kôvivjal, jo] adj -1. [réunion] convivial. -2. INFORM user-friendly. convocation [k5vDkasj5] nf [avis écrit] summons (sg), notification to attend. convoi [k5vwa] nm -1. [de véhicules] convoy; ~ exceptionnel wide load. -2. [train] train. convoiter [kôvwate] [3] vt to covet. convoitise [k5vwatiz] «f covetousness. convoler [kôvole] [3] —► noces. convoquer [k5vDke] [3] vt -1. [assemblée] to convene. -2. [pour un entretien] to invite. -3. [subalterne, témoin] to summon. -4. [à un examen]: ~ qqn to ask sb to attend. convoyer [k5vwaje] [13] vt to escort. convoyeur, -euse [kSvwajœr, oz] o adj escort (avant n). O nm, f escort; ~ de fonds security guard. convulser [kSvylse] [3] vt to convulse. ♦ se convulser vp to convulse. convulsif, -ive [k5vylsif, iv] adj convulsive. convulsion [k5vylsj5] «/"convulsion. cool [kul] adj inv fam [décontracté] laid-back,

cool. coopérant [kDDperâ] nm -1. MIL person engaged in voluntary work abroad as an alternative to military service. -2. ÉCON foreign expert working in developing country. coopératif, -ive [kDDperatif, iv] adj cooperative. ♦ coopérative nf [groupement] cooperative; coopérative de consommation consumers' cooperative. coopération [kDDperasjS] nf -1. [collaboration] cooperation; en ~ avec qqn in collaboration with sb. -2. [aide]: la ~ — overseas development. coopérer [kDDpere] [18] vi: ~ (à) to cooperate (in). cooptation [kDDptasj5] nf co-opting. coordinateur, -trice [kDDrdinatœr, tris] O adj coordinating, o nm, f coordinator. coordination [JoordinasjS] nf coordination; voir aussi conjonction. coordonnée [kDDrdDne] nf -1. LING coordinate clause. -2. MATHS coordinate. ♦ coordonnées nfpl -1. GÉOGR coordinates. -2. [adresse] address and phone number, details. coordonner [kDDrdDne] [3] vt to coordinate. copain, -ine [kDpê, in] o adj friendly, matey; être très —s to be great pals. O nm, f friend, mate. copeau, -x [kDpo] nm [de bois] (wood) shaving. Copenhague [kDpenag] n Copenhagen. copie [kDpi] nf -1. [double, reproduction] copy; ~ (certifiée) conforme certified copy. -2. [SCOL - de devoir] fair copy; [- d'examen] paper, script. copier [kDpje] [9] O vt to copy. O vi: ~ sur qqn to copy from sb. copieur, -ieuse [kDpjœr, joz] nm, /"[étudiant] copier. ♦ copieur nm [photocopieur] copier, photocopier. copieusem*nt [lopjozmâ] adv copiously. copieux, -ieuse [kDpjo, joz] adj copious. copilote [kDpibt] nmf copilot. copine —► copain. coprocesseur [kDprDsesœr] nm: ~ mathématique math Am OU maths Br coprocessor. coproducteur, -trice [kDprDdyktœr, tris] nm, f [pour spectacle] coproducer. coproduction [kDprDdyksj5] nf coproduction; en ~ coproduced.

copropriétaire 122 copropriétaire [kopraprijeter] nmf coowner, joint owner. copropriété [koproprijete] nf co-ownership, joint ownership. copuler [kopyle] [3] vi to copulate. copyright [kopirajt] nm copyright. coq [kok] nm co*ck, co*ckerel; ~ de bruyère grouse; le ~ gaulois the French co*ckerel; fier comme un ~ fig as proud as a peaco*ck; être comme un ~ en pâte fig to be in clover; sauter OU passer du ~ à l'âne to jump from one subject to another. LE COQ GAULOIS: The co*ckerel is the symbol of France. Its cry, 'cocorico!', is sometimes used humorously to express national pride: 'trois médailles d'or pour la France - cocorico!' coque [ksk] nf -\. [de noix] shell. -2. [de navire] hull. coquelet [kokle] nm co*ckerel. coquelicot [kokliko] nm poppy. coqueluche [ksklyj] nf whooping cough; être la ~ de fig to be the idol OU darling of. coquet, -ette [koke, et] adj -1. [vêtements] smart, stylish; [ville, jeune fille] pretty. -2. {avant n) hum [important]: la ~te somme de 100 livres the tidy sum of £100. ♦ coquette «/"flirt. coquetier [ksktje] nm eggcup. coquetterie [ksketri] nf -1. [désir de plaire] coquettishness. -2. [élégance] smartness, stylishness. coquillage [kDkija3] nm -1. [mollusque] shellfish. -2. [coquille] shell. coquille [kokij] nf -1. [de mollusque, noix, œuf] shell; — de noix [embarcation] co*ckleshell; ~ Saint-Jacques scallop; rentrer dans sa ~ fig to go back into one's shell. -2. TYPO misprint. coquillettes [kokijet] nfpl pasta shells. coquin, -e [kskë, in] o adj [sous-vêtement] sexy, naughty; [regard, histoire] saucy, o nm, frascal cor [ksr] nm -1. [instrument] horn; ~ de chasse hunting horn. -2. [au pied] corn. ♦ à cor et à cri be adv: réclamer qqch à ~ et à cri to clamor Am OU clamour Br for sthg.^ corail, -aux [koraj, o] nm -1. [gén] coral. -2. RAIL: train ~ — express train. ♦ corail adj inv coral (pink). Coran [korâ] nm: le ~ the Koran. coranique [koranik] adj Koranic. corbeau, -x [korbo] nm -1. [oiseau] crow. -2. [délateur] writer of poison-pen letters.

corbeille [kDrbej] «/"-l. [panier] basket; ~ à papier waste paper basket. -2. THÉÂTRE (dress) circle. -3. [de Bourse] stockbrokers' enclosure (at Paris Stock Exchange). corbillard [korbijar] nm hearse. cordage [knrda3] nm -l. [de bateau] rigging (U). -2. [de raquette] strings (/?/). corde [kord] nf -1. [film] rope; ~ à linge washing OU clothes line; ~ à sauter skipping rope. -2. [d'instrument, arc] string; avoir plus d'une ~ à son arc fig to have more than one string to one's bow. -3. ANAT: ~ vocale vocal cord. -4. HIPPISME rails (yf); ATHLÉTISME inside (lane). -5. be: usé jusqu'à la ~ [vêtement] threadbare; [histoire] wellworn, hackneyed; faire vibrer la ~ sensible to strike the right chord. ♦ cordes nfpl -1. MUS strings. -2. BOXE: les ~s the ropes. -3. be: être dans les —s de qqn to be (in) sb's line; il tombe OU pleut des —s it's raining cats and dogs. cordeau [kordo] nm [de jardinier] line; tracé au — fig [route] dead straight. cordée [korde] nf ALPINISME roped party (of mountaineers). cordelette [kordalet] «/"string. cordial, -e, -iaux [kordjal, jo] adj warm, cordial. ♦ cordial, -aux nm vieilli tonic, pick-meup. cordialement [kordjalmâ] adv warmly, cordially. cordialité [kordjalite] «/"warmth. cordon [knrd5] nm string, cord; ~ ombilical umbilical cord; ~ de police police cordon. cordon-bleu [kordôblo] (pi cordons-bleus) nm cordon bleu cook. cordonnerie [kordonri] nf -1. [magasin] shoe repairer's, cobbler's. -2. [activité, commerce] shoe repairing. cordonnier, -ière [kordanje, jer] nm, /"shoe repairer, cobbler. Cordoue [knrdu] « Cordoba. Corée [kore] nf Korea; la ~ du Nord/du Sud North/South Korea. coréen, -enne [koreê, en] adj Korean. ♦ Coréen, -enne nm, /"Korean. coreligionnaire [kDreli3JDner] nmf fellow Jew/Christian etc. coriace [korjas] adj litt & fig tough. coriandre [korjodr] «/"coriander. cormoran [korrriDrâ] nm cormorant.

123 corrompre corne [korn] nf -\. [gén] horn; [de cerf] antler; ~ d'abondance fig horn of plenty; ~ de brume foghorn. -2. [callosité] hard skin (U), callus. cornée [korne] «/"cornea. corneille [komej] «/"crow. cornélien, -ienne [kornelje, jen] adj involving the conflict between love and duty. cornemuse [kDrnamyz] «/"bagpipes (yl). corner1 [ksrne] [3] o vi [sirène] to blare (out). O vt [page] to turn down the corner of. corner2 [korner] nm FOOTBALL corner (kick). cornet [korne] nm -1. [d'aliment] cornet, cone. -2. [de jeu] (dice) shaker. corniaud, corniot [kornjo] nm -1. [chien] mongrel. -2. fatn [imbécile] twit. corniche [karnij] «/"-1. [route] cliff road. -2. [moulure] cornice. cornichon [kornifS] nm -1. [condiment] gherkin. -2. fam [imbécile] twit. corniot = corniaud. Cornouailles [kornwaj] nf. la ~ Cornwall. corollaire [koroler] nm corollary. corolle [koTol] «/"corolla. coron [korô] nm [village] mining village. coronaire [koroner] —> artère. corporation [kDrp:>rasj5] «/"corporate body. corporel, -elle [karparel] adj -1. [physique besoin] bodily; [- châtiment] corporal. -2. JUR tangible. corps [ksr] nm -1. [gén] body; être au ~ à ~ to fight hand-to-hand; le ~ du délit JUR corpus delicti; ~ étranger foreign body; ~ gras fat. -2. [groupe]: ~ d'armée (army) corps; ~ diplomatique diplomatic corps; le ~ électoral the electorate; ~ enseignant [profession] teaching profession; [d'école] teaching staff; ~ expéditionnaire task force; le ~ législatif the legislative body; le ~ médical the medical profession. -3. foc: à mon ~ défendant against my will; faire ~ avec to form (an integral) part of; se dévouer ~ et âme à to commit o.s. body and soul to; se jeter OU se lancer à ~ perdu dans qqch to throw o.s. (headlong) into sthg; prendre ~ to take shape; sombrer ~ et biens to go down with all hands. corpulent, -e [kDrpylâ, ât] adj corpulent, stout. corpus [korpys] nm corpus. corpuscule [korpyskyl] nm corpuscle. correct, -e [korekt] adj -1. [exact] correct, right. -2. [honnête] correct, proper. -3. [acceptable] decent; [travail] fair. correctement [kSrektamâ] adv -1. [sans faute] accurately. -2. [décemment] properly.

correcteur, -trice [korektaer, tris] O adj corrective. O nm, f-1. [d'examen] examiner, grader Am, marker Br. -2. TYPO proofreader. correctif, -ive [karektif, iv] adj corrective. ♦ correctif nm rider; apporter un ~ à qqch to qualify sthg. correction [ksreksjS] «/"-l. [d'erreur] correction. -2. [punition] punishment; donner une ~ à qqn to give sb a good hiding. -3. [modification] correction. -4. TYPO proofreading. -5. [notation] marking. -6. [qualité] correctness. -7. [bienséance] propriety. correctionnel, -elle [kDreksjond] adj JUR: tribunal ~ — magistrate's court; peine ~le sentence of up to five years' imprisonment. ♦ correctionnelle nf JUR = magistrate's court; passer en ~le to appear before the magistrate. corrélation [korelasjS] «/"correlation. correspondance [ksrespSdas] nf -1. [gén] correspondence; cours par ~ correspondence course. -2. TRANSPORT connection; assurer la ~ avec to connect with. correspondant, -e [ksrespSda, ât] o adj corresponding. O nm, f-1. [par lettres] penfriend, correspondent. -2. [par téléphone]: je vous passe votre — I'll put you through. -3. PRESSE correspondent; de notre ~ à New York from our New York correspondent; ~ de guerre/de presse war/newspaper correspondent. correspondre [ksrespôdr] [75] vi -1. [être conforme]: ~ à to correspond to. -2. [communiquer] to communicate. -3. [par lettres]: ~ avec to correspond with. ♦ se correspondre vp [s'accorder] to correspond. correspondu, -e [korespSdy] pp —> correspondre. corrida [ksrida] «/"bullfight. corridor [karidor] nm corridor. corrigé [kDri3e] nm correct version. corriger [kon^e] [17] vt -1. TYPO to correct, to proofread. -2. [noter] to mark. -3. [modifier] to correct. -4. [guérir]: ~ qqn de to cure sb of. -5. [punir] to give sb a good hiding. ♦ se corriger vp -1. [d'un défaut]: se ~ de to cure o.s. of. -2. [devenir raisonnable] to mend one's ways. corroborer [kDrDbsre] [3] vt to corroborate. corroder [ksrode] [3] vt [ronger] to corrode; fig to erode. corrompre [korôpr] [78] vt -1. [soudoyer] to bribe. -2. [dépraver] to corrupt. -3. fig [gâter] to spoil.

corrompu 124 corrompu, -e [korSpy] O pp —> corrompre. O adj [fonctionnaire, âme] corrupt. corrosif, -ivc [karozif, iv] adj -1. [acide] corrosive. -2. fig [ironie] biting. ♦ corrosif nm corrosive. corrosion [korozjS] «f corrosion. corruption [k:>rypsj5] nf -1. [subornation] bribery; ~ de fonctionnaire bribery of a public officiai. -2. [dépravation] corruption. -3. [décomposition] decomposition. -4. [altération] debasing. corsage [kDrsa3] nm -1. [chemisier] blouse. -2. [de robe] bodice. corsaire [korser] nm -1. [navire, marin] corsair, privateer. -2. [pantalon] pedal-pushers Hcorse [ksrs] o adj Corsican. O nm [langue] Corsican. o nmf Corsican. Corse [ksrs] nf. la ~ Corsica; en ~ in Corsica. corsé, -e [korse] adj [café] strong; [vin] fullbodied; [plat, histoire] spicy. corser [korse] [3] vt -1. [plat, sauce] to spice up. -2. [histoire] to liven up. -3. [vin] to strengthen. ♦ se corser vp [se compliquer] to get complicated; ça se corse things are getting serious. corset [ksrse] nm corset; ~ orthopédique MÉD surgical corset. cortège [kDrte3] nm procession; ~ funèbre funeral procession, cortege. cortisone [kDrtizDn] «/"cortisone. corvée [korve] «/"-l. MIL fatigue (duty). -2. [activité pénible] chore. cosignataire [kosijiater] nmf JUR cosignatory. cosinus [kDsinys] nm cosine. cosmétique [kasmetik] nm & adj cosmetic. cosmique [kosmik] adj cosmic. cosmonaute [kosmonot] nmf cosmonaut. cosmopolite [kosmapDlit] adj cosmopolitan. cosmos [kosmos] nm -1. [univers] cosmos. -2. [espace] outer space. cosse [kos] nf -1. [de légume] pod. -2. fam vieilli [paresse]: avoir la ~ to feel lazy. cossu, -e [kosy] adj -1. [personne] wealthy, moneyed. -2. [maison] opulent. Costa Rica [kostarika] nm: le ~ Costa Rica; au ~ in Costa Rica. costaricien, -ienne [kostarisje, jen] adj Costa Rican. ♦ Costaricien, -ienne nm, /"Costa Rican. costaud ( f costaud OU -e) [kosto, od] adj sturdily built. ♦ costaud nm strapping man.

costume [kostym] nm -1. [folklorique, de théâtre] costume. -2. [vêtement d'homme] suit; ~ trois-pièces three-piece suit. costumé, -e [kostyme] adj fancy-dress (avant n). costumier, -ière [kostymje, jer] nm, /"THÉÂTRE wardrobe master (/"mistress). cotation [kotasj5] nf FIN quotation; ~ en Bourse quoting on the stock exchange. cote [kDt] «/"-l. [marque de classem*nt] classification mark; [marque numérale] serial number. -2. FIN quotation. -3. [de valeur] valuation. -4. [de cheval] odds (pf). -5. [popularité] rating; avoir la ~ (auprès de qqn) fam to be popular (with sb). -6. [niveau] level; ~ d'alerte [de cours d'eau] danger level; fig crisis point. coté, -e [kDte] adj [estimé] popular; être ~ to be well thought of; être bien/mal ~ to be highly/poorly rated. côte [kot] «/"-l. "[anat, BOT & de bœuf] rib; [de porc, mouton, agneau] chop; ~ à ~ side by side. -2. [pente] hill. -3. [littoral] coast; la Côte d'Azur the French Riviera. -4. [tissu]: velours à —s corduroy. côté [kote] nm -1. [gén] side; être couché sur le ~ to be lying on one's side; être aux —s de qqn fig to be by sb's side; d'un ~ ..., de l'autre ~ ... on the one hand ..., on the other hand ...; et ~ finances, ça va£ fam how are things moneywise£ -2. [endroit, direction] direction, way; de quel ~ est-il partie which way did he got; de l'autre ~ de on the other side of; de tous —s from all directions; du ~ de [près de] near; [direction] toward Am, towards Br, [provenance] from. ♦ à côté loc adv -1. [lieu - gén] nearby; [- dans la maison adjacente] next door. -2. [cible]: tirer à — to shoot wide (of the target). ♦ à côté de loc prép -1. [proximité] beside, next to. -2. [en comparaison avec] beside, compared to. -3. [en dehors de]: être à ~ du sujet to be off the point. ♦ de côté loc adv -1. [se placer, marcher] sideways. -2. [en réserve] aside; mettre/ laisser qqch de ~ to put/leave sthg aside. coteau [koto] nm -1. [colline] hill. -2. [versant] slope. Côte-d'Ivoire [kotdivwar] nf: la ~ the Ivory Coast. côtelé, -e [kode] adj ribbed; velours ~ corduroy.

125 couleur côtelette [kotlet] nf [de porc, mouton, d'agneau] chop; [de veau] cutlet. coter [kDte] [3] vt -1. [marquer, noter] to mark. -2. FIN to quote. -3. [carte, plan] to mark spot heights on. coterie [kstri] nf péj & vieilli set, clique. coder, -ière [kotje, jer] adj coastal. cotisation [kotizasjS] nf [à club, parti] subscription; [à la Sécurité sociale] contribution. cotiser [kstize] [3] vi [à club, parti] to subscribe; [à la Sécurité sociale] to contribute. ♦ se cotiser vp to club together. coton [kst5] nm cotton; ~ (hydrophile) cotton wool; filer un mauvais ~ fig to be in a bad way. cotonnade [kotonad] «/"cotton fabric. Coton-Tige® [kst5ti3] {pi Cotons-Tiges) nm cotton swab Am OU bud Br. côtoyer [kotwaje] [13] vt -1. [longer] to run alongside. -2. fig [frôler] to verge on. -3. fig [fréquenter] to mix with. cotte [kat] nf HIST tunic; ~ de mailles coat of mail. cou [ku] nm [de personne, bouteille] neck; se jeter au — de qqn, sauter au ~ de qqn to throw one's arms around sb's neck; jusqu'au ~ fig up to one's eyes; se pendre au ~ de qqn to hang round sb's neck. couac [kwak] nm false OU wrong note. couard, -e [kwar, ard] sout O adj cowardly. O nm, f coward. couchage [kufa3] nm sleeping arrangements (pt); —► sac. couchant [kufâ] O adj —► soleil. O nm west. couche [kuj] nf -1. [de peinture, de vernis] coat, layer; [de poussière] film, layer. -2. [épaisseur] layer; ~ d'ozone ozone laver; en avoir OU en tenir une ~ fam to be (as) thick as two short planks. -3. [de bébé] diaper Am, nappy Br. -4. [classe sociale] stratum. ♦ couches nfpl childbirth ((7), labor (U) Am, labour (U) Br. ♦ fausse couche a// miscarriage. couché, -e [kufe] adj: être ~ [étendu] to be lying down; [au lit] to be in bed. couche-culotte [kujkybt] {pi couchesculottes) nf disposable diaper Am OU nappy Br. coucher1 [kuje] [3] o vt -1. [enfant] to put to bed. -2. [objet, blessé] to lay down. -3. sout [inscrire] to mention. O vi -1. [dormir] to sleep. -2. [passer la nuit] to spend the night; un nom à — dehors fam an impossible name. -3. fam [avoir des rapports

sexuels]: ~ avec to sleep with. ♦ se coucher vp -1. [s'allonger] to lie down. -2. [se mettre au lit] to go to bed. -3. [se courber] to bend over. -4. [astre] to set. coucher2 [kuje] nm [d'astre] setting; au ~ du soleil at sunset. couchette [kujet] nf-1. [de train] couchette. -2. [de navire] berth. coucheur [kujœr] nm: mauvais — fig awkward customer. couci-couça [kusikusa] adv fam so-so. coucou [kuku] O nm -1. [oiseau] cuckoo. -2. [pendule] cuckoo clock. -3. péj [avion] crate, o interj peekaboo! coude [kud] nm -1. [de personne, de vêtement] elbow; être au ~ à ~ to be shoulder to shoulder; jouer des —s to elbow people aside; se serrer les —s to stick together. -2. [courbe] bend. coudée [kude] nf: avoir les —s franches to have room to move OU elbow room. cou-de-pied [kudpje] (pi cous-de-pied) nm instep. coudoyer [kudwaje] [13] vt to rub shoulders with. coudre [kudr] [86] Ovt-1. [bouton] to sew on. -2. MÉD to sew up, to stitch, o vi to sew. coudrier [kudrije] nm hazel tree. couenne [kwan] «/"[de lard] rind. couette [kwet] nf -1. [édredon] duvet. -2. [coiffure] bunches (pt). couffin [kufê] nm -1. [berceau] Moses basket. -2. [cabas] basket. couille [kuj] nf(gén pt) vulg ball. couiner [kwine] [3] vi -1. [animal] to squeal. -2. [pleurnicher] to whine. coulant, -e [kulâ, ât] adj -1. [fluide] runny. -2. [style] fluent. -3. fam [indulgent] easygoing, laid-back. coulée [kule] nf-1. [de matière liquide]: ~ de lave lava flow; ~ de boue mudslide. -2. [de métal] casting. couler [kule] [3] O vi -1. [liquide] to flow; faire ~ un bain to run a bath. -2. [beurre, fromage, nez] to run. -3. [robinet] to drip; [tonneau, stylo] to leak. -4. [temps] to slip by. -5. [navire, entreprise] to sink. O vt -1. [navire] to sink. -2. [métal, bronze] to cast. -3. fam [personne, entreprise] to ruin. ♦ se couler vp [se glisser] to slip; se la ~ douce fam to have an easy life. couleur [kulœr] C> nf-1. [teinte, caractère] color Am, colour Br; télévision en ~s color Am OU colour Br television; haut en ~ [personne] high-colored Am, high-coloured Br,

couleuvre 126 [quartier, récit] colorful Am, colourful Br. -2. [linge] coloreds (pt) Am, coloureds (pi) Br. -3. CARTES suit. -4. [d'opinion] leaning. -5. be: annoncer la ~ to state one's intentions; en faire voir de toutes les —s à qqn to give sb a hard time; sous — de qqch/de faire qqch under the guise of sthg/of doing sthg. O adj inv [télévision, pellicule] color (avant n) Am, colour {avant n) Br. couleuvre [kuloevr] nf grass snake; avaler des —s fam fig to swallow insults. coulis [kuli] nm CULIN puree. coulissant, -e [kulisâ, ât] adj sliding (avant n). coulisse [kulis] nf -1. [glissière]: fenêtre/ porte à ~ sliding window/door. -2. COU TURE hem. ♦ coulisses nfpl THÉÂTRE wings; dans les —s fig behind the scenes. coulisser [kulise] [3] vi to slide. couloir [kulwar] nm -1. [corridor] corridor. -2. CÉOCR gully. -3. SPORT 2< TRANSPORT lane; ~ aérien air lane; ~ d'autobus bus lane. coulommiers [kubmje] nm soft cheese made from cow's milk. coulpe [kulp] nf: battre sa ~ to repent one's sins openly. coup [ku] nm -1. [choc - physique, moral] blow; dormer un ~ de coude à qqn to nudge sb; rouer qqn de —s to give sb a beating; c'est un ~ bas! fig that's below the belt!; ~ de couteau stab (with a knife); un ~ dur fig a heavy blow; dormer un ~ de fouet à qqn fig to give sb a shot in the arm; ~ de grâce lift & fig coup de grâce, death-blow; ~ de pied kick; ~ de poing punch. -2. [action nuisible] trick; faire un sale ~ à qqn to play a dirty trick on sb; ~ fourré stab in the back. -3. [SPORT au tennis] stroke; [- en boxe] blow, punch; [- au football] kick; ~ franc free kick. -4. [d'éponge, de chiffon] wipe; un ~ de crayon a pencil stroke; dormer un ~ de balai to give the floor a sweep. -5. [bruit] noise; ~ de feu shot, gunshot; ~ de sonnette ring; ~ de tonnerre thunderclap. -6. [action spectaculaire]: ~ d'éclat feat; ~ d'état coup (d'état); ~ de théâtre fig dramatic turn of events. -7. fam [fois] time. -8. be: boire un ~ to have a drink; dormer un ~ de main à qqn to give sb a helping hand; être dans le ~ [être à la mode] to be up to date; [être au courant] to be in the know; faire les quatre cents ~s to lead a wild life; frapper un grand ~ to strike a decisive blow; jeter un ~ d'oeil à to glance at; marquer le ~ to mark the occasion; en prendre un ~ to take a knock; tenir le ~ to hold out; tenter

le ~ to have a go; valoir le ~ to be well worth it. ♦ coup de fil nm phone call. ♦ coup de foudre nm love at first sight. ♦ coup du lapin nm AUTOM whiplash (U). ♦ coup de soleil nm sunburn (0). ♦ coup de téléphone nm telephone OU phone call; dormer OU passer un ~ de téléphone à qqn to telephone OU phone sb. ♦ coup de vent nm gust of wind; partir en ~ de vent to rush off. ♦ après coup be adv afterwards. ♦ du coup be adv as a result. ♦ coup sur coup be adv one after the other. ♦ du premier coup be adv first time, at the first attempt. ♦ tout à coup be adv suddenly. ♦ à coup sûr be adv definitely. ♦ sous le coup de be prép -1. [sous l'action de]: tomber sous le ~ de la loi to be a statutory offense Am OU offence Br. -2. [sous l'effet de] in the grip of. coupable [kupabl] O adj -1. [personne, pensée] guilty; plaider —/non ~ JUR to plead guilty/not guilty. -2. [action, dessein] culpable, reprehensible; [négligence, oubli] sinful. O nmf guilty person OU party. coupant, -e [kupô, ât] adj -1. [tranchant] cutting. -2. fig [sec] sharp. coupe [kup] nf-1. [verre] glass; ~ de champagne glass of champagne. -2. [à fruits] dish. -3. SPORT cup; Coupe du monde World Cup. -4. [d'arbres] felling. -5. [de vêtement, aux cartes] cut. -6. ~ (de cheveux) haircut. -7. [plan, surface] (cross) section. -8. [de phrase] break. -9. [réduction] cut, cutback. coupé, -e [kupe] adj: bien/mal ~ well/ badly cut. ♦ coupé nm coupé. coupe-circuit [kupsirkqi] (pi inv OU coupecircuits) nm circuit breaker. coupe-faim [kupfe] nm inv appetite suppressant. coupe-feu [kupfo] o nm inv firebreak. O adj inv fire (avant n). coupe-gorge [kupgorç] nm inv dangerous place. coupelle [kupel] «/"dish. coupe-ongles [kupSgl] nm inv nail clippers. coupe-papier [kuppapje] (pi inv OU coupepapiers) nm paper knire. couper [kupe] [3] o vt -1. [matériau, cheveux, blé] to cut. -2. [découper] to cut out. -3. [interrompre, trancher] to cut off. -4. [traverser] to cut across. -5. [pain, au tennis] to

127 couronnement slice; [rôti] to carve. -6. [mélanger] to dilute. -7. [CARTES - avec atout] to trump; [- paquet] to cut. -8. [envie, appétit] to take away, o vi -1. [gén] to cut. -2. [échapper]: ~ à to get out of. -3. he: ~ court à qqch to cut sthg short. ♦ se couper vp -1. [se blesser] to cut o.s. -2. [se croiser] to cross. -3. [s'isoler]: se ~ de to cut o.s. off from. couperet [kupre] nm -1. [de boucher] cleaver. -2. [de guillotine] blade. couperose [kuproz] nf [sur le visage] blotchiness. couperosé, -e [kuproze] adj blotchy. coupe-vent [kupvâ] nm inv [vêtement] windbreaker Am, windcheater Br. couple [kupl] nm [de personnes] couple; [d'animaux] pair. couplé, -e [kuple] adj HIPPISME doubled. ♦ couplé nm HIPPISME double. coupler [kuple] [3] vt [objets] to couple. couplet [kuple] nm verse. coupole [kupDl] «/"ARCHIT dome, cupola. coupon [kup5] nm -1. [d'étoffe] remnant. -2. FIN coupon. -3. [billet] ticket. coupon-réponse [kup5rep5s] {pi couponsréponse) nm reply coupon. coupure [kupyr] nf -1. [gén] eut; [billet de banque]: petite ~ small denomination note; ~ de courant ÉLECTR power cut; INFORM blackout; ~ de presse (press) cutting, clipping; ~ publicitaire commercial break. -2. fig [rupture] break. cour [kur] nf -1. [espace] courtyard; ~ de récréation playground. -2. [du roi, tribunal] court; fig & hum following; Cour de cassation Court of Appeal; la Cour des comptes the French audit office; Haute ~ (de justice) High Court; ~ martiale court-martial. -3. loc: faire la ~ à [femme] to court; fig to charm, to woo. LA COUR DES COMPTES: This state body supervises the financial affairs of public bodies and local government, and monitors the way public funds are used courage [kura3] nm courage; bon ~! good luck!; prendre son ~ à deux mains to pluck up courage; je n'ai pas le ~ de faire mes devoirs I can't bring myself to do my homework. courageusem*nt [kura30zmâ] adv courageously. courageux, -euse [kura30, az] adj -1. [brave] brave. -2. [qui a de l'énergie] energetic. -3. [audacieux] bold. couramment [kuramâ] adv -1. [parler]

fluently. -2. [communément] commonly. courant, -e [kurâ, ât] adj -1. [habituel] everyday (avant n). -2. [en cours] present. ♦ courant nm -1. [marin, atmosphérique, électrique] current; couper le ~ to cut off the power; ~ d'air draft Am, draught Br; ~ alternatif alternating current. -2. [d'idées] current. -3. [laps de temps]: dans le ~ du mois/de l'année in the course of the month/the year; ~ décembre in the course of December. ♦ au courant loc adv. être au ~ to know (about it); mettre qqn au ~ (de) to tell sb (about); tenir qqn au ~ (de) to keep sb informed (about); se mettre/se tenir au ~ (de) to get/keep up to date (with). courbatu, -e [kurbaty] adj aching. courbature [kurbatyr] «/"ache. courbaturé, -e [kurbatyre] adj aching. courbe [kurb] O nf curve; ~ de niveau [sur une carte] contour (line); ~ de température MED temperature curve, o adj curved. courber [kurbe] [3] o w -1. [tige] to bend. -2. [tête] to bow. O vi to bow. ♦ se courber vp> -1. [chose] to bend. -2. [personne] to bow, to bend down. courbette [kurbet] nf [révérence] bow; faire des —s fig to bow and scrape. coureur, -euse [kurcer, ez] nm, f -\. SPORT runner; ~ cycliste racing cyclist. -2. fam fig [amateur]: ~ (de jupons) womanizer. courge [kur3] nf -1. [légume] squash Am, marrow Br. -2. fam [imbécile] dimwit. courgette [kurçet] nf zucchini Am, courgette Br. courir [kurir] [45] O vi -1. [aller rapidement] to run; ~ après fig to chase after, to run after; laisse ~! fig let it go!; faire ~ qqn fig to pull sb's leg. -2. SPORT to race. -3. [se précipiter, rivière] to rush. -4. [se propager]: le bruit court que ... rumor Am OU rumour Br has it that ...; faire ~ un bruit to spread a rumor Am OU rumour Br. O vt -1. SPORT to run in. -2. [parcourir] to roam (through). -3. [faire le tour de] to go round. -4. [fréquenter - bals, musées] to do the rounds of. couronne [kuron] nf -t. [ornement, autorité] crown. -2. [de fleurs] wreath; ~ mortuaire OU funéraire funeral wreath. -3. [monnaie de Suède, d'Islande] krona; [- du Danemark, de Norvège] krone; [-deTchécoslovaquie] crown. couronnement [kuronmô] nm -1. [de mo-

couronner 128 narque] coronation. -2. [d'édifice] crown. -3. fig [apogée] crowning achievement. couronner [kurone] [3] vt -1. [monarque] to crown. -2. [récompenser] to give a prize to; être couronné de succès fig to be crowned with success. courrai, courras etc —► courir. courre [kur] —» chasse. courrier [kurje] nm mail, letters {pi); ~ du cœur agony column; ~ électronique INFORM electronic mail, E-mail; ~ des lecteurs [rubrique] letters to the editor. courroie [kurwa] nf TECHNOL belt; [attache] strap; ~ de transmission driving belt; ~ de ventilateur fanbelt. courroucer [kuruse] [16] vt littéraire to anger. courroux [kuru] nm littéraire wrath, rage. cours [kur] O —> courir. O nm -1. [écoulement] flow; ~ d'eau waterway; dormer OU laisser libre ~ à fig to give free rein to. -2. [déroulement] course; au ~ de during, in the course of; en ~ [année, dossier] current; [affaires] in hand; en ~ de route on the way; entraver le ~ de la justice to hinder the course of justice; suivre son ~ to take its course. -3. FIN price; ~ du change exchange rate; avoir ~ [monnaie] to be legal tender. -4. [leçon] class, lesson; donner des ~ (à qqn) to teach (sb); ~ intensifs crash course (sg); ~ magistral lecture; ~ de rattrapage/du soir remedial/ evening class. -5. [classe]: ~ élémentaire years two and three of primary school) ~ moyen last two years of primary school; ~ préparatoire — nursery school Am, — firstyear infants Br. -6. [avenue] avenue. course [kurs] «/"-l. [action] running (U); au pas de ~ at a run; être dans la ~ fig to be in touch OU in the know. -2. [compétition] race; ~ attelée OU sous harnais harness race; ~ automobile/cycliste car/cycle race; ~ à pied (foot) race. -3. [excursion] trip. -4. [en taxi] journey. -5. [mouvement] flight, course. -6. [commission] errand; faire des ~s to go shopping. coursier, -ière [kursje, jer] nm, f messenger. coursive [kursiv] «/"gangway. court, -e [kur, kurt] adj short. ♦ court O —» courir. O adv. être à ~ d'argent/d'idées/d'arguments to be short of money/ideas/arguments; prendre qqn de ~ to catch sb unawares; tourner ~ to stop suddenly, o nm: ~ de tennis tennis court. court-bouillon [kurbujô] {pi courtsbouillons) nm court-bouillon.

court-circuit [kursirkqi] {pi courts-circuits) nm short circuit. court-circuiter [kursirkqite] [3] vt ÉLECTR to short-circuit; fig to bypass. courtier, -ière [kurtje, jer] nm, /"broker. courtisan, -e [kurtizâ, an] nm, f -1. HIST courtier. -2. [flatteur] sycophant. ♦ courtisane «/"courtesan. courtiser [kurtize] [3] vt -1. [femme] to woo, to court. -2. péj [flatter] to flatter. court-jus [kur3y] {pi courts-jus) nm fam short. court-métrage [kurmetra3] {pi courtsmétrages) nm short (film). courtois, -e [kurtwa, az] adj courteous. courtoisie [kurtwazi] «/"courtesy. couru, -e [kury] O pp —► courir. O adj popular; c'est ~ (d'avance) fam fig it's a foregone conclusion. cousais, cousions etc —► coudre. couscous [kuskus] nm couscous. cousin, -e [kuzê, in] nm, f cousin; ~ germain first cousin, coussin [kusê] nm -1. [de siège] cushion; ~ d'air air cushion. -2. Can BASE-BALL base. coussinet [kusine] nm -1. [coussin] small cushion. -2. [de patte d'animal] pad. cousu, -e [kuzy] O pp —> coudre. O adj: c'est du ~ main fam fig it's top-quality stuff; ~ de fil blanc fig obvious. coût [ku] nm cost; le ~ de la vie the cost of living; —s de distribution COMM distribution costs. coûtant [kutô] —► prix. couteau, -x [kuto] nm -1. [gén] knife; ~ à cran d'arrêt flick knife; ~ de cuisine kitchen knife; à couper au ~ fig that you could cut with a knife; avoir le ~ sous la gorge fig to have a gun to one's head; être à ~x tirés (avec qqn) fig to be at daggers drawn (with sb). -2. [coquillage] razor clam Am, razor shell Br. coutelas [kutla] nm [grand couteau] large knife. coutellerie [kutelri] nf [industrie, produits] cutlery; [atelier] cutlery factory; [magasin] cutler's (shop). coûter [kute] [3] O vi -1. [valoir] to cost; ça coûte combien^ how much is ité; ~ cher to be expensive, to cost a lot; fig to be costly; ~ cher à qqn to cost sb a lot; fig to cost sb dear OU dearly. -2. fig [être pénible] to be difficult. O vt fig to cost. ♦ coûte que coûte loc adv at all costs. coûteux, -euse [kute, oz] adj costly, expensive.

129 crampe coutume [kutym] nf custom; avoir ~ de faire qqch to be in tne habit of doing sthg; la ~ veut que tradition dictates that. coutumier, -ière [kutymje, jer] adj customary; il est ~ du fait he's always doing that. couture [kutyr] nf -\. [action] sewing; faire de la — to sew. -2. [points] seam; ~ apparente topstitching, overstitching. -3. [activité] dressmaking; haute ~ haute couture. couturier, -1ère [kutyrje, jer] nm, f couturier; grand ~ fashion designer, couturier. couvée [kuve] nf [d'œufs] clutch; [de poussins] brood. couvent [kuvâ] nm [de sœurs] convent; [de moines] monastery. couver [kuve] [3] o vt -1. [œufs] to sit on. -2. [dorloter] to mollycoddle. -3. [maladie] to be sickening for. o vi [poule] to brood; fig [complot] to hatch. couvercle [kuverkl] nm [de casserole, boîte] lid, cover; [de flacon, bombe] top, cap. couvert, -e [kuver, ert] O pp —► couvrir. O adj -1. [submergé] covered; ~ de covered with. -2. [habillé] dressed; être bien ~ to be well wrapped up. -3. [nuageux] overcast. ♦ couvert nm -1. [abri]: se mettre à — to take shelter; sous le ~ de l'amitié fig under a cloak of friendship. -2. [place à table] place (setting); mettre OU dresser le ~ to set OU lay the table. ♦ couverts nmpl cudery (U). couverture [kuvertyr] nf-1. [gén] cover; ~ sociale social security cover. -2. [de lit] blanket; ~ chauffante electric blanket; tirer la ~ à soi fam fig to take (all) the credit (for o.s.). -3. [toit] roofing (U). -4. PRESSE coverage. couveuse [kuvoz] nf -1. [poule] sitting hen. -2. [machine] incubator. couvre-chef [kuvrajef] {pi couvre-chefs) nm hum hat. couvre-feu [kuvrafo] {pi couvre-feux) nm curfew. couvre-lit [kuvrali] {pi couvre-lits) nm bedspread. couvre-pied {pi couvre-pieds) nm, couvre-pieds nm inv [kuvrapje] quilt, eiderdown. couvreur [kuvrœr] nm roofer. couvrir [kuvrir] [34] vt -1. [gén] to cover; ~ qqn/qqch de lift & fig to cover sb/sthg with. -2. [protéger] to shield. -3. [son] to drown (out). ♦ se couvrir vp -1. [se vêtir] to wrap up. -2. [se recouvrir]: se ~ de feuilles/de fleurs to come into leafTblossom. -3. [ciel] to cloud over. -4. [se protéger] to cover o.s.

cover-girl [kovœrgœrl] {pi cover-girls) nf cover girl. covoiturage [kDvwatyra3] nm car sharing; pratiquer le ~ to belong to a car pool. cow-boy [koboj] {pi cow-boys) nm cowboy. coyote [kojDt] nm coyote. CP nm abr de cours préparatoire. CPAM {abr de caisse primaire d'assurances maladie) nf national health insurance office. cps {abr de caractères par seconde) cps. cpt abr de comptant. CQFD {abr de ce qu'il fallait démontrer) QED. crabe [krab] nm crab. crac [krak] interj crack! crachat [kraja] nm spit {U). craché, -e [kraje] adj: c'est son père tout ~ he's the spitting image of his father. cracher [kraje] [3] o vi -1. [personne] to spit. -2. [crépiter] to crackle. -3. fam fig [dénigrer]: ~ sur qqn to run sb down. -4. fam [dédaigner]: ne pas ~ sur qqch not to turn one's nose up at sthg. o vt [sang] to spit (up); [lave, injures] to spit (out). crachin [krajê] nm drizzle. crachoir [krajwar] nm spittoon; tenir le ~ fam fig to monopolize the conversation. crack [krak] nm -1. [cheval] top horse. -2. fam [as] star (performer); c'est un ~ en mathématiques he's a whizz at math Am OU maths Br. crado [krado] adj fam filthy. craie [kre] «/"chalk. craignais, craignions etc —► craindre. craindre [krêdr] [80] vt -1. [redouter] to fear, to be afraid of; ~ de faire qqch to be afraid of doing sthg; je crains d'avoir oublié mes papiers I'm afraid I've forgotten my papers; ~ que (+ subjonctif) to be afraid (that); je crains qu'il oublie OU n'oublie I'm afraid he may forget. -2. [être sensible à] to be susceptible to. craint, -e [krê, et] pp —► craindre. crainte [krêt] nf fear; de ~ de faire qqch for fear of doing sthg; de ~ que (4subjonctif) for fear that; il a fui de ~ qu'on ne le voie he fled for fear that he might be seen OU for fear of being seen. craintif, -îve [krêtif, iv] adj timid. cramer [krame] [3] vt & vi fam to burn. ♦ se cramer vp fam to burn o.s.; se ~ le doigt to burn one's finger. cramoisi, -e [kramwazi] adj crimson. crampe [krâp] nf cramp.

crampon 130 crampon [krâp5] nm -1. [crochet - gén] clamp; [- pour alpinisme] crampon. -2. fam [personne] (persistent) bore. cramponner [krâpone] [3] ♦ se cramponner vp [s'agripper] to hang on; se ~ à qqn/qqch litt & fig to cling to sb/sthg. cran [krâ] nm -1. [entaille, degré] notch, cut. -2. (0) [audace] guts {pî)\ avoir du ~ to have guts. crâne [kran] nm skull; se mettre qqch dans le ~ fig to get sthg into one's head. crâner [krane] [3] vi fam to show off. crâneur, -euse [kranœr, az] fam O adj boastful. O nm, f show-off. crânien, -ienne [kranjê, jen] adj: boîte —ne skull; traumatisme ~ head injury. crapaud [krapo] nm toad. crapule [krapyl] «/"scum (U). crapuleux, -euse (krapylo, az] adj sordid. craqueler [krakle] [24] vt to crack. ♦ se craqueler vp> to crack. craquelure [kraklyr] nf crack. craquement [krakmâ] nm crack, cracking (U). craquer [krake] [3] O vi -1. [produire un bruit] to crack; [plancher, chaussure] to creak. -2. [se déchirer] to split. -3. [s'effondrer personne] to crack up; [- régime, projet] to be falling apart. -4. [être séduit par]: — pour to fall for. o vt [allumette] to strike. crash [kraj] {pi crashs OU crashes) nm crash landing. crasse [kras] C> «/"-l. [saleté] dirt, filth. -2. fam [mauvais tour] dirty trick, o adj crass. crasseux, -euse [kraso, ez] adj filthy. cratère [krater] nm crater. cravache [kravaf] nf riding crop. cravacher [kravaje] [3] o vt to whip. o vi fam fig to pull out all the stops. cravate [kravat] nf tie. crawl [krol] nm crawl. crayon [krej5] nm -1. [gén] pencil; ~ à bille ballpoint (pen); ~ de couleur crayon; ~ noir pencil. -2. TECHNOL pen; ~ optique light pen. crayon-feutre [krejSfotr] {pi crayonsfeutres) nm felt-tip (pen). crayonner [krejone] [3] vt [dessin] to sketch. CRDP {abr de centre régional de documentation pédagogique) nm local centre for educational resources. créance [kreâs] nf COMM debt. créancier, -1ère [kreâsje, jer] nm, /"creditor. créateur, -trice [kreatœr, tris] O adj creative. O nm, f creator. ♦ Créateur nm: le Créateur the Creator.

créatif, -ive [kreatif, iv] adj creative. ♦ créatif nm ideas man, designer. création [kreasj'5] nf creation; la ~ (du monde) RELIG the Creation. créativité [kreativite] «/"creativity. créature [kreatyr] «/"creature. crécelle [kresel] «/"rattle. crèche [krej"] «/"-l. [de Noël] crib. -2. [garderie] crèche. crécher [kre/e] [18] vi fam to crash, to kip down Br. crédibiliser [kredibilize] vt [3] to make credible. crédibilité [kredibilite] «/"credibility. crédible [kredibl] adj credible. CREDDP, Crédif [kredif] {abr de Centre de recherche et d'étude pour la diffusion du français) nm official body promoting use of the French language. crédit [kredi] nm -1. [gén] credit; taire ~ à qqn to give sb credit; acheter/vendre qqch à ~ to buy/sell sthg on credit; ~ municipal pawnshop; ~ relais bridging loan. -2. fig & sout influence. crédit-bail [kredibaj] {pi credits-bails) nm leasing. créditer [kredite] [3] vt [compte] to credit; fig: ~ qqn de qqch to credit sb with sthg. créditeur, -trice [kreditoer, tris] O adj in credit, o nm, f creditor. credo [kredo] nm creed, credo. crédule [kredyl] adj credulous. crédulité [kredylite] «/"credulity. créer [kree] [15] vt -1. [RELIG & inventer] to create. -2. [fonder] to found, to start up. -3. [causer]: ~ des problèmes à qqn to create trouble for sb. crémaillère [kremajer] nf -1. [de cheminée] trammel; pendre la — fig to have a housewarming (party). -2. TECHNOL rack. crémation [kremasj5] «/"cremation. crématoire [krematwar] —► four. crématorium [krematDipm] nm crematory Am, crematorium Br. crème [krem] o nf -1. [gén] cream; ~ dépilatoire/à raser depilatory/shaving cream; ~ fouettée/fraîche/glacée whipped/ fresh/ice cream; ~ anglaise custard; ~ autobronzante self-tanning cream; ~ de cassis blackcurrant liqueur; ~ glacée ice cream; ~ hydratante moisturizer; ~ pâtissière confectioner's custard; ~ renversée cup custard Am, custard cream Br. -2. [per-

131 crime sonne]: la ~ des maris/des hommes the best of husbands/of men. o adj inv cream. crémerie [kremri] nf dairy. crémeux, -euse [kremo, ez] adj creamy. crémier, -ière [kremje, jer] nm, /"dairyman if dairywoman). créneau, -x [kreno] nm -1. [de fortification] crenel. -2. [pour se garer]: faire un ~ to reverse into a parking space. -3. [de marché] niche. -4. [horaire] window, gap. crénelé, -e [krenle] adj crenelated. créole [kresl] adj & nm créole. ♦ créoles nfpl dangly earrings. crêpe [krep] O «/"CUL1N pancake. O nm [tissu] crêpe. crêper [krepe] [4] vt to backcomb. crêperie [krepri] nf pancake restaurant. crépi [krepi] nm roughcast. crépinette [krepinet] nf flat sausage. crépir [krepir] [32] vt to roughcast. crépiter [krepite] [3] vi [feu, flammes] to crackle; [pluie] to patter. crépon [krep5] o adj —► papier. O nm seersucker. CREPS, Creps [kreps] (abr de centre régional d'éducation physique et sportive) nm regional sports centre. crépu, -e [krepy] adj frizzy. crépuscule [krepyskyl] nm [du jour] dusk, twilight; fig twilight; au — at dusk, at twilight. crescendo [krejendo, krejedo] o adv crescendo; aller ~ fig [bruit] to get OU grow louder and louder; [dépenses, émotion] to grow apace, o nm inv MUS & fig crescendo. cresson [kres5] nm watercress. Crète [kret] nf. la ~ Crete. crête [kret] nf -1. [de coq] comb. -2. [de montagne, vague, oiseau] crest. crétin, -e [kretê, in] fam o adj cretinous, idiotie, o nm, f cretin, idiot. crétois, -e [kretwa, az] adj Cretan. ♦ Cretois, -e nm, f Cretan. cretonne [kratan] «/"cretonne. creuser [kroze] [3] vt -1. [trou] to dig. -2. [objet] to hollow out. -3. [taille, reins] to arch. -4. fig [approfondir] to go into deeply. -5. be: ça creuse! fam that gives you an appetite! ♦ se creuser vp -1. [devenir creux] to become hollow. -2. fam fig [réfléchir] to rack one's brains. -3. fig [s'élargir] to deepen, to widen. creuset [kraze] nm crucible; fig melting pot. creux, creuse [kro, kraz] adj -1. [vide,

concave] hollow. -2. [période - d'activité réduite] slack; [- à tarif réduit] off-peak. -3. [paroles] empty. ♦ creux «m -1. [concavité] hollow; le ~ de la main the hollow of one's hand. -2. [période] lull. -3. be: être au ~ de la vague fig to be at a low point. crevaison [kravezS] «f puncture. crevant, -e [kravâ, ât] adj fam -1. [fatigant] exhausting, knackering Br. -2. [amusant] hilarious. crevasse [kravas] nf[de mur] crevice, crack; [de glacier] crevasse; [sur la main] crack. crevé, -e [krave] adj -1. [pneu] burst, punctured. -2. fam [fatigué] dead, shattered Br. crève [krev] nf fam bad OU stinking cold; attraper la ~ to catch one's death (of cold). crève-cœur [krevkœr] nm inv heartbreak. crever [krave] [19] o vi -1. [éclater] to burst. -2. tfam [mourir] to die; ~ de fig [jalousie, orgueil] to be bursting with, o vt -1. [percer] to burst. -2. fam [épuiser] to wear out. ♦ se crever vp fam to wear o.s. out. crevette [kravet] nf: ~ (grise) shrimp; ~ (rose) prawn. CRF (abr de Croix-Rouge française) nf French Red Cross. cri [kri] nm -1. [de personne] cry, shout; [perçant] scream; [d'animal] cry; pousser un ~ to cry (out), to shout; pousser des —s de joie to shout for OU with joy; pousser un ~ de douleur to cry out in pain; à grands ~s fig loudly. -2. [appel] cry; le dernier ~ fig the latest thing; ~ du cœur cri de cœur. criailler [kriaje] [3] vi to scream, to squawk. criant, -e [krijâ, ât] adj [injustice] blatant. criard, -e [krijar, ard] adj -1. [voix] strident, piercing. -2. [couleur] loud. crible [kribl] nm [instrument] sieve; passer qqch au ~ fig to examine sthg closely. criblé, -e [krible] adj riddled; être ~ de dettes to be up to one's eyes in debt. eric [krik] nm jack. cricket [kriket] nm cricket. criée [krije] —► vente. crier [crije] [10] o vi -1. [jeter un cri] to shout (out), to yell. -2. [parler fort] to shout. -3. [protester]: ~ contre OU après qqn to nag sb, to go on at sb. -4. sout [grincer] to creak, o vt to shout (out). crime [krim] nm -1. [délit] crime; ~ de

Crimée 132 lèse-majesté fig treason (U). -2. [meurtre] murder; ~ passionnel crime of passion. Crimée [krime] nf: la ~ the Crimea; la guerre de ~ the Crimean War. criminalité [kriminalite] «/"criminality. criminel, -elle [kriminel] o adj criminal, o nm, f criminal; ~ de guerre war criminal. crin [krê] nm [d'animal] hair; à tout ~ fig dyed-in-the-wool. crinière [krinjer] nf mane. crique [krik] nf creek. criquet [krike] nm locust; [sauterelle] grasshopper. crise [kriz] «/"-l. MÉD attack; ~ cardiaque heart attack; ~ de foie bilious attack; ~ de tétanie muscle spasm. -2. [accès] fit; ~ de larmes fit of tears; ~ de nerfs attack of nerves; piquer une ~ fam to have a fit, to fly off the handle. -3. [élan] (sudden) urge. -4. [phase critique] crisis; en ~ in crisis. crispant, -e [krispâ, ât] adj irritating, frustrating. crispation [krispasj5] nf -1. [contraction] contraction. -2. [agacement] irritation. crispé, -e [krispe] adj tense, on edge. crisper [krispe] [3] vt -1. [contracter - visage] to tense; [- poing] to clench. -2. [agacer] to irritate. ♦ se crisper vp> -1. [se contracter] to tense (up). -2. [s'irriter] to get irritated. criss [kris] nm kris. crisser [krise] [3] vi [pneu] to screech; [étoffe] to rustle. cristal, -aux [kristal, o] nm crystal; en ~ crystal (avant n); ~ de roche quartz. cristallin, -e [kristalê, in] adj -1. [limpide] crystal clear, crystalline. -2. [roche] crystalline. ♦ cristallin nm crystalline lens. cristalliser [kristalize] [3] vt litt & fig to crystallize. ♦ se cristalliser vp to crystallize. critère [kritcr] nm criterion. critérium [kriterpm] nm qualifier. critiquable [kritikabl] adj [décision] debatable; [personne] open to criticism. critique [kritik] O adj critical, o nmf critic; ~ d'art art critic; ~ littéraire literary critic. O «f criticism; la ~ the critics (ft). critiquer [kritike] [3] vt to criticize. croasser [krsase] [3] vi to croak, to caw. croate [kroat] adj Croat, Croatian. ♦ Croate nmf Croat, Croatian. Croatie [krsasi] nf: la ~ Croatia. croc [kro] nm -1. [de chien] fang; montrer les —s fig to bare one's teeth. -2. [crochet] hook. croc-en-jambe [krDkâ3âb] (p\ crocs-en-

jambe) nm: faire un ~ à qqn to trip sb up. croche [kroj] nf eighth (note) Am, quaver Br. croche-pied [kro/pje] (pi croche-pieds) nm: faire un ~ à qqn to trip sb up. crochet [krDJe] nm -1. [de métal] hook; vivre aux —s de qqn to live off sb. -2. TRICOT crochet hook. -3. TYPO square bracket. -4. [détour]: faire un ~ to make a detour. -5. BOXE: ~ du gauche/du droit left/right hook. crocheter [kra/te] [28] vt to pick. crochu, -e [kro/y] adj [doigts] claw-like; [nez] hooked. croco [krsko] nm fam crocodile (skin). crocodile [kroksdil] nm crocodile. crocus [krokys] nm crocus. croire [krwar] [107] O vt -1. [chose, personne] to believe; à l'en ~, on n'y arrivera jamais to hear him talk, you'd think we'd never manage it. -2. [penser] to think; tu croist do you think soi; il te croyait parti he thought you'd left; ~ que to think (that), o vi: ~ à to believe in; ~ en to believe in, to have faith in. ♦ se croire vp -1. [prétendre être]: il se croit plus fort que moi he thinks he's stronger than me; se ~ tout permis to think one can get away with anything; s'y ~ fam to think one is it. -2. [penser se trouver]: on se croirait au Japon you'd think you were in Japan. croisade [krwazad] «/"HIST & fig crusade. croisé, -e [krwaze] adj [veste] doublebreasted. ♦ croisé nm HIST crusader. ♦ croisée nf -1. [fenêtre] casem*nt, window. -2. [croisem*nt]: à la ~e des chemins litt & fig at a crossroads. croisem*nt [krwazmâ] nm -1. [intersection] junction, intersection. -2. BIOL crossbreeding. croiser [krwaze] [3] O vt -1. [jambes] to cross; [bras] to fold. -2. [passer à côté de] to pass. -3. [chemin] to cross, to cut across. -4. [métisser] to interbreed, o vi NAV1G to cruise. ♦ se croiser vp> [chemins] to cross, to intersect; [personnes] to pass; [lettres] to cross; [regards] to meet. croisière [krwazjer] «/"cruise. croisillon [krwazij5] nm: à —s lattice (avant n).

133 CSCE croissais, croissions etc —> croître. croissance [krwasâs] nf growth, development; ~ économique economic growth OU development. croissant, -e [krwasâ, àt] adj increasing, growing. ♦ croissant nm -1. [de lune] crescent. -2. CULIN croissant. croître [krwatr] [93] vi -1. [grandir] to grow. -2. [augmenter] to increase. croix [krwa] nf cross; en ~ in the shape of a cross; ~ gammée swastika; mettre OU faire une ~ sur qqch fig to write sthg off; la ~ et la bannière fig the devil's own job. Croix-Rouge [krwaru3] nf: la ~ the Red Cross. croquant, -e [krokâ, àt] adj crisp, crunchy. croque-madame [krokmadam] nm inv croque-monsieur with a fried egg. croque-mitaine [krokmiten] (pi croquemitaines) nm bogeyman. croque-monsieur [krokmasjo] nm inv toasted cheese and ham sandwich. croque-mort [krokmor] {pi croque-morts) nm fam undertaker. croquer [kroke] [3] o vt -1. [manger] to crunch. -2. [dessiner] to sketch; (jolie) à ~ fig pretty as a picture, o vi to be crunchy. croquette [kroket] «f croquette. croquis [kroki] nm sketch; faire un ~ to make a sketch. cross [kn>s] nm [exercice] cross-country (running); [course] cross-country race. crosse [kn>s] nf -1. [d'évêque] crozier. -2. [de fusil] butt. -3. HOCKEY hockey stick. crotale [kn>tal] nm rattlesnake. crotte [kmt] nf [de lapin etc] droppings (pi); [de chien] dirt; ~! fam damn! crottin [kr^tê] nm [de cheval] (horse) manure. croulant, -e [krulâ, àt] o adj crumbling, o nm, f fam (old) fogy, wrinkly. crouler [krule] [3] vi to crumble; ~ sous //// & fig to collapse under. croupe [krup] nf rump; monter en ~ to ride pillion. croupier [krupje] nm croupier. croupion [krupj5] nm ZOOL rump; CULIN parson's nose. croupir [krupir] [32] vi lift & fig to stagnate. CROUS, Crous [krus] (ahr de centre régional des œuvres universitaires et scolaires) nm student representative body dealing with accommodation, catering etc. croustade [krustad] nf croustade. croustillant, -e [krustijâ, ât] adj -1. [croquant - pain] crusty; [- biscuit] crunchy. -2.

[grivois] spicy, juicy. croustiller [krustije] [3] vi to be crusty. croûte [krut] nf-1. [du pain, terrestre] crust; casser la ~ fam fig to have a bite to eat; gagner sa ~ fam fig to earn a crust. -2. CULIN: en ~ in piecrust OU pastry. -3. [de fromage] rind. -4. [de plaie] scab. -5. fam péj [tableau] daub. croûton [krut5] nm -1. [bout du pain] crust. -2. [pain frit] crouton. -3. fam péj [personne] fuddy-duddy. croyable [krwajabl] adj believable; c'est pas ~! it's unbelievable OU incredible! croyais, croyions etc —* croire. croyance [krwajàs] «/"belief. croyant, -e [krwajâ, ât] O ppr —► croire. O adj: être ~ to be a believer. O nm, f believer. CRS (abr de Compagnie républicaine de sécurité) nm member of the French riot police; on a fait appel aux ~ the riot police were called in. cru, -e [kry] O pp —» croire. O adj -1. [non cuit] raw. -2. [violent] harsh. -3. [direct] blunt. -4. [grivois] crude. ♦ cru nm [vin] wine; [vignoble] vineyard; du ~ fig local; un grand ~ a fine wine; de son propre ~ fig of one's own devising. crû [kry] pp —► croître. cruauté [kryote] «/"cruelty. cruche [kryJ] nf -1. [objet] jug. -2. fam péj [personne niaise] twit. crucial, -e, -iaux [krysjal, jo] adj crucial. crucifix [krysifi] nm crucifix. crucifixion [krysifiksj5] «/"crucifixion. cruciverbiste [krysiverbist] nmf crossword enthusiast. erudite [krydite] «/"crudeness. ♦ crudités nfpl crudités. crue [kry] nf rise in the water level; en ~ in spate. cruel, -elle [kryel] adj cruel. cruellement [kryelmâ] adv cruelly. crûment [krymâ] adv -1. [sans ménagement] bluntly. -2. [avec grossièreté] crudely. crustacé [krystase] nm shellfish, crustacean; ~s shellfish (U). crypte [kript] «/"crypt. es (abr de cuillère à soupe) tbs, tbsp. CSA (abr de Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel) nm French broadcasting supervisory body. CSCE (abr de Conférence sur la sécurité et la coopération en Europe) «f CSCE.

CSEN 134 CSEN {abr de Confédération des syndicats de l'éducation nationale) nf confederation of teachers' unions. CSG {abr de contribution sociale généralisée) nf income-related tax contribution. CSP {abr de catégorie socio-professionnelle) nf socio-professional group. Cuba [kyba] n Cuba; à ~ in Cuba. cubain, -aine [kybê, en] adj Cuban. ♦ Cubain, -aine nm, f Cuban. cube [kyb] nm cube; 4 au ~ = 64 4 cubed is 64; élever au ~ MATHS to cube; mètre ~ cubic meter Am OU metre Br. cubique [kybik] adj cubic. cubisme [kybism] nm cubism. cubitus [kybitys] nm ulna. cucu(l) [kyky] adj inv fam silly. cueille, cueilles etc —> cueillir. cueillette [kœjct] «/"picking, harvesting. cueilli, -e [kceji] pp —» cueillir. cueillir [kcejir] [41] vt -1. [fruits, fleurs] to pick. -2. fam [personne] to catch, to nab. cuillère, cuiller [kqijer] nf spoonful; ~ à café coffee spoon; CULIN teaspoon; ~ à dessert dessertspoon; ~ à soupe soup spoon; CULIN tablespoon; petite ~ teaspoon. cuillerée [kqijere] nf spoonful; ~ à café CULIN teaspoonful; ~ à soupe CULIN tablespoonful. cuir [kqir] nm leather; [non tanné] hide; en ~ leather {avant n); ~ chevelu AN AT scalp. cuirasse [kqiras] nf [de chevalier] breastplate; fig armor Am, armour Br. cuirassé [kqirase] nm battleship. cuire [kqir] [98] O vt -1. [viande, œuf] to cook; [tarte, gâteau] to bake. -2. [briques, poterie] to fire. O vi -1. [viande, œuf] to cook; [tarte, gâteau] to bake; faire ~ qqch to cook/bake sthg. -2. fig [personne] to roast, to be boiling; il vous en cuira! fig you'll surfer (for it)!, you'll regret it! cuisais, cuisions etc —> cuire. cuisant, -e [kqizâ, ât] adj [douloureux] stinging, smarting; fig bitter. cuisine [kqizin] nf -1. [pièce] kitchen. -2. [art] cooking, cookery; faire la ~ to do the cooking, to cook; ~ bourgeoise home cooking. -3. fam [combine] schemings {pi), schemes {pi); ~ électorale electoral hankypanky (I/). cuisiné, -e [kqizine] adj: plat ~ readycooked meal. cuisiner [kqizine] [3] O vt -1. [aliment] to cook. -2. fam [personne] to grill. O vi to cook; bien/mal ~ to be a good/bad cook. cuisinier, -ière [kqizinje, jer] nm, /"cook. ♦ cuisinière nf cooker; cuisinière

électrique/à gaz electric/gas cooker. cuissardes [kqisard] nfpl [de pêcheur] waders; [de femme] thigh boots. cuisse [kqis] nf-I. ANAT thigh. -2. CULIN leg; ~s de grenouille frog's legs. cuisson [kqis5] «/"cooking. cuissot [kqiso] nm haunch; ~ de chevreuil haunch of venison. cuistot [kqisto] nm fam cook. cuistre [kqistr] littéraire O nm prig, o adj priggish. cuit, -e [kqi, kqit] O pp —* cuire. O adj: bien ~ [steak] well-done; trop ~ overcooked, overdone; être ~ fam fig to have had it. ♦ cuite nf fam: prendre une ~e to get plastered OU smashed. cuiter [kqite] [3] ♦ se cuiter vp fam to get plastered OU smashed. cuivre [kqivr] nm -1. [métal]: ~ (rouge) copper; ~ jaune brass. -2. (gén pt) [objet] brass (object). ♦ cuivres nmpl: les ~s MUS the brass. cuivré, -e [kqivre] adj [couleur, reflet] coppery; [teint] bronzed. cul [ky] nm -1. tfam [postérieur] bum; avoir le ~ entre deux chaises to be in an awkward position; en avoir plein le ~ de qqch tfam to have had it up to here with sthg; être comme ~ et chemise to be as thick as thieves. -2. [de bouteille] bottom; faire ~ sec fam to down one's drink in one. culasse [kylas] nf-1. [d'arme à feu] breech. -2. AUTOM cylinder head. culbute [kylbyt] nf-1. [saut] somersault. -2. [chute] tumble, fall. culbuter [kylbyte] [3] o vt [objet] to knock over. O vi -1. [faire une chute] to (take a) tumble. -2. [se renverser] to (do a) somersault. cul-de-jatte [kyd3at] {pi culs-de-jatte) nm legless cripple. cul-de-sac [kydsak] {pi culs-de-sac) nm dead end. culinaire [kyliner] adj culinary. culminant [kylminô] —► point. culminer [kylmine] [3] vi [surplomber] to tower; ~ à [s'élever à] to reach its highest point at; fig to peak at. culot [kylo] nm -1. fam [toupet] cheek, nerve; avoir le ~ de to have the cheek OU nerve to; avoir du ~ to have a lot of nerve. -2. [de cartouche, ampoule] cap.

135 cycle culotte [kybt] nf -1. [sous-vêtement féminin] knickers (pî), panties (pt), pair of knickers OU panties. -2. [vêtement]: —s courtes/ longues short/long trousers; porter la ~ fam fig to wear the trousers. culotté, -e [kybte] adj [effronté]: elle est ~e she's got a nerve. culpabiliser [kylpabilize] [3] O vt: ~ qqn to make sb feel guilty. O vi to feel guilty. culpabilité [kylpabilite] «/"guilt. culte [kylt] nm -1. [vénération, amour] worship. -2. [religion] religion. cultivateur, -trice [kyltivatœr, tris] nm, f farmer. cultivé, -e [kyltive] adj [personne] educated, cultured. cultiver [kyltive] [3] vt -1. [terre, goût, relation] to cultivate. -2. [plante] to grow. ♦ se cultiver vp to cultivate OU improve one's mind. culture [kyltyr] nf -I. AGRJC cultivation, farming; les —s cultivated land. -2. [savoir] culture, knowledge; ~ générale [connaissances] general knowledge; [éducation] general education; ~ physique physical training. -3. [civilisation] culture. culturel, -elle [kyltyrel] adj cultural. culturisme [kyltyrism] nm bodybuilding. cumin [kymë] nm cumin. cumul [kymyl] nm [de fonctions, titres] holding simultaneously; [de salaires] drawing simultaneously. cumuler [kymyle] [3] vt [fonctions, titres] to hold simultaneously; [salaires] to draw simultaneously. cumulus [kymylys] nm cumulus. cupide [kypid] adj greedy. cupidité [kypidite] nf greed, cupidity. curaçao [kyraso] nm curaçao. curatif, -ive [kyratif, iv] adj curative. cure [kyr] nf (course of) treatment; faire une ~ de fruits to go on a fruit-based diet; ~ d'amaigrissem*nt reducing treatment Am, slimming course Br; ~ de désintoxication [d'alcool] drying-out treatment; [de drogue] detoxification treatment; ~ de sommeil sleep therapy; faire une ~ thermale to take the waters. curé [kyre] nm parish priest. cure-dents [kyrdâ] nm inv toothpick. cure-pipes nm inv, cure-pipe (pi curepipes) [kyrpip] nm pipe cleaner. curer [kyre] [3] vt to clean out. ♦ se curer vp: se ~ les ongles to clean one's nails. curetage [kyrta3J nm curettage. curie [kyri] «/"curia.

curieusem*nt [kyrjozmâ] adv curiously, strangely. curieux, -ieuse [kyrjo, joz] O adj -1. [intéressé] curious; ~ de qqch/de faire qqch curious about sthg/to do sthg. -2. [indiscret] inquisitive. -3. [étrange] strange, curious. O nm, f busybody. curiosité [kyrjozite] «/"curiosity. ♦ curiosités nfpl interesting sights. curiste [kyrist] nmf person undergoing treatment at a spa. curling [koerlirj] nm curling. curriculum vitae [kyrikybmvite] nm inv curriculum vitae. curry [kyri], carry [kari], cari [kari] nm -1. [épice] curry powder. -2. [plat] curry. curseur [kyrsoer] nm cursor. cursus [kyrsys] nm degree course. cutané, -e [kytane] adj cutaneous, skin {avant «). cuti [kyti] nf. virer sa ~ fam fig to throw off one's shackles. cuti-réaction (pi cuti-réactions), cutiréaction [kytireaksjS] «/"skin test. cutter [koetoer] nm Stanley knife®. cuve [kyv] nf -1. [citerne] tank. -2. [à vin] vat. cuvée [kyve] nf -1. [récolte] vintage. -2. [contenu de cuve] vatful. cuver [kyve] [3] vt -1. [faire séjourner en cuve] to put in a vat to ferment. -2. [alcool, déception]: ~ qqch to sleep sthg off. cuvette [kyvet] nf -1. [récipient] basin, bowl. -2. [de lavabo] basin; [de W.-C] bowl. -3. CÉOGR basin. cv (abr de cheval-vapeur) [puissance] HP. CV nm -1. (abr de curriculum vitae) CV. -2. (abr de cheval-vapeur) hp; [puissance fiscale] classification for scaling of car tax. CVS (abr de corrigées des variations saisonnières) adj seasonally adjusted. ex nm [coefficient de pénétration dans l'air] drag coefficient. cyanure [sjanyr] nm cyanide. cybercafé [siberkafe] nm cybercafé. cyberespace [siberespas] nm cyberspace. cyclable [siklabl] —» piste. Cyclades [siklad] nfpk les ~ the Cyclades; dans les ~ in the Cyclades. cyclamen [siklamen] nm cyclamen. cycle [sikl] nm cycle; ~ menstruel menstrual cycle; premier ~ UNIV = first and second year; SCOL junior high school Am, middle school Br, second ~ UNrV = senior

cyclique 136 year Am, final year Br; SCOL high school Am, upper school Br; troisième ~ UNIV = postgraduate year OU years. cyclique [siklik] adj cyclic, cyclical. cyclisme [siklism] nm cycling. cycliste [siklist] o nmf cyclist. O adj cycle {avant n). cyclo-cross [sikbkras] nm inv cyclo-cross. cyclomoteur [sikbmDtoer] nm moped. cyclone [siklon] nm cyclone. cyclothymique [sikbtimik] nmf & adj manic-depressive. cyclotourisme [sikbturism] nm cycle touring. cygne [siji] nm swan. cylindre [silêdr] nm -1. AUTOM & GÉOM cylinder. -2. [rouleau] roller. cylindrée [silêdre] «/"engine capacity. cylindrique [silêdrik] adj cylindrical. cymbale [sebal] nf cymbal. cynique [sinik] O nmf cyme, o adj cynical. cynisme [sinism] nm cynicism. cyprès [sipre] nm cypress. cypriote, Cypriote —► chypriote. cyrillique [sirilik] adj Cyrillic. cystite [sistit] «/"cystitis (V). cytise [sitiz] nm laburnum. d, D [de] nm inv d, D. d' — de. da {abr de déca) da. d'abord [dabar] —► abord. Dacca [daka] « Dacca. d'accord [dakar] be adv: ~! all right!, OK!; être ~ avec to agree with. dactylo [daktilo] nf [personne] typist; [procédé] typing. dactylographier [daktibgrafje] [9] vt to type. dada [dada] nm -1. [cheval] gee-gee. -2. fam [occupation] hobby. -3. fam [idée] hobbyhorse. -4. ART Dadaism. dadais [dade] nm fool; un grand ~ a big OU great lump. dahlia [dalja] nm dahlia. Dahomey [daame] nm: le ~ Dahomey; au ~ in Dahomey. daigner [dejie] [4] vi to deign. daim [de] nm -1. [animal] fallow deer. -2. [peau] suede. dais [de] nm canopy. Dakar [dakar] « Dakar. dal (abr de décalitre) dal. dallage [dala3] nm [action] paving; [dalles] pavement. dalle [dal] nf [de pierre] slab; [de lino] tile; avoir la ~ fam fig to be famished OU starving; que ~! fam fig damn all!, not a (damn)

thing! dalmatien, -ienne [dalmasjc, jen] nm, / dalmatian. daltonien, -ienne [daltsnje, jen] adj colorblind Am, colour-blind Br. dam1 [dam] nm: au grand ~ de [déplaisir] to the great displeasure of. dam2 (abr de décamètre) dam. Damas [damas] n Damascus. dame [dam] nf-t. [femme] lady. -2. CARTES & ÉCHECS queen. ♦ dames nfyl checkers Am, draughts Br. dame-Jeanne [damjan] (p\ dames-jeannes) «/demijohn. darner [dame] [3] vt to pack down. damier [damje] nm -1. [de jeu] checkerboard Am, draughtboard Br. -2. [motif]: à ~ checked. damnation [danasp] «f damnation. damné, -e [dane] O adj fam damned. O nm, f damned person. damner [dane] [3] vt to damn. ♦ se damner vy to be damned; se ~ pour fig to risk damnation for. dancing [dusirj] nm dance hall. dandiner [dùdine] [3] ♦ se dandiner vy to waddle. dandy [dùdi] nm dandy. Danemark [danmark] nm: le ~ Denmark; au ~ in Denmark. danger [dà3e] nm danger; en ~ in danger; hors de ~ out of danger; courir un ~ to run a risk; narguer le ~ to flout danger; ~ public public menace. dangereusem*nt [dàjrazmà] adv dangerously. dangereux, -euse [dâ3r0, 0z] adj dangerous. danois, -e [danwa, az] adj Danish. ♦ danois nm -1. [langue] Danish. -2. [chien] Great Dane.

137 de ♦ Danois, -e nm, f Dane. dans [dô] prép -1. [dans le temps] in; je reviens ~ un mois I'll be back in a month OU in a month's time. -2. [dans l'espace] in; ~ une boîte in OU inside a box; c'est ~ ma chambre/mon sac it's in my room/my bag. -3. [avec mouvement] into; entrer ~ une chambre to come into a room, to enter a room. -4. [indiquant état, manière] in; vivre ~ la misère to live in poverty; il est ~ le commerce he's in business. -5. [environ]: ~ les ... about ...; ça coûte ~ les 200 francs it costs about 200 francs. dansant, -e [dàsà, àt] adj litt & fig dancing; soirée ~e dance; thé ~ tea dance. danse [dâs] nf -1. [art] dancing; ~ classique/folklorique/moderne ballet/folk/ modern dancing; ~ du ventre belly dance. -2. [musique] dance. danser [dàse] [3] O vi -1. [personne] to dance. -2. [bateau] to bob; [flammes] to flicker, o vt to dance. danseur, -euse [dâsœr, 0z] nm, f dancer; en danseuse CYCLISME standing on the pedals; ~ étoile principal dancer. dantesque [dâtxsk] adj Dantesque, Dantean. DAO {ahr de dessin assisté par ordinateur) nm CAD. dard [dar] nm [d'animal] sting. darder [darde] [3] vt to beat down; ~ un regard sur fig to shoot a glance at. dare-dare [dardar] adv fam on the double. Dar es-Salaam [darcssalam] n Dar esSalaam. darne [dam] «/"[de poisson] steak. dartre [dartr] «/"sore. DAT (abr de digital audio tape) DAT. DATAR, Datar [datar] (ahr de Délégation à l'aménagement du territoire et à l'action régionale) nf regional land development agency. datation [datasp] ///dating. date [dat] nf-1. [jour+mois+année] date; ~ limite de vente/de consommation sell-by/ use-by date; de longue — long-standing; ~ de naissance date of birth. -2. [moment] event. dater [date] [3] o vt to date. O vi -1. [marquer] to be OU mark a milestone. -2. fam [être démodé] to be dated. ♦ à dater de loc prép as of OU from. dateur, -euse [datoer, oz] adj date (avant n). ♦ dateur nm [timbre] datestamp; [de montre] date indicator. datif [datif] nm GRAM dative. datte [dat] nf date.

dattier [datje] nm date palm. daube [dob] «/"CULIN - stew. dauphin [dofc] nm -1. [mammifère] dolphin. -2. HIST heir apparent. dauphine [dofin] «/"HIST heir apparent. daurade, dorade [dorad] ///"sea bream. davantage [davàta3] adv -1. [plus] more; ~ de more. -2. [plus longtemps] (any) longer. dB (ahr de décibel) dB. DB (ahr de division blindée) nf armored Am OU armoured Br division. DCA (ahr de défense contre aéronefs) nf AA (anti-aircraft). DCT (ahr de diphtérie coqueluche tétanos) nm vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough. DDA (ahr de Direction départementale de l'agriculture) nf local offices of the Ministry of Agriculture. DDASS, Ddass [das] (ahr de Direction départementale d'action sanitaire et sociale) nf = SSA Am, = DSS Br; un enfant de la ~ a state orphan. DDD (ahr de digital digital digital) DDD. DDE (ahr de Direction départementale de l'Équipement) nf local offices of the Ministry of the Environment. DDT (ahr de dichloro-diphényltrichloréthane) nm DDT. DDTAB (ahr de diphtérie, tétanos, typhoïde, paratyphoïde A) nm vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, typhoid and paratyphoid. de [da] (contraction de de + le = du [dy], de + les = des [de]) O prép -1. [provenance] from; revenir ~ Paris to come back OU return from Paris; il est sorti ~ la maison he left the house, he went out of the house. -2. [avec à]: ~ ... à from ... to; ~ Paris à Tokyo from Paris to Tokyo; ~ dix heures à midi from ten o'clock to OU till midday; il y avait — quinze à vingt mille spectateurs there were between fifteen and twenty thousand spectators. -3. [appartenance] of; la porte du salon the door of the sitting room, the sitting-room door; le frère ~ Pierre Pierre's brother; la maison ~ mes parents my parents' house. -4. [indique la détermination, la qualité]: un verre d'eau a glass of water; un peignoir ~ soie a silk dressing gown; un appartement ~ 60m2 a flat 60 metres square; un bébé ~ trois jours a three-day-old baby; une ville ~ 500 000 habitants a town with OU of 500,000 inhabitants.

DE 138 O article partitif -1. [dans une phrase affirmative] some; je voudrais du vin/du lait I'd like (some) wine/(some) milk; boire ~ l'eau to drink (some) water; acheter des légumes to buy some vegetables. -2. [dans une interrogation ou une négation] any; ils n'ont pas d'enfants they don't have any children, they have no children; avez-vous du paint do you have any breads, have you got any breads ; voulez-vous du thé£ would you like some tea£ DE (abr de diplômé d'État) adj qualified; infirmière ~ qualified nurse, = RGN Br. dé [de] nm -1. [à jouer] dice, die. -2. [morceau] dice, cube; couper en ~s CULIN to dice. -3. COUTURE: ~ (à coudre) thimble. DEA {abr de diplôme d'études approfondies) nm postgraduate diploma. dealer1 [dile] vt to deal. dealer2 [diloer] nm fam dealer. déambuler [deâbyle] [3] vi to stroll (around). débâcle [debakl] nf [débandade] rout; fig collapse. déballage [debala3] nm lift unpacking. déballer [debale] [3] vt to unpack; fam fig to pour out. débandade [debàdad] nf dispersai. débarbouiller [debarbuje] [3] vt: ~ qqn to wash sb's face. ♦ se débarbouiller vp to wash one's face. débarcadère [debarkadcr] nm landing stage. débardeur [debardœr] nm -1. [ouvrier] docker. -2. [vêtement] slipover. débarquement [debarkamà] nm [de marchandises] unloading; le Débarquement HIST the D-Day landings. débarquer [debarke] [3] O vt [marchandises] to unload; [passagers & MIL] to land. O vi -1. [d'un bateau] to disembark. -2. MIL to land. -3. fam [arriver à l'improviste] to turn up; fig to know nothing. débarras [debara] nm junk room; bon ~! fig good riddance! débarrasser [debarase] [3] vt -1. [pièce] to clear up; [table] to clear. -2. [ôter]: ~ qqn de qqch to take sthg from sb. ♦ se débarrasser vp: se ~ de to get rid of. débat [deba] nm debate; élargir le ~ to broaden OU widen the debate. ♦ débats nmpl debates, proceedings. débattre [debatr] [83] O vt to debate, to discuss. O vi: ~ de qqch to debate OU discuss sthg.

♦ se débattre vp to struggle; se ~ avec OU contre fig to struggle with OU against. débattu, -e [debaty] pp —► débattre. débauche [deboj] nf debauchery; une ~ de fig a profusion of. débauché, -e [deboje] o adj debauched. O nm, /"debauched person. débaucher [deboje] [3] vt -1. [corrompre] to debauch, to corrupt. -2. [licencier] to make redundant. débile [debil] o nmf -1. [attardé] retarded person; ~ mental mentally retarded person; ~ profond profoundly retarded person. -2. fam [idiot] moron. O adj fam stupid. débilitant, -e [débilita, ât] adj debilitating. débilité [débilite] nf -\. [stupidité] stupidity. -2. [maladie] debility, deficiency. débiner [débine] [3] ♦ se débiner vp fam to clear off. débit [debi] nm -1. [de marchandises] (retail) sale. -2. [magasin]: ~ de boissons bar; ~ de tabac tobacco shop Am, tobacconist's Br. -3. [coupe] sawing up, cutting up. -4. [de liquide] (rate of) flow. -5. [elocution] delivery. -6. FIN debit; avoir un ~ de 500 francs to be 500 francs overdrawn. débitant, -e [débita, ât] nm, f -1. [de boissons] licensed grocer. -2. [de tabac] tobacco dealer Am, tobacconist Br. débiter [débite] [3] vt -1. [marchandises] to sell. -2. [arbre] to saw up; [viande] to cut up. -3. [suj: robinet] to have a flow of. -4. fam fig [prononcer] to spout. -5. FIN to debit. débiteur, -trice [debitœr, tris] O adj -1. [personne] debtor (avant n). -2. FIN debit (avant n), in the red. O nm, /"debtor. déblaiement [deblcmô], déblayage [debleja3] nm clearing. déblatérer [déblatère] [18] vi fam [médire]: ~ contre to rant on about. déblayage = déblaiement. déblayer [debleje] [11] vt [dégager] to clear; ~ le terrain fig to clear the ground. débloquer [debbke] [3] O w -1. [machine] to get going again. -2. [crédit] to release. -3. [compte, salaires, prix] to unfreeze. O vi fam to talk rubbish. déboires [debwar] nmpl -1. [déceptions] disappointments. -2. [échecs] setbacks. -3. [ennuis] trouble (I/), problems. déboisem*nt [debwazmâ] nm deforestation.

139 décaler déboiser [debwaze] [3] vt [région] to deforest; [terrain] to clear (of trees). ♦ se déboiser vp to become deforested. déboîter [debwate] [3] O vt -1. [objet] to dislodge; ~ une porte to take a door off its hinges. -2. [membre] to dislocate. O vi AUTOM to pull out. ♦ se déboîter vp -1. [se démonter] to come apart; [porte] to come off its hinges. -2. [membre] to dislocate. débonnaire [debsner] adj good-natured, easy-going. débordant, -e [debardà, àt] adj -1. [activité] bustling. -2. [personne]: ~ de [joie, vie] overflowing with; [santé, énergie] bursting with. débordement [debardamà] nm -1. [de fleuve, récipient] overflowing. -2. [de joie, tendresse] outburst. ♦ débordements nmpl excesses. déborder [debarde] [3] O vi [fleuve, liquide] to overflow; fig to flood; ~ de [vie, joie] to be bubbling with, o vt [limite] to go beyond. débouché [debuje] nm -1. [issue] end. -2. (gén pt) COMM outlet. -3. [de carrière] prospect, opening. déboucher [debuje] [3] O vt -1. [bouteille] to open. -2. [conduite, nez] to unblock. O vi: ~ sur [arriver] to open out into; fig to lead to, to achieve. débouler [debule] [3] O vi [personne - arriver] to charge up; [animal] to bolt. O vt to hurtle down. déboulonner [debubne] [3] vt [statue] to dismantle. débourser [deburse] [3] vt to pay out. déboussoler [debusale] [3] vt fam to throw, to disorientate. debout [dabu] adv -1. [gén] être ~ [sur ses pieds] to be standing (up); [réveillé] to be up; [objet] to be standing up OU upright; mettre qqch ~ to stand sthg up; se mettre ~ to stand up; ~! get up!, on your feet! -2. he: tenir ~ [bâtiment] to remain standing; [argument] to stand up; il ne tient pas ~ he's asleep on his feet. débouter [debute] [3] vt JUR to dismiss. déboutonner [debutDne] [3] vt to unbutton, to undo. ♦ se déboutonner vp [défaire ses boutons] to undo one's buttons/one's jacket etc. débraillé, -e [debraje] adj disheveled Am, dishevelled Br. débrancher [debrâje] [3] vt -1. [appareil] to unplug. -2. [téléphone] to disconnect. débrayage [debreja3] nm -1. [AUTOM - pièce] clutch; [- action] disengagement of the

clutch. -2. [arrêt de travail] stoppage. débrayer [debreje] [11] vi -I. AUTOM to disengage the clutch, to declutch. -2. [cesser le travail] to stop work. débridé, -e [débride] adj fig & sout [imagination, sensualité] unbridled. débris [debri] o nm piece, fragment. O nmpl -1. [restes] leftovers. -2. fig & littéraire [d'armée, fortune] remains; [d'un état] ruins. débrouillard, -e [debrujar, ard] fam O adj resourceful. O nm, f resourceful person. débrouillardise [debrujardiz] nf fam resourcefulness. débrouiller [debruje] [3] vt -1. [démêler] to untangle. -2. fig [résoudre] to unravel, to solve. ♦ se débrouiller vp: se ~ (pour faire qqch) to manage (to do sthg); se ~ en anglais to get by in English; débrouille-toi! you'll have to sort it out (by) yourself! débroussailler [debrusaje] [3] vt [terrain] to clear; fig to do the groundwork for. débusquer [debyske] [3] vt -1. [gibier] to drive out. -2. [personne] to flush out. début [deby] nm beginning, start; au ~ at the start OU beginning; dès le ~ (right) from the start. ♦ débuts nmpl debut (sg). ♦ au début de he prép at the beginning of. débutant, -e [debytâ, ât] nm, f beginner. débuter [debyte] [3] vi -1. [commencer]: ~ (par) to begin (with), to start (with). -2. [faire ses débuts] to start out. deçà [ddsa] ♦ deçà delà he adv here and there. ♦ en deçà de he prép -1. [de ce côté-ci de] on this side of. -2. [en dessous de] short of. décacheter [dekajte] [27] vt to open. décade [dekad] «f period of ten days. décadence [dekadâs] nf-1. [déclin] decline. -2. [débauche] decadence. décadent, -e [dekadâ, ât] adj decadent. décaféiné, -e [dekafeine] adj decaffeinated. ♦ décaféiné nm decaffeinated coffee. décalage [dekala3] nm gap; fig gulf, discrepancy; ~ horaire [entre zones] time difference; [après un vol] jet lag. décalcification [dekalsifikasjS] nf decalcification. décalcomanie [dekalknmani] nf transfer (adhesive). décaler [dekale] [3] vt -1. [dans le temps -

décalquer 140 avancer] to bring forward; [- retarder] to put back. -2. [dans l'espace] to move, to shift. ♦ se décaler vp to move. décalquer [dekalke] [3] vt to trace. décamper [dekâpe] [3] vi fam to clear off. décan [dekà] nm ASTROL one of three subdivisions of each star sign. décanter [dekâte] [3] O vt: laisser ~ [liquide] to allow to settle; fig [idée] to allow to settle down OU become clearer. O vi [liquide] to settle; fig [idées] to become clear. ♦ se décanter vp [idées] to become clear. décapant, -e [dekapâ, ât] adj -1. [nettoyant] stripping. -2. fig [incisif] cutting, caustic. ♦ décapant nm (paint) stripper. décaper [dekape] [3] vt to strip, to sand. décapiter [dekapite] [3] vt [personne] to behead; [- accidentellement] to decapitate; [arbre] to cut the top off; fig to remove the leader OU leaders of. décapotable [dekapotabl] nf & adj convertible. décapsuler [dekapsyle] [3] vt to take the top off, to open. décapsuleur [dekapsyloer] nm bottle opener. décarcasser [dekarkase] [3] ♦ se décarcasser vp> fam: se ~ (à faire qqch) to slog away (at doing sthg). décédé, -e [desede] adj deceased. décéder [desede] [18] vi to die. déceler [desle] [25] vt -1. [révéler] to reveal. -2. [repérer] to detect. décélération [deselerasj5] «f deceleration. décembre [desàbr] nm December; voir aussi septembre. décemment [desamâ] adv -1. [convenablement] properly. -2. [raisonnablement] reasonably. décence [desâs] «/"decency. décennie [deseni] «/"decade. décent, -e [desà, àt] adj decent. décentralisation [desâtralizasj5] nf decentralization. décentraliser [desâtralize] [3] vt to decentralize. décentrer [desâtre] [3] vt to move offcenter Am OU off-centre Br. déception [desepsjS] «f disappointment. décerner [deserne] [3] vt: ~ qqch à to award sthg to. décès [dese] nm death. décevant, -e [desavâ, ât] adj disappointing. décevoir [desavwar] [52] vt to disappoint. déchaîné, -e [dejene] adj -1. [vent, mer] stormy, wild. -2. [passion] unrestrained; [opinion publique] raging. -3. [personne] wild.

déchaîner [dejene] [4] vt [passion] to unleash; [rires] to cause an outburst of. ♦ se déchaîner vp -1. [éléments naturels] to erupt. -2. [personne] to fly into a rage. déchanter [dejâte] [3] vi to become disillusioned. décharge [dejar3] nf -1. JUR discharge. -2. ELECTR discharge; ~ électrique electrical Am OU electric Br shock. -3. [reçu] receipt. -4. [dépotoir] garbage dump Am, rubbish tip OU dump Br, ~ municipale city/town dump. déchargement [dejarçamâ] nm unloading. décharger [dejarçe] [17] vt -1. [véhicule, marchandises] to unload. -2. [arme - tirer] to fire, to discharge; [- enlever la charge] to unload. -3. [soulager - cœur] to unburden; [- conscience] to salve; [- colère] to vent. -4. [libérer] : ~ qqn de to release sb from. ♦ se décharger vp -1. ELECTR to go flat. -2. [se libérer]: se ~ de qqch sur to offload sthg onto. -3. [rivière]: se ~ dans to flow into. décharné, -e [dejame] adj [maigre] emaciated. déchausser [dejose] [3] vt: ~ qqn to take sb's shoes off. ♦ se déchausser vp -1. [personne] to take one's shoes off. -2. [dent] to come loose. dèche [deJ] nf fam: être dans la ~ to be on one's uppers. déchéance [dejeâs] nf -\. [déclin] degeneration, decline. -2. [d'un souverain] dethronement. -3. JUR loss. déchet [deje] nm [de matériau] scrap. ♦ déchets nmpl refuse ((/), waste ((/); ~s radioactifs radioactive waste. déchiffrer [dejifre] [3] vt -1. [inscription, hiéroglyphes] to decipher; [énigme] to unravel. -2. MUS to sight-read. déchiqueter [dejikte] [27] vt to tear to shreds. déchirant, -e [dejirâ, ât] adj heartrending. déchirement [dejirmâ] nm -1. [division] rift, split. -2. [souffrance morale] heartbreak, distress. déchirer [dejire] [3] vt -1. [papier, tissu] to tear up, to rip up. -2. fig [diviser] to tear apart. ♦ se déchirer vp -1. [personnes] to tear each other apart. -2. [matériau, muscle] to tear. déchirure [dejiryr] nf tear; fig wrench; ~ musculaire MÉD torn muscle.

141 décollage déchoir [dejwar] [71] vi sout [s'abaisser] to demean o.s. déchu, -e [dejy] O vp —► déchoir. O adj -1. [homme, ange] fallen; [souverain] deposed. -2. JUR: être ~ de to be deprived of. deci [dasi] ♦ deci-delà adv sout here and there. décibel [desibel] nm decibel. décidé, -e [deside] adj -1. [résolu] determined. -2. [arrêté] settled. décidément [desidemâ] adv really. décider [deside] [3] vt -I. [prendre une décision]: ~ (de faire qqch) to decide (to do sthg); ~ que to decide (that). -2. [convaincre]: ~ qqn à faire qqch to persuade sb to do sthg. -3. [déterminer]: ~ de qqch to decide on sthg. ♦ se décider vp -1. [personne]: se ~ (à faire qqch) to make up one's mind (to do sthg). -2. [affaire] to be decided, to be settled. -3. [choisir]: se ~ pour to decide on, to settle on. décideur [desidoer] nm decision-maker. décilitre [desilitr] nm decilitre. décimal, -e, -aux [desimal, o] adj decimal. ♦ décimale nf decimal. décimer [desime] [3] vt to decimate. décimètre [desimetr] nm -1. [dixième de mètre] decimetre. -2. [règle] ruler; double ~ = foot rule. décisif, -ive [desizif, iv] adj decisive. décision [desizjS] nf decision; prendre une ~ to take OU make a decision. décisionnaire [desizjoner] nmf decisionmaker. déclamer [deklame] [3] vt to declaim. déclaration [deklarasjô] nf -1. [orale] declaration, announcement; faire une ~ to make a statement; ~ de guerre/d'amour declaration of war/of love. -2. [écrite] report, declaration; [d'assurance] claim; ~ de naissance/de décès registration of birth/ death; ~ d'impôts tax return; ~ de revenus statement of income. DÉCLARATION D'IMPÔTS: People in France are required to declare their taxable earnings at the beginning of the year. Quarterly tax payments ('tiers provisionnels') are based on estimated tax for the year, the payment for the final quarter being adjusted according to the actual tax owed déclarer [deklare] [3] vt -1. [annoncer] to declare; ~ que to declare (that). -2. [signaler] to report; ~ une naissance to register a birth. ♦ se déclarer vp -1. [se prononcer]: se ~

pour qqch to come out in favor Am OU favour of sthg; se ~ contre qqch to come out against sthg. -2. [se manifester] to break out. déclasser [deklase] [3] vt -1. [personne - gén] to downgrade; SPORT to relegate. -2. [objets] to get out of order. déclenchement [deklàjmâ] nm [de mécanisme] activating, setting off; fig launching. déclencher [deklâje] [3] vt [mécanisme] to activate, to set off; fig to launch. ♦ se déclencher vp [mécanisme] to go off, to be activated; fig to be triggered off. déclic [deklik] nm -1. [mécanisme] trigger. -2. [bruit] click. déclin [deklê] nm -1. [de civilisation, population, santé] decline; une personnalité sur son — a celebrity on the wane. -2. [fin] close. déclinaison [deklinez5] nf GRAM declension. décliner [dekline] [3] O vi -1. [santé, population, popularité] to decline. -2. [jour] to draw to a close. O vt -1. [offre, honneur] to decline; ~ une invitation to decline an invitation; ~ toute responsabilité to accept no responsibility. -2. GRAM to decline; fig [gamme de produits] to develop. -3. [énoncer] to state. ♦ se décliner vp GRAM to decline. déclivité [deklivite] «/"slope, incline. décloisonner [deklwazone] [3] vt fig to decompartmentalize . déclouer [deklue] [3] vt to take the nails out of. décocher [dekoje] [3] vt lift & fig to let fly; ~ un regard to shoot a glance. décoction [deksksjo] nf decoction. décodage [dekoda3] nm decoding. décoder [dekode] [3] vt to decode. décodeur [dekodoer] nm decoder. décoiffer [dekwafe] [3] vt [cheveux] to mess up. ♦ se décoiffer vp -1. [cheveux] to be messed up. -2. [enlever son chapeau] to take off one's hat. décoincer [dekwêse] [16] vt -1. [chose] to loosen; [mécanisme] to unjam. -2. fam [personne] to loosen up. ♦ se décoincer vp -1. [mécanisme] to loosen. -2. fam fig [personne] to loosen up. déçois, déçoit etc —► décevoir. décolérer [dekslere] [18] vi: il n'a pas décoléré he hasn't calmed down. décollage [dekDla3] nm litt & fig takeoff.

décollé 142 décollé, -e [dekole] ad]: il a les oreilles —es his ears stick out. décollement [delolmû] nm: ~ de la rétine MED detachment of the retina. décoller [dekole] [3] O vt [étiquette, timbre] to unstick; [papier peint] to strip (off), o vi litt & fie, to take off. ♦ se décoller vp [étiquette, timbre] to come unstuck; [papier peint] to peel off. décolleté, -e [deknlte] ad] [vêtement] lowcut. ♦ décolleté nm -1. [de personne] neck and shoulders (pi). -2. [de vêtement] neckline, neck. décolonisation [dekobnizasp] nf decolonization. décolorant, -e [deksbra, ât] ad] bleaching (avant n). ♦ décolorant nm bleach. décoloration [dekobrasj5] «/"bleaching. décolorer [dekobre] [3] vt [par décolorant] to bleach, to lighten; [par usure] to fade. ♦ se décolorer vp -1. [se ternir] to fade. -2. [cheveux] to bleach. décombres [dekSbr] nmpl debris (U). décommander [delomâde] [3] vt to cancel. ♦ se décommander vp to cancel one's appointment. décomposé, -e [dekSpoze] ad] -1. [pourri] decomposed. -2. [visage] haggard; [personne] in shock. décomposer [dek5poze] [3] vt -1. [gén]: ~ (en) to break down (into). -2. fig [troubler] to distort. ♦ se décomposer vp -1. [se putréfier] to rot, to decompose. -2. [se diviser]: se ~ en to be broken down into. -3. fig [s'altérer] to be distorted. décomposition [dek5pDzisj5] nf -1. [putréfaction] decomposition. -2. fig [analyse] breaking down, analysis. décompresser [dek5prese] [4] o vt TECHNOL to decompress, o vi to unwind. décompression [dek5presj5] nf decompression. décompte [dek5t] nm -1. [calcul] breakdown (of an amount). -2. [réduction] deduction; j'ai fait le ~ de ce que tu me dois I've deducted OU taken off what you owe me. décompter [dek5te] [3] vt to deduct. déconcentrer [dek5sâtre] [3] vt -1. [disséminer] to decentralize. -2. [distraire] to distract. ♦ se déconcentrer vp to be distracted. déconcertant, -e [dek5sertâ, ât] ad] disconcerting. déconcerter [dekSserte] [3] vt to disconcert.

déconfit, -e [dek5fi, it] ad] crestfallen. déconfiture [dek5fityr] «/"collapse, ruin. décongeler [dekô3le] [25] vt to defrost. décongestionner [dek53estJDne] [3] vt to relieve congestion in; ~ la circulation to reduce traffic. déconnecter [deksnekte] [4] vt to disconnect; être déconnecté fam to be out of touch. ♦ se déconnecter vp inform to disconnect, to log off. déconner [dekone] [3] vi tfam [dire] to talk rubbish; [faire] to muck around. déconseillé, -e [dek5seje] ad]: c'est fortement ~ it's extremely inadvisable. déconseiller [dek5seje] [4] vt: ~ qqch à qqn to advise sb against sthg; ~ à qqn de faire qqch to advise sb against doing sthg. déconsidérer [dek5sidere] [18] vt to discredit. ♦ se déconsidérer vp to be discredited. décontaminer [çlek5tamine] [3] vt to decontaminate. décontenancer [dekôtnâse] [16] vt to put out. ♦ se décontenancer vp to be put out. décontracté, -e [dekôtrakte] ad] -1. [muscle] relaxed. -2. [détendu] casual, laid-back. décontracter [dekôtrakte] [3] vt to relax. ♦ se décontracter vp to relax. déconvenue [dekôvny] «f disappointment. décor [dekor] nm -1. [cadre] scenery. -2. [ornement] decoration. -3. THÉÂTRE scenery (U); ClN sets (pi), décor. décorateur, -trice [dekDratoer, tris] nm, f ClN & THEATRE designer; ~ d'intérieur interior decorator. décoratif, -ive [dekoratif, iv] ad] decorative. décoration [dekDrasj'5] «f decoration. décorer [dekore] [3] vt to decorate. décortiquer [deksrtike] [3] vt [noix] to shell; [graine] to husk; fig to analyze Am OU analyse Br in minute detail. décorum [dekorom] nm decorum. découcher [dekuje] [3] vi to stay out all night. découdre [dekudr] [86] vt COUTURE to unpick; en ~ to come to blows. ♦ se découdre vp to come unstitched. découler [dekule] [3] vi: ~ de to follow from. découpage [dekupa3] nm -1. [action] cutting out; [résultat] paper cutout. -2. ClN preparation of screenplay. -3. ADMIN: ~ (électoral)

143 dédier division into constituencies. -4. fig [de texte] cutting, editing. découper [dekupe] [3] vt -1. [couper] to cut up. -2. fig [diviser] to cut out. ♦ se découper vp fig: se ~ sur to stand out against. découplé, -e [dekuple] adj: bien ~ wellproportioned. découpure [dekupyr] nf [bord] indentations {pi), jagged outline. décourageant, -e [dekura3à, ât] adj discouraging. découragement [dekura3mà] nm discouragement. décourager [dekura3e] [17] vt to discourage; ~ qqn de qqch to put sb off sthg; ~ qqn de faire qqch to discourage sb from doing sthg. ♦ se décourager vp to lose heart. décousu, -e [dekuzy] O pp —► découdre. O adj fig [conversation] disjointed. découvert, -e [dekuver, ert] O pp —► découvrir. O adj [tête] bare; [terrain] exposed. ♦ découvert nm BANQUE overdraft; être à ~ (de 6000 francs) to be (6,000 francs) overdrawn. ♦ découverte nf discovery; aller à la ~e de to explore. découvrir [dekuvrir] [34] vt -1. [trouver, surprendre] to discover. -2. [ôter ce qui couvre, mettre à jour] to uncover. -3. [laisser voir] to reveal. ♦ se découvrir vp -1. [se dévêtir] to take off one's clothes, to undress. -2. [ôter son chapeau] to take off one's hat. -3. [ciel] to clear. -4. [se trouver - cousin, penchant] to discover. décrasser [dekrase] [3] vt to scrub. décrépit, -e [dekrepi, it] adj decrepit. décrépitude [dekrepityd] nf -1. [de personne] decrepitude. -2. [d'objet] dilapidation. decrescendo [dekrejendo] O nm inv decrescendo. O adv MUS decrescendo; aller ~ fig to wane. décret [dekre] nm decree; ~ ministériel order in council. décréter [dekrete] [18] vt -1. ADMIN to decree. -2. [décider]: ~ que to decide that. décrier [dekrije] [10] vt sout to decry. décrire [dekrir] [99] vt to describe. décrisper [dekrispe] [3] vt -1. [personne] to put at ease. -2. [atmosphère] to ease. ♦ se décrisper vp to relax. décrit, -e [dekri, it] pp —► décrire. décrochement [dekro/ma] nm -1. GÉOL thrust fault. -2. [action] unhooking. -3. [par-

tie en retrait] recess. décrocher [dekroje] [3] O vt -1. [enlever] to take down. -2. [téléphone] to pick up. -3. fam [obtenir] to land. O vi fam [abandonner] to drop out. ♦ se décrocher vp to fall down. décroiser [dekrwaze] [3] vt to unfold, to uncross. décroissant, -e [dekrwasâ, ât] adj [courbe] decreasing; [influence] diminishing; par ordre ~ in descending order. décroître [dekrwatr] [94] vi to decrease, to diminish; [jours] to get snorter. décrotter [dekrote] [3] vt to clean the mud off. décru, -e [dekry] pp —> décroître. ♦ décrue nf drop in the water level. décrypter [dekripte] [3] vt to decipher. déçu, -e [desy] O pp —> décevoir. O adj disappointed. déculotter [dekybte] [3] vt: ~ qqn to take sb's trousers off. ♦ se déculotter vp to take off one's trousers. déculpabiliser [dekylpabilize] [3] vt: ~ qqn to free sb from guilt. ♦ se déculpabiliser vp to free o.s. from guilt. décupler [dekyple] [3] vt basj5] nf disapproval. désapprouver [dezapruve] [3] O vt to disapprove of. O vi to be disapproving. désarçonner [dezarsone] [3] vt litt & fig to throw. désargenté, -e [dezar3âte] adj short (of money). désarmant, -e [dezarmâ, ât] adj disarming. désarmement [dezarmamô] nm disarmament. désarmer [dezarme] [3] O vt to disarm; [fusil] to unload, o vi -1. [pays] to disarm. -2. fig [personne] to give up; [haine] to cease. désarroi [dezarwa] nm confusion. désassorti, -e [dezasorti] adj [dépareillé] non-matching. désastre [dezastr] nm disaster. désastreux, -euse [dezastro, oz] adj disastrous. désavantage [dezavâta3] nm disadvantage. désavantager [dezavâta3e] [17] vt to disadvantage.

désavantageux, -euse [dezavâta30, 0z] adj unfavorable Am, unfavourable Br. désaveu, -x [dezavo] nm -t. [reniement] denial. -2. [désapprobation] disapproval. désavouer [dezavwe] [6] vt to disown. ♦ se désavouer vp to go back on one's word. désaxé, -e [dezakse] O adj [mentalement] disordered, unhinged. O nm, f unhinged person. descendance [desâdàs] nf -1. [origine] descent. -2. [progéniture] descendants (ft). descendant, -e [desâdâ, ât] nm, f [héritier] descendant. descendre [desâdr] [73] O vt (aux: avoir) -1. [escalier, pente] to go/come down; ~ la rue en courant to run down the street. -2. [rideau, tableau] to lower. -3. [apporter] to bring/take down. -4. fam [personne, avion] to shoot down. O vi (aux: être) -l. [gén] to go/come down; [température, niveau] to fall. -2. [passager] to get off; ~ d'un bus to get off a bus; ~ d'une voiture to get out of a car. -3. [loger]: ~ chez to stay with; ~ à l'hôtel to stay in a hotel. -4. [être issu]: ~ de to be descended from. -5. [marée] to go out. descendu, -e [desàdy] pp —* descendre. descente [desât] nf-1. [action] descent. -2. [pente] downhill slope OU stretch. -3. fam fig [capacité à boire]: il a une bonne ~ he can certainly put it away. -4. [irruption] raid. -5. [tapis]: ~ de lit bedside rug. descriptif, -hre [deskriptif, iv] adj descriptive. « ♦ descriptif nm [de lieu] particulars (^/); [d'appareil] specification. description [deskripsj5] «/"description. désemparé, -e [dezâpare] adj [personne] helpless; [avion, navire] disabled. désemplir [dezoplir] [32] vi: ce restaurant ne désemplit pas this restaurant is always packed. désencombrer [dezâk5bre] [3] vt to clear. désendettement [dezâdctmâ] nm degearing, debt reduction. désenfler [dezâfle] [3] vi to go down, to become less swollen. désengagement [dezàga3mâ] nm disengagement. désensibiliser [desâsibilize] [3] vt to desensitize. déséquilibre [dezekilibr] nm imbalance.

157 désinvolture déséquilibré, -e [dezekilibre] nm, f unbalanced person. déséquilibrer [dezekilibre] [3] vt -1. [physiquement]: ~ qqn to throw sb off balance. -2. [perturber] to unbalance. désert, -e [dezer, ert] adj [désertique - île] desert [avant n); [peu fréquenté] deserted. ♦ désert nm desert. déserter [dezerte] [3] O vt to desert. O vi MIL to desert. déserteur [dezertœr] nm MIL deserter; fig & péj traitor. désertification [dezertifikasj5], désertisation [desertizasjô] nf desertification; [de région] depopulation. désertion [dezersj5] «f desertion. désertique [dezertik] adj desert (avant n). désertisation = désertification. désespérant, -e [dezesperâ, ât] adj -1. [déprimant] depressing. -2. [affligeant] hopeless. désespéré, -e [dezespere] adj -1. [regard] desperate. -2. [situation] hopeless. désespérément [dezesperemâ] adv -1. [sans espoir] hopelessly. -2. [avec acharnement] desperately. désespérer [dezespere] [18] o vt -1. [décourager]: ~ qqn to drive sb to despair. -2. [perdre espoir]: ~ que qqch arrive to give up hope of sthg happening. O vi: ~ (de) to despair (of). ♦ se désespérer vp to despair. désespoir [dezespwar] nm despair; en ~ de cause as a last resert; faire le ~ de qqn to be the despair of sb. déshabillé [dezabije] nm negligee. déshabiller [dezabije] [3] vt to undress. ♦ se déshabiller vp to undress, to get undressed. déshabituer [dezabitqe] [7] vt: ~ qqn de faire qqch to get sb out of the habit of doing sthg. ♦ se déshabituer vp: se ~ de qqch to become unaccustomed to sthg. désherbant, -e [dezerbâ, ât] adj weedkilling. ♦ désherbant nm weedkiller. désherber [dezerbe] [3] vt & vi to weed. déshérité, -e [dezerite] O adj -1. [privé d'héritage] disinherited. -2. [pauvre] deprived. O nm, f [pauvre] deprived person. déshériter [dezerite] [3] vt to disinherit. déshonneur [dezonoer] nm disgrace. déshonorant, -e [dezonorâ, àt] adj dishonorable Am, dishonourable Br. déshonorer [dezonore] [3] vt to disgrace, to bring disgrace on.

♦ se déshonorer vp to disgrace o.s. déshumaniser [dezymanize] [3] vt to dehumanize. déshydratation [dezidratasj5] nf dehydration. déshydrater [dezidrate] [3] vt to dehydrate. ♦ se déshydrater vp to become dehydrated. desiderata [deziderata] nmpl requirements. design [dizajn] O adj inv modern. O nm inv modernism. désignation [dezijiasj5] nf -1. [appellation] designation, name. -2. [nomination] appointment. désigner [dezijie] [3] vt -1. [choisir] to appoint. -2. [signaler] to point out. -3. [nommer] to designate. ♦ se désigner vp: se ~ (volontaire) pour qqch pour faire qqch to volunteer for sthg/to do sthg. désillusion [dezilyzp] «f disillusion. désillusionner [dezilyzpne] [3] vt to disillusion. désincarné, -e [dezêkame] adj -1. RELIG disembodied. -2. [éthéré] unearthly. désindustrialisation [dezêdystrijalizasj5] nf deindustrialization. désinence [dezinâs] nf LING ending. désinfectant, -e [dezêfektâ, ât] adj disinfectant. ♦ désinfectant nm disinfectant. désinfecter [dezêfekte] [4] vt to disinfect. désinflation [dezêflasj5] nf disinflation. désinformation [dezeformasjo] nf disinformation. désintégration [dezêtegrasj5] nf [désagrégation] disintegration; fig break-up. désintégrer [dezètegre] [18] vt to break up. ♦ se désintégrer vp to disintegrate, to break up. désintéressé, -e [dezêterese] adj disinterested. désintéresser [dezêterese] [4] ♦ se désintéresser vp: se ~ de to lose interest in. désintérêt [dezêtere] nm lack of interest. désintoxication [dezctoksikasjS] «f detoxification. désinvolte [dezevolt] adj -1. [à l'aise] casual. -2. péj [sans-gêne] offhand. désinvolture [dezêvoltyr] nf -1. [légèreté] casualness. -2. péj [sans-gêne] offhandedness; avec ~ in an offhand manner.

désir 158 désir [dezir] nm -1. [souhait] desire, wish. -2. [charnel] desire. désirable [dezirabl] adj desirable. désirer [dezire] [3] vt -1. sout [chose]: ~ faire qqch to wish to do sthg; vous désirezt [dans un magasin] can I help you£; [dans un café] what can I get you£ -2. [sexuellement] to desire. -3. loc: laisser à ~ to leave a lot to be desired. désireux, -euse [deziro, oz] adj sout: ~ de faire qqch anxious to do sthg. désistement [dezistamâ] nm: ~ (de) withdrawal (from). désister [deziste] [3] ♦ se désister vp -1. JUR: se ~ de qqch to withdraw sthg. -2. [se retirer] to withdraw, to stand down. désobéir [dezobeir] [32] vi: ~ (à qqn) to disobey (sb). désobéissance [dezobeisàs] nf disobedience. désobéissant, -e [dezobeisa, at] adj disobedient. désobligeant, -e [dezDbli3à, àt] adj sout offensive. désodorisant, -e [dezodorizô, àt] adj deodorant. ♦ désodorisant nm air freshener. désœuvré, -e [dezcevre] adj idle. désœuvrement [dezœvramâ] nm idleness. désolant, -e [dezolà, àt] adj disappointing. désolation [dezolasj5] nf -1. [destruction] desolation. -2. sout [affliction] distress. désolé, -e [dezole] adj -1. [ravagé] desolate. -2. [très affligé] distressed. -3. [contrarié] very sorry. désoler [dezole] [3] vt -1. [affliger] to sadden. -2. [contrarier] to upset, to make sorry. ♦ se désoler vp [être contrarié] to be upset. désolidariser [desolidarize] [3] vt -1. [choses]: ~ qqch (de) to disengage OH disconnect sthg (from). -2. [personnes] to estrange. ♦ se désolidariser vp: se ~ de to dissociate o.s. from. désopilant, -e (dezopilù, àt] adj hilarious. désordonné, -e [dezordone] adj [maison, personne] untidy; fig [vie] disorganized. désordre [dezordr] nm -1. [fouillis] untidiness; en ~ untidy; dans le ~ in random order. -2. fig [confusion] disorder. -3. [agitation] disturbances (j?l), disorder (I/). désorganiser [dezorganize] [3] vt to disrupt. ♦ se désorganiser vp to become disorganized. désorienté, -e [dezonâte] adj disoriented, disorientated. désorienter [dezDrjôte] [3] vt [égarer] to

disorient, to disorientate; fig [déconcerter] to bewilder. désormais [dezDrme] adv from now on, in future. t désosser [deznse] [3] vt to bone. despote [despot] o nm [chef d'état] despot; fig & péj tyrant, o adj despotic. despotique [despotik] adj despotic. despotisme [despotism] nm [gouvernement] despotism; fig & péj tyranny. desquels, desquelles [dekel] —► lequel. DESS {abr de diplôme d'études supérieures spécialisées) nm postgraduate diploma. dessaisir [desezir] [32] vt JUR: ~ qqn d'une affaire to withdraw a case from sb. ♦ se dessaisir vp sout: se ~ de qqch to relinquish sthg. dessaler [desale] [3] O vt [poisson]: faire ~ to soak, o vi NAVIG to capsize. dessaouler, dessoûler [desule] [3] o vt to sober up. O vi to sober up; ne pas ~ fam to be permanently plastered. dessécher [deseje] [18] vt [peau] to dry (out); fig [cœur] to harden. ♦ se dessécher vp [peau, terre] to dry out; [plante] to wither; fig to harden. dessein [desê] nm sout intention. ♦ à dessein toc adv intentionally, on purpose. desserrer [desere] [4] vt to loosen; [poing, dents] to unclench; [frein] to release. dessert [deser] nm dessert. desserte [desert] nf -1. TRANSPORT (transport) service. -2. [meuble] sideboard. desservir [deservir] [38] vt -1. TRANSPORT to serve. -2. [table] to clear. -3. [désavantager] to do a disservice to. dessin [desê] nm -1. [graphique] drawing; ~ animé cartoon {film); ~ humoristique cartoon (drawing); ~ industriel draftsmanship Am, draughtsmanship Br. -2. fig [contour] outline. dessinateur, -trice [desinatœr, tris] nm, f artist, draftsman (f draftswoman) Am, draughtsman if draughtswoman) Br; — industriel draftsman Am, draughtsman Br. dessiner [desine] [3] O vt [représenter] to draw; fig to outline. O vi to draw. ♦ se dessiner vp [se former] to take shape; fig to stand out. dessoûler = dessaouler. dessous [dasu] O adv underneath. o prép underneath, under.

159 détartrer O nm -1. [partie inférieure - gén] underside; [- d'un tissu] wrong side. -2. be: avoir le ~ to come off worst; être au trente-sixième ~ to be in dire straits; connaître le ~ des cartes (de) to have inside information (on); les ~ de la politique/la finance the hidden side of politics/the financial world. O nmpl [sous-vêtements féminins] underwear (U). ♦ en dessous be adv underneath; [plus bas] below; ils habitent l'appartement d'en ~ they live in the flat below OU downstairs; agir par en ~ to act in an underhand way. ♦ en dessous de be prép below. dessous-de-plat [dasudpla] nm inv tablemat. dessous-de-table [dasudtabl] nm inv backhander. dessus [dasy] O adv on top; n'oubliez pas d'inscrire l'adresse ~ don't forget to write the address on it; faites attention à ne pas marcher ~ be careful not to walk on it. O nm -1. [partie supérieure] top. -2. [étage supérieur] upstairs; les voisins du ~ the upstairs neighbours. -3. be: avoir le ~ to have the upper hand; reprendre le ~ to get over it; sens ~ dessous upside down. ♦ en dessus be adv on top. dessus-de-lit [dasydli] nm inv bedspread. déstabilisateur, -trice [destabilizatœr, tris] adj destabilizing. déstabilisation [destabilizasjô] nf destabilization. déstabiliser [destabilize] [3] vt to destabilize. destin [destê] nm fate. destinataire [destinater] nmf addressee. destination [destinasj5] nf -1. [direction] destination; arriver à ~ to reach one's destination; un avion à ~ de Paris a plane to OU for Paris. -2. [rôle] purpose. destinée [destine] nf destiny. destiner [destine] [3] vt -1. [consacrer]: ~ qqch à to intend sthg for, to mean sthg for. -2. [vouer]: ~ qqn à qqch/à faire qqch [à un métier] to destine sb for sthg/to do sthg; [sort] to mark sb out for sthg/to do sthg. ♦ se destiner vy>: se ~ à to intend to go into. destituer [destitqe] [7] vt to dismiss. destitution [destitysj5] «f dismissal. destructeur, -trice [destryktœr, tris] o adj destructive. O nm, f destroyer. destruction [destryksjS] «f destruction. déstructuration [destryktyrasj5] nf

breaking down. déstructurer [destryktyre] [3] vt to break down. désuet, -ète [dezqe, et] adj [expression, coutume] obsolete; [style, tableau] outmoded. désuétude [dezqetyd] nf: tomber en ~ [expression, coutume] to become obsolete; [style, tableau] to become outmoded. désuni, -e [dezyni] adj divided. désunion [dezynjô] «f division, dissension. désunir [dezynir] [32] vt [scinder] to divide, to separate; fig to divide. ♦ se désunir vp [athlète] to lose one's stride. détachable [deta/abl] adj detachable, removable. détachage [deta/a3] nm stain removal. détachant, -e [detajâ, ât] adj stainremoving. ♦ détachant nm stain remover. détaché, -e [detaje] adj detached; ~ à OU auprès de seconded to. détachement [detajmâ] nm -1. [d'esprit] detachment. -2. [de fonctionnaire] secondment. -3. MIL detachment. détacher [deta/e] [3] vt -1. [enlever]: ~ qqch (de) [objet] to detach sthg (from); fig to free sthg (from); coupon à ~ tear-off coupon. -2. [nettoyer] to remove stains from, to clean. -3. [délier] to undo; [cheveux] to untie. -4. ADMIN: ~ qqn auprès de to second sb to. ♦ se détacher vp -1. [tomber]: se ~ (de) to come off; fig to free o.s. (from). -2. [se défaire] to come undone. -3. [ressortir]: se ~ sur to stand out on. -4. [se désintéresser]: se ~ de qqn to drift apart from sb. détail [detaj] nm -1. [précision] detail. -2. [description]: faire le ~ de to give a detailed breakdown OU description of. -3. COMM: le ~ retail. ♦ au détail be adj : se ~ de to be different from. différend [diferâ] nm [désaccord] difference of opinion; avoir un ~ avec to have a difference of opinion with. différent, -e [diferâ, ât] adj: ~ (de) different (from).

différentiel 164 différentiel, -ielle [diferâsjcl] adj differential. différer [difere] [18] O vt [retarder] to postpone. O vi: ~ de to differ from, to be different from; ~ (selon) to vary (according to). difficile [difisil] O adj difficult. O nm: faire le/la ~ to be hard to please. difficilement [difisilmà] adv with difficulty. difficulté [difikylte] nf-1. [complexité, peine] difficulty. -2. [obstacle] problem; en ~ in difficulty. difforme [diform] adj deformed. difformité [diformite] «/"deformity. diffraction [difraksp] «f diffraction. diffus, -e [dify, yz] adj diffused; fig vague. diffuser [difyze] [3] vt -1. [lumière] to diffuse. -2. [émission] to broadcast. -3. [livres] to distribute. diffuseur [difyzœr] nm -1. [appareil] diffuser. -2. [de livres] distributor. diffusion [difyzjô] nf-1. [d'émission, d'onde] broadcast. -2. [de livres] distribution. digérer [di3ere] [18] O vi to digest. O vt -1. [repas, connaissance] to digest. -2. fam fig [désagrément] to put up with. digeste [di3est] adj (easily) digestible. digestible [di3estibl] adj digestible. digestif, -ive [di3estif, iv] adj digestive. ♦ digestif nm liqueur. digestion [di3estj5] a?/ digestion. digital, -e, -aux [di3ital, o] adj -1. TECHNOL digital. -2. —♦ empreinte. ♦ digitale nf digitalis. digne [diji] adj -1. [honorable] dignified. -2. [méritant]: ~ de worthy of; ~ de foi trustworthy. dignement [dijimâ] adv with dignity. dignitaire [dijiitcr] nm dignitary; haut ~ mandarin. dignité [dijiite] nf dignity; se draper dans sa ~ to stand on one's dignity. digression [digresj5] «f digression. digue [dig] «/"dike. diktat [diktat] nm diktat. dilapider [dilapide] [3] vt to squander. dilatation [dilatasp] «/"dilation. dilater [dilate] [3] vt to dilate. ♦ se dilater vp> to expand, to dilate. dilatoire [dilatwar] adj delaying {avant n). dilemme [dilem] nm dilemma. dilettante [diletôt] nmf dilettante; faire qqch en ~ to dabble in sthg. diligence [dili3âs] «/"HIST & sout diligence. diligent, -e [dili3â, ât] adj vieilli diligent. diluant [dilqâ] nm thinner. diluer [dilqe] [7] vt to dilute.

diluvien, -ienne [dilyvjê, jen] adj torrential. dimanche [dimâ/] nm Sunday; ~ des Rameaux Palm Sunday; voir aussi samedi dimension [dimâsj5] nf-1. [mesure] dimension. -2. [taille] dimensions ipl), size. -3. fig [importance] magnitude; à la ~ de equal to. diminué, -e [diminqe] adj diminished. diminuer [diminqe] [7] O vt [réduire] to diminish, to reduce. O vi [intensité] to diminish, to decrease. ♦ se diminuer vp to put o.s. down. diminutif, -ive [diminytif, iv] adj diminutive. ♦ diminutif nm diminutive. diminution [diminysp] ///diminution. DIN, Din [din] (abr de Deutsche Industrie Norm) DIN. dinde [dêd] nf -1. [animal] turkey. -2. péj [femme] stupid woman. dindon [dêd5] nm turkey; être le ~ de la farce fig to be made a fool of. diner [dine] [3] o vi to dine, o nm dinner; ~ d'affaires aux chandelles business/ candlelit dinner. dinette [dinet] «/"doll's tea party; faire la ~ to have a snack; jouer à la ~ to have a doll's tea party. dingue [dêg] fam o adj -1. [personne] crazy. -2. [histoire] incredible, o nmf loony. dinosaure [dinozor] nm dinosaur. diocèse [djosez] nm diocese. diode [djDd] «/"diode. dioptrie [djoptri] nf dioptre. diphasé, -e [difaze] adj two-phase. diphtérie [difteri] «/"diphtheria. diphtongue [dift5g] «/"diphthong. diplomate [diplomat] o nmf [ambassadeur] diplomat. O nm [gâteau] — trifle, o adj diplomatic. diplomatie [dipbmasi] «/"diplomacy. diplomatique [dipbmatik] adj diplomatic. diplôme [diplom] nm diploma. diplômé, -e [diplôme] O adj: être ~ de/en to be a graduate of/in. o nm, f graduate. dire [dir] [102] vt: ~ qqch (à qqn) [parole] to say sthg (to sb); [vérité, mensonge, secret] to tell (sb) sthg; ~ à qqn de faire qqch to tell sb to do sthg; il m'a dit que... he told me (that)...; cela va sans — that goes without saying; c'est vite dit fam that's easy (for you/hlm etc) to say; c'est beaucoup ~ that's saying a lot; elle est vraiment difficile, et ce n'est pas peu ~ she's very difficult - and I mean difficult; en ~ long

165 discrétion fig to speak volumes; entre nous soit dit between you and me; la ville proprement dite the actual town; ~ du bien/du mal (de) to speak well/ill (of); que dirais-tu de ...£ what would you say to ...£; qu'en dis-tut what do you think (of it)£; on dit que... they say (that) ...; on dirait que ... it looks as if ...; on dirait de la soie it looks like silk, you'd think it was silk; et ~ que je n'étais pas là! and to think I wasn't there!; ça ne me dit rien [pas envie] I don't fancy that; [jamais entendu] I've never heard of it. ♦ sc dire vp -1. [penser] to think (to o.s.). -2. [s'employer]: ça ne se dit pas [par décence] you mustn't say that; [par usage] people don't say that, nobody says that. -3. [se traduire]: «chat» se dit «gato» en espagnol the Spanish for "cat" is "gato". ♦ au dire de loc prép according to. ♦ cela dit loc adv having said that. ♦ dis donc loc adv fam so; [au fait] by the way; [à qqn qui exagère] look here! ♦ pour ainsi dire loc adv so to speak. ♦ à vrai dire loc adv to tell the truth. direct, -e [direkt] adj direct. ♦ direct nm -1. BOXE jab; un ~ du gauche a straight left. -2. [train] direct train. -3. RADIO & TÉLÉ: le ~ live transmission (U); en ~ live. directement [direktamâ] adv directly. directeur, -trice [direktœr, tris] O adj -1. [dirigeant] leading; comité ~ steering committee. -2. [central] guiding. O nm, f director, manager; ~ commercial du marketing sales/marketing director, sales/marketing manager; ~ général general manager, chief executive officer Am, managing director Br; ~ de la communication director of communications; ~ du personnel OU des ressources humaines personnel ou human resources manager; ~ de thèse reader Am, supervisor Br; ~ des ventes sales manager. direction [direksjô] nf-1. [gestion, ensemble des cadres] management; sous la ~ de under the management of. -2. [orientation] direction; en OU dans la ~ de in the direction of; «toutes ~s» "all routes". -3. AUTOM steering; ~ assistée power steering. directive [direktiv] «/"directive. directorial, -e, -iaux [direktorjal, jo] adj managerial. directrice —► directeur. dirigeable [diri3ablj nm: (ballon) ~ airship. dirigeant, -e [diri3â, at] o adj ruling, o nm, /"[de pays] leader; [d'entreprise] manager. diriger [diri3e] [17] vt -1. [mener - entreprise] to run, to manage; [- orchestre] to conduct;

[- film, acteurs] to direct; [- recherches, projet] to supervise. -2. [conduire] to steer. -3. [orienter]: ~ qqch sur to aim sthg at; ~ qqch vers to aim sthg toward Am OU towards Br. ♦ se diriger vp: se ~ vers to go toward Am OU towards Br, to head toward Am OU towards Br. dirigisme [diri3ism] nm interventionism. disais, disions etc —> dire. discal, -e, -aux [diskal, o] —► hernie. discernement [disemamà] nm -1. [jugement] discernment. -2. sout [distinction] distinction. discerner [diseme] [3] vt -1. [distinguer]: ~ qqch de to distinguish sthg from. -2. [deviner] to discern. disciple [disipl] nmf disciple. disciplinaire [disiplincr] adj disciplinary; mesure ~ disciplinary measure. discipline [disiplin] nf discipline; ~ de fer iron rule. discipliné, -e [disipline] adj disciplined. discipliner [discipline] [3] vt [personne] to discipline; [cheveux] to control. disc-jockey [disk3Dkc] {pi disc-jockeys) nm disc jockey. disco [disko] o adj inv disco (avant n). O nf disco. O nm disco (music). discographie [diskngrafi] nf discography. discontinu, -e [diskôtiny] adj [ligne] broken; [bruit, effort] intermittent. discontinuer [disk5tinqe] [7] vi: sans ~ without interruption. discordance [diskordâs] ///"discrepancy. discordant, -e [diskordô, àt] adj discordant. discorde [diskord] «/"discord. discothèque [diskstek] nf -\. [boîte de nuit] discothèque. -2. [de prêt] record library. discount [disk(a)unt] nm discount. discourir [diskurir] [45] vi to talk at length; ~ sur to hold forth on. discours [diskur] nm -1. [allocution] speech; faire un ~ to make a speech. -2. LING: ~ direct/indirect direct/reported speech. discouru, -e [diskyru] pp —► discourir. discrédit [diskredi] nm discredit, disrepute; jeter le ~ sur to bring disgrace on. discréditer [diskredite] [3] vt to discredit. ♦ se discréditer vp to discredit o.s. discret, -ète [diskre, et] adj [gén] discreet; [reserve] reserved. discrètement [diskretmâ] adv discreedy. discrétion [diskresjô] nf-1. [réserve, tact, si-

discrétionnaire 166 lence] discretion. -2. [sobriété] sobriety, simplicity; avec ~ discreetly. ♦ à discrétion o loc adj unlimited, o loc adv as much as you want. discrétionnaire [diskresjoner] adj discretionary. discrimination [diskriminasj5] nf discrimination; sans ~ indiscriminately. discriminatoire [diskriminatwar] adj discriminatory. disculper [diskylpe] [3] vt to exonerate. ♦ se disculper vp to exonerate o.s. discussion [diskysjô] nf -1. [conversation, examen] discussion. -2. [contestation, altercation] argument; sans ~ without argument. discutable [diskytabl] adj -1. [contestable] questionable. -2. [douteux] doubtful, questionable. discutailler [diskytaje] [3] vi fam péj to argue over trivialities OU details. discuter [diskyte] [3] O vt -1. [débattre]: ~ (de) qqch to discuss sthg. -2. [contester] to dispute. O vi -1. [parlementer] to discuss. -2. [converser] to talk. -3. [contester] to argue. ♦ se discuter vp to be questionable OU debatable. disert, -e [dizer, ert] adj littéraire articulate. disette [dizet] nf sout [famine] famine; fig [manque] shortage. diseur, -euse [dizcer, oz] nm, f. ~ de bonne aventure fortune-teller. disgrâce [disgras] ///'disgrace. disgracieux, -ieuse [disgrasjo, joz] adj -1. [sans grâce] awkward, graceless. -2. [laid] plain. disjoindre [dis3wèdr] [82] vt [planches, tuiles] to take apart; fig to separate, to distinguish. ♦ se disjoindre vp to come apart. disjoint, -e [dis3wë, et] pp —* disjoindre. disjoncteur [dis35ktœr] nm trip switch, circuit breaker. dislocation [disbkasj5] «/"mÉD dislocation. disloquer [disbke] [3] vt -1. MED to dislocate. -2. [machine, empire] to dismantle. ♦ se disloquer vp [machine] to fall apart OU to pieces; fig [empire] to break up. disparaissais, disparaissions etc —> disparaître. disparaître [disparetr] [91] vi -1. [gén] to disappear, to vanish; disparais! vanish!; faire ~ [personne] to get rid of; [obstacle] to remove. -2. [mourir] to die. disparate [disparat] adj [éléments] disparate; [couleurs, mobilier] badly matched. disparité [disparité] nf -1. [écart] disparity.

-2. [différence - d'éléments] disparity; [- de couleurs] mismatch. disparition [disparisjô] nf -1. [gén] disappearance; [d'espèce] extinction; en voie de ~ endangered. -2. [mort] passing. disparu, -e [dispary] O pp —* disparaître. O nm, f dead person, deceased. dispatcher [dispatje] [3] vt to dispatch, to despatch. dispendieux, -ieuse [dispàdjo, joz] adj sout expensive. dispensaire [disposer] nm free clinic Am, community clinic Br. dispense [dispos] nf -\. [exemption] exemption; ~ d'âge special dispensation (in the matter of age). -2. [certificat] certificate of exemption. dispenser [dispose] [3] vt -1. [distribuer] to dispense. -2. [exempter]: ~ qqn de qqch [corvée] to excuse sb sthg, to let sb off sthg; je te dispense de tes réflexions! fig spare us the comments!, keep your comments to yourself! ♦ se dispenser vp: se ~ de qqch de faire qqch to get out of sthg/of doing sthg. disperser [disperse] [3] vt to scatter (about OU around); [collection, brume, foule] to break up; fig [efforts, forces] to dissipate, to waste. ♦ se disperser vp -1. [feuilles, cendres] to scatter; [brume, foule] to break up, to clear. -2. [personne] to take on too much at once, to spread o.s. too thin. dispersion [dispersj5] nf scattering; [de collection, brume, foule] breaking up; fig [d'efforts, de forces] waste, squandering. disponibilité [disponibilité] nf-1. [de choses] availability. -2. [de fonctionnaire] leave of absence; en ~ on leave of absence. -3. [d'esprit] alertness, receptiveness. ♦ disponibilités nfpl available funds, liquid assets . disponible [disponibl] adj -I. [place, personne] available, free. -2. [fonctionnaire] on leave of absence. dispos, -e [dispo, oz] adj fresh, full of energydispose, -e [dispoze] adj: être ~ à faire qqch to be prepared OU willing to do sthg; être bien ~ envers qqn to be well-disposed toward Am OU towards Br sb. disposer [dispoze] [3] O vt -1. [arranger] to arrange. -2. [inciter]: ~ qqn à faire qqch to lead OU move sb to do sthe. O vi: ~ de [moyens, argent] to have available (to one), to have at one's disposal; [chose] to have

167 distance the use of; [temps] to have free OU available; vous pouvez ~ fig & sout you may leave OU go. ♦ se disposer vp: se ~ à qqch/à faire qqch sout to prepare for sthg/to do sthg. dispositif [dispozitif] nm [mécanisme] device, mechanism; ~ antibuée demister; ~ antiparasite suppressor; ~ de sûreté safety device. disposition [dispozisjô] nf-1. [arrangement] arrangement. -2. [disponibilité]: à la ~ de at the disposal of, available to. ♦ dispositions nfpl -1. [mesures] arrangements, measures. -2. JUR provisions. -3. [dons]: avoir des —s pour to nave a gift for. disproportion [dispropDrsj5] nf disproportion. disproportionné, -e [disproporsjone] adj out of proportion. dispute [dispyt] «f argument, quarrel. disputer [dispyte] [3] vt -1. [SPORT - course] to run; [- match] to play. -2. [lutter pour] to fight for. ♦ se disputer vp -1. [se quereller] to quarrel, to fight. -2. SPORT to be played. -3. [lutter pour] to fight over OU for. disquaire [disker] nm record dealer. disqualification [diskalifikasj5] /if disqualification. disqualifier [diskalifje] [9] vt to disqualify. disque [disk] nm -1. MUS record; [vidéo] video disc; ~ compact OU laser compact disc. -2. ANAT disk Am, disc Br. -3. INFORM disk; ~ dur hard disk. -4. SPORT discus. ♦ disque de stationnement nm parking permit Am OU disc Br. disquette [disket] nf diskette, floppy disk; ~ haute/double densité high/double density disk; ~ système system diskette. dissection [diseksj5] ///dissection. dissemblable [disôblabl] adj dissimilar. dissémination [diseminasj5] nf -1. [dispersion] scattering, spreading (out); fig dissemination, spreading. -2. [répartition] scattering. disséminer [disemine] [3] vt [graines, maisons] to scatter, to spread (out); fig [idées] to disseminate, to spread. dissension [disûsp] ///dissent. disséquer [diseke] [18] vt litt & fig to dissect. dissertation [discrtasj5] nf essay. disserter [diserte] [3] vi: ~ sur [à l'écrit] to write on; [à l'oral] to speak on. dissidence [disidâs] «/"dissent, dissidence. dissident, -e [disidâ, ât] adj & nm, f dissident.

dissimulation [disimylasj5] nf -1. [hypocrisie] duplicity. -2. [de la vérité] concealment. dissimulé, -e [disimyle] adj [hypocrite] dissembling, duplicitous. dissimuler [disimyle] [3] vt to conceal. ♦ se dissimuler vp -1. [se cacher] to conceal o.s., to hide. -2. [refuser de voir]: se ~ qqch to close one's eyes to sthg. dissipation [disipasj'5] nf-1. [dispersion] dispersai, breaking up; fig [de malentendu] clearing up; [de craintes] dispelling. -2. [indiscipline] indiscipline, misbehavior Am, misbehaviour Br. -3. [dilapidation] squandering. -4. [débauche] dissipation. dissipé, -e [disipe] adj -1. [turbulent] unruly, badly behaved. -2. [frivole] dissipated, dissolute. dissiper [disipe] [3] vt -1. [chasser] to break up, to clear; fig to dispel. -2. [dilapider, gâcher] to squander. -3. [distraire] to lead astray. ♦ se dissiper vp -1. [brouillard, fumée] to clear. -2. [élève] to misbehave. -3. fig [malaise, fatigue] to go away; [doute] to be dispelled. dissocier [disosje] [9] vt -1. [séparer] to separate, to distinguish. -2. CHIM to dissociate. dissolu, -e [disoly] adj dissolute. dissolution [disolysjô] nf -1. JUR dissolution. -2. [mélange] dissolving. -3. sout [débauche] dissipation. dissolvais, dissolvions etc —► dissoudre. dissolvant, -e [disolvâ, ât] adj solvent. ♦ dissolvant nm [solvant] solvent; [pour vernis à ongles] nail varnish remover. dissonance [disonâs] nf dissonance; fig clash, discord. dissoudre [disudr] [87] vt: (faire) ~ to dissolve. ♦ se dissoudre vp -1. [substance] to dissolve. -2. JUR to be dissolved. dissous, -oute [disu, ut] pp —► dissoudre. dissuader [disqade] [3] vt to dissuade. dissuasif, -ive [disqazif, iv] adj deterrent. dissuasion [disqazj5] nf dissuasion; force de ~ deterrent (effect). dissymétrique [disimetrik] adj dissymmetrical. distance [distâs] nf-1. [éloignement] distance; à ~ at a distance; [télécommander] by remote control; à une ~ de 300 mètres 300 metres away; se tenir à ~ to keep one's distance; garder ses ~s to keep one's dis-

distancer 168 tance; prendre ses ~s fig to stand back OU aloof. -2. [intervalle] interval. -3. [écart] gap. distancer [distàse] [16] vt to outstrip. distanciation [distàsjasj5] nf distance. distancier [distâsje] [9] ♦ se distancier vp: se ~ de to distance o.s. from. distant, -e [distâ, àt] adj -1. [éloigné]: une ville ~e de 10 km a town 10 km away; des villes ~es de 10 km towns 10 km apart. -2. [froid] distant. distendre [distâdr] [73] vt [ressort., corde] to stretch; [abdomen] to distend. ♦ se distendre vp to distend. distendu, -e [distâdy] pp —► distendre. distillation [distilasj5] nf distilling, distillation. distiller [distile] [3] vt [alcool] to distill Am, to distil Br; [pétrole] to refine; [miel] to secrete; fig & littéraire to exude. distillerie [distilri] nf [industrie] distilling; [lieu] distillery. distinct, -e [distê, êkt] adj distinct. distinctement [distêktamà] adv distinctly, clearly. distinctif, -ive [distëktif, iv] adj distinctive. distinction [distcksp] ///distinction. distingué, -e [distêge] adj distinguished. distinguer [distêge] [3] vt -1. [différencier] to tell apart, to distinguish. -2. [percevoir] to make out, to distinguish. -3. [rendre différent]: ~ de to distinguish from, to set apart from. ♦ se distinguer vp -1. [se différencier]: se ~ (de) to stand out (from). -2. [s'illustrer] to distinguish o.s. -3. [être perçu]: au loin se distinguait la côte you could make out the coast in the distance. distraction [distraksj5] nf-1. [inattention] inattention, absent-mindedness; par ~ absentmindedly. -2. [passe-temps] leisure activity. distraire [distrer] [112] vt -1. [déranger] to distract. -2. [divertir] to amuse, to entertain. ♦ se distraire vp to amuse o.s. distrait, -e [distre, et] C> pp —► distraire. O adj absent-minded. distraitement [distretmâ] adv absentmindedly, absently. distrayais, distrayons etc —► distraire. distrayant, -e [distrejâ, ât] adj entertaining. distribanque [distribâk] nm cash dispenser. distribuer [distribqe] [7] vt to distribute; [courrier] to deliver; [ordres] to give out; [cartes] to deal; [coups, sourires] to dispense. distributeur, -trice [distribytoer, tris] nm, f distributor. ♦ distributeur nm -1. AUTOM & COMM

distributor. -2. [machine]: ~ (automatique) de billets BANQUE cash machine, cash dispenser; TRANSPORT ticket machine; ~ de boissons drinks machine. distribution [distribysjô] nf -1. [répartition, diffusion, disposition] distribution; ~ du courrier postal delivery; ~ des prix SCOL prize-giving. -2. [approvisionnement] supply. -3. CIN S^ THÉÂTRE cast. district [distrikt] nm district. dit, dite [di, dit] O pp —► dire. O adj -1. [appelé] known as. -2. jUR said, above. -3. [fixé]: à l'heure ~e at the appointed time. dites, dîtes —> dire. dithyrambique [ditirâbik] adj eulogistic. DIU (ahr de dispositif intra-utérin) nm IUD. diurétique [djyretik] nm 62 adj diuretic. diurne [djym] adj diurnal. diva [diva] «fprima donna, diva. divagation [divagasjô] «/"wandering. divaguer [divage] [3] vi to ramble. divan [divâ] nm divan (seat). divergeant [diver3â] ppr —► diverger. divergence [divers] «f divergence, difference; [d'opinions] difference. divergent, -e [diver3à, ât] adj divergent. diverger [diver3e] [17] vi to diverge; [opinions] to differ. divers, -e [diver, ers] adj -1. [différent] different, various. -2. [disparate] diverse. -3. (avant n) [plusieurs] various, several. -4. PRESSE: «~» "miscellaneous". diversem*nt [diversamâ] adv variously, in different ways. diversification [diversifikasj5] «/"diversification. diversifier [diversifje] [9] vt to vary, to diversify. ♦ se diversifier vp to diversify. diversion [diversj5] nf diversion; créer une ~, faire ~ to create a diversion. diversité [diversité] «f diversity. divertir [divertir] [32] vt [distraire] to entertain, to amuse. ♦ se divertir vp to amuse o.s., to entertain O.S. divertissant, -e [divertisà, àt] adj entertaining, amusing. divertissem*nt [divertismâ] nm -1. [passetemps] form of relaxation. -2. MUS divertimento. dividende [divided] nm dividend. divin, -e [divê, in] adj divine. divination [divinasjS] «f divination.

169 dogue divinement [divinmâ] adv divinely. divinité [divinité] «/"divinity. diviser [divize] [3] vt -1. [gén] to divide, to split up; ~ pour régner fig divide and rule. -2. MATHS to divide; ~ 8 par 4 to divide 8 by 4. ♦ se diviser vp -1. [se séparer] to divide. -2. [diverger] to be divided. divisible [divizibl] adj divisible. division [divizj5] nf division; ~ aéroportée MIL airborne division. divisionnaire [divizpner] adj divisional. divorce [divors] nm -1. jUR divorce; demander le ~ to ask for a divorce, to sue for divorce. -2. fig [divergence] gulf, separation. divorcé, -e [divorse] o adj divorced. O nm, f divorcee, divorced person. divorcer [divorse] [16] vi to divorce. divulgation [divylgasjS] «/"disclosure. divulguer [divylge] [3] vt to divulge. dix [dis] adj num & nm ten; voir aussi six. dix-huit [dizqit] adj num ««//"eighteenth; voir aussi sixième dixième [dizjem] O adj num, nm & nmf tenth, o nf SCOL = second grade Am, — third year OU form (at primary school) Br; voir aussi sixième. dix-neuf [diznœf] adj num ai nm nineteen; voir aussi six. dix-neuvième [dizncevjem] adj num, nm di nmf nineteenth; voir aussi sixième. dix-sept [diset] adj num & nm seventeen; voir aussi six. dix-septième [disetjem] adj num, nm devoir. O adj due, owing. ♦ dû nm due; réclamer son ~ to demand one's due. dualité [dqalite] «/"duality. Dubayy [dybaj] n Dubai. dubitatif, -ive [dybitatif, iv] adj doubtful. Dublin [dyblê] n Dublin. dublinois, -e [dyblinwa, waz], adj of/from Dublin. ♦ Dublinois, -e nm, f Dubliner. due [dyk] nm duke. ducal, -e, -aux [dykal, o] adj ducal. duché [dyje] nm duchy. duch*esse [dyjes] nf duch*ess. duel [dqel] nm duel. duffel-coat (pi duffel-coats), duffle-coat (pi duffle-coats) [doefoelkot] nm duffel coat. dûment [dymâ] adv duly. dumping [dœmpirj] nm COMM dumping. dune [dyn] «/"dune. duo [dyo] nm -1. MUS duet; en ~ in duet. -2. [couple] duo. dupe [dyp] O nf dupe. O adj gullible; être/ne pas être ~ to be/not to be taken in. duper [dype] [3] vt sout to dupe, to take sb in. duplex [dypleks] nm -1. [appartement] split-

level flat, duplex Am, maisonette Br. -2. RADIO & TÉLÉ link-up; en ~ link-up (avant n). duplicata [dyplikata] nm inv duplicate. duplicité [dyplisite] «/"duplicity. dupliquer [dyplike] [3] vt [document] to duplicate. duquel [dykel] —► lequel. dur, -e [dyr] O adj -1. [matière, personne, travail] hard; [carton] stiff. -2. [viande] tough. -3. [climat, punition, loi] harsh. O nm, f fam: ~ (à cuire) tough nut. ♦ dur adv hard. ♦ à la dure loc adv. coucher à la ~e to sleep rough; être élevé à la ~e to have been brought up the hard way. durable [dyrabl] adj lasting. durablement [dyrabtamâ] adv durably. durant [dyrâ] prép -1. [pendant] for. -2. [au cours de] during. durcir [dyrsir] [32] O vt Iitt & /?g to harden. O vi to harden, to become hard. ♦ se durcir vp litt & fig to harden. durcissem*nt [dyrsismâ] nm hardening. durée [dyre] «/"length; (de) longue ~ longlasting; «~ de conservation ...» "best before durement [dyrmâ] adv -1. [violemment] hard, vigorously. -2. [péniblement] severely. -3. [méchamment] harshly. durer [dyre] [3] vi to last. dureté [dyrte] nf -1. [de matériau, de l'eau] hardness. -2. [de problème] difficulty. -3. [d'époque, de climat, de personne] harshness. -4. [de punition] severity. durillon [dyrijô] nm [sur le pied] corn; [sur la main] callus. dus, dut etc —► devoir. DUT (abr de diplôme universitaire de technologie) nm university diploma in technology. duvet [dyve] nm -1. [plumes, poils fins] down. -2. [sac de couchage] sleeping bag. dynamique [dinamik] o nf-1. PHYS dynamics (U). -2. fig: ~ de groupe group dynamics (/?/). o adj dynamic. dynamiser [dinamize] [3] vt to inspire with energy. dynamisme [dynamism] nm dynamism. dynamite [dinamit] «/"dynamite. dynamiter [dinamite] [3] vt to dynamite. dynamo [dinamo] «/"dynamo. dynamomètre [dinamometr] nm dynamometer.

175 écarteler dynastie [dinasti] «/"dynasty. dysenterie [disâtri] «/"dysentery. dyslexique [disicksik] O nmf dyslexie person, o adj dyslexie. dyspepsie [dispepsi] nf dyspepsia. E e, E [a] «m inv e, E. ♦ E (abr de est) E. EAO (abr de enseignement assisté par ordinateur) nm CAL. eau, -x [o] «/"water; prendre l'~ to leak; ~ douce salée de mer fresh/salt/sea water; ~ gazeuse/plate fizzy/still water; ~ bénite holy water; ~ courante running water; ~ distillée distilled water; ~ minérale minerai water; ~ oxygénée hydrogen peroxide; ~ de pluie rainwater; ~ de source spring water; ~ de toilette toilet water; ~x dormantes still waters; les Eaux et Forêts — the Forestry Commission; les ~x territoriales territorial waters; les ~x usées waste water (U); à l'~ de rose soppy, sentimental; mettre OU faire venir l'~ à la bouche to make one's mouth water; mettre de l'~ dans son vin to calm down, to tone it down a bit; tomber à l'~ fig to fall through. EAU [abr de Emirats arabes unis) nmpl UAE. eau-de-vie [odvi] {pi eaux-de-vie) nf brandy. eau-forte [ofort] {pi eaux-fortes) nf etching. ébahi, -e [ebai] adj staggered, astounded. ébahissem*nt [ebaismû] nm amazement. ébats [eba] nmpl littéraire frolics; ~ amoureux lovemaking (U). ébattre [ebatr] [83] ♦ s'ébattre vp littéraire to frolic. ébauche [eboj] nf [esquisse] sketch; fig outline; l'~ d'un sourire the ghost of a smile. ébaucher [eboje] [3] vt -1. [esquisser] to rough out. -2. fig [commencer]: ~ un geste to start to make a gesture. ébène [eben] nf ebony. ébéniste [ebenist] nm cabinet-maker. ébénisterie [ebenistari] nf -1. [métier] cabinet-making. -2. [travail] cabinet work. éberlué, -e [eberlqe] adj flabbergasted. éblouir [ebluir] [32] vt to dazzle. éblouissant, -e [ebluisâ, àt] adj dazzling. éblouissem*nt [ebluismâ] nm -1. [aveuglement] glare, dazzle. -2. [vertige] dizziness. -3. [émerveillement] amazement. ebonite [ebonit] «f vulcanite, ebonite. éborgner [eborpe] [3] vt: ~ qqn to put sb's eye out. éboueur [ebweer] nm garbage collector Am,

dustman Br. ébouillanter [ebujôte] [3] vt to scald. ♦ s'ébouillanter vp to scald o.s. éboulement [ebulmâ] nm caving in, fall. éboulis [ebuli] nm mass of fallen rocks. ébouriffer [eburife] [3] vt -1. [cheveux] to ruffle. -2. fam [étonner] to amaze. ébranler [ebrâle] [3] vt -1. [bâtiment, opinion] to shake. -2. [gouvernement, nerfs] to weaken. ♦ s'ébranler vp to move off. ébrécher [ebreje] [18] vt [assiette, verre] to chip; fam fig to break into. ébriété [ebrijete] «f drunkenness. ébrouer [ebrue] [3] ♦ s'ébrouer vp [animal] to shake o.s. ébruiter [ebrqite] [3] vt to spread. ♦ s'ébruiter vp to become known. ebullition [ebylisj'5] nf-1. [de liquide] boiling point; porter à ~ CULIN to bring to the boil. -2. [effervescence]: en ~ fig in a state of agitation. écaille [ekaj] nf-1. [de poisson, reptile] scale; [de tortue] shell. -2. [de plâtre, peinture, vernis] flake. -3. [matière] tortoiseshell; en ~ [lunettes] horn-rimmed. écailler1, -ère [ekaje, er] nm, /"oyster seller. écailler2 [ekaje] [3] vt -1. [poisson] to scale. -2. [huîtres] to open. ♦ s'écailler vp to flake OU peel off. écarlate [ekarlat] adj to be elided. eligible [eli3ibl] adj eligible.

183 embarquer élimé, -e [elime] adj threadbare. élimination [eliminasjô] nf elimination; procéder par ~ to proceed by elimination. éliminatoire [eliminatwar] O nf (eén pt) SPORT qualifying heat OU round, o ^qualifying {avant n). éliminer [élimine] [3] vt to eliminate. élire [elir] [106] vt to elect. élisais, élisions etc — moelle. Epiphanie [epifani] «/"Epiphany. épique [epik] adj epic. episcopal, -e, -aux [episkspal, o] adj episcopal. épiscopat [episkopa] nm episcopate. épisiotomie [epizptomi] «/" episiotomy.

épisode [epizod] nm episode. épisodique [epizodik] adj -1. [occasionnel] occasional. -2. [secondaire] minor. épistémologie [epistemob3i] nf epistemology épistolaire [epistoler] adj -1. [échange] of letters; être en relations ~s avec qqn to be in (regular) correspondence with sb. -2. [roman] epistolary. épitaphe [epitaf] «/"epitaph. épithète [epitet] O nf -1. GRAM attribute. -2. [qualificatif] term. O adj attributive. épître [epitr] «/"episde. éploré, -e [epbre] adj [personne] in tears; [visage, air] tearful. épluchage [eplyja3] nm -1. [de légumes] peeling. -2. [de textes] dissection; [de comptes] scrutiny. épluche-légumes [eplyjlegym] nm inv potato peeler. éplucher [eply/e] [3] vt -1. [légumes] to peel. -2. [textes] to dissect; [comptes] to scrutinize. épluchure [eply/yr] nf peelings {pi). éponge [epÔ3] nf sponge; jeter l'~ fig to throw in the towel; passer l'~ fig to wipe the slate clean. éponger [ep53e] [17] vt -1. [liquide, déficit] to mop up. -2. [visage] to mop, to wipe. ♦ s'éponger vp [personne] to mop o.s.; s'~ le front to mop one's brow. épopée [epope] nf epic. épooue [epok] nf -1. [de l'année] time. -2. [de l'histoire] period; à l'~ at the time; d'~ period; la Belle Époque = the Edwardian era. -3. GÉOL period, age. épouiller [epuje] [3] vt to delouse. époumoner [epumsne] [3] ♦ s'époumoner vy to shout o.s. hoarse. épouse —> époux. épouser [epuze] [3] vt -1. [personne] to marry. -2. [forme] to hug. -3. fig [idée, principe] to espouse. épousseter [epuste] [27] vt to dust. époustouflant, -e [epustuflâ, àt] adj fam amazing. époustoufler [epustufle] [3] vt fam to flabbergast, to amaze. épouvantable [epuvâtabl] adj dreadful. épouvantai! [epuvâtaj] nm [à moineaux] scarecrow; fig bogeyman.

199 équivalu épouvante [epuvôt] nf terror, horror; film d'~ horror film. épouvanter [epuvâte] [3] vt to terrify. époux, épouse [epu, epuz] nm, f spouse; prendre pour ~ to marry. éprendre [eprâdr] [79] ♦ s'éprendre vp sout: s'~ de to fall in love with. épreuve [eprœv] nf-1. [essai, examen] test; à P~ du feu fireproof; à l'~ des balles bullet-proof; mettre à l'~ to put to the test; à toute ~ unfailing; ~ écrite/orale written/oral test; ~ de force fig trial of strength. -2. [malheur] ordeal. -3. SPORT event. -4. TYPO proof. -5. PHOT print. épris, -e [epri, iz] o pp —♦ éprendre, o adj sout: ~ de in love with. éprouvant, -e [epruvô, ôt] adj testing, trying. éprouvé, -e [epruve] adj -1. [méthode] tried and tested. -2. [personne] sorely tried. éprouver [epruve] [3] vt -1. [tester] to test. -2. [ressentir] to feel. -3. [faire souffrir] to distress; être éprouvé par to be afflicted by. -4. [difficultés, problèmes] to experience. éprouvette [epruvet] nf-l. [tube à essai] test tube. -2. [échantillon] sample. EPS (abr de éducation physique et sportive) nf?h. épuisant, -e [epqizâ, ôt] adj exhausting. épuisé, -e [epqize] adj -1. [personne, corps] exhausted; ~ de fatigue exhausted. -2. [marchandise] sold out, out of stock; [livre] out of print. épuisem*nt [epqizmà] nm exhaustion; jusqu'à ~ des stocks while stocks last. épuiser [epqize] [3] vt to exhaust. épuisette [epqizet] nf landing net. épuration [epyrasj5] nf-l. [des eaux] purification. -2. POLIT purge. épure [epyr] nf technical drawing. épurer [epyre] [3] vt -1. [eau, huile] to purify. -2. POLIT to purge. -3. fig [langage] to refine. équarrir [ekarir] [32] vt -1. [animal] to cut up. -2. [poutre] to square. -3. fig [personne]: mal équarri rough, crude. équateur [ekwatoer] nm equator. Equateur [ekwatoer] nm: l'~ Ecuador. équation [ekwasjS] nf equation; ~ du premier/second degré simple/quadratic equation. equatorial, -e, -iaux [ekwatorjal, jo] adj equatorial. équatorien, -ienne [ekwatorje, jcn] adj Ecuadoran, Ecuadorian. ♦ Equatorien, -ienne nm, f Ecuadoran, Ecuadorian.

équerre [eker] nf [instrument] set square; [- en T] T-square; en ~ at right angles. équestre [ekestr] adj equestrian. équeuter [ekote] [3] vt to remove the stalk OU stalks from. equidistance [ekqidistàs] «f equidistance; à ~ de ... et de ... equidistant between ... and .... equidistant, -e [ekqidistâ, ât] adj equidistant. equilateral, -e, -aux [ekqilateral, o] adj equilateral. équilibre [ekilibr] nm -1. [gén] balance; en ~ balanced; perdre P~ to lose one's balance. -2. [psychique] stability. équilibré, -e [ekiiibre] adj -1. [personne] well-balanced. -2. [vie] stable. -3. ARCHIT: aux proportions ~es well-proportioned. équilibrer [ekiiibre] [3] vt to balance. ♦ s'équilibrer vp to balance each other out. équilibriste [ekilibrist] nmf tightrope walker. équipage [ekipa3] nm crew. équipe [ekip] nf team; d'~ team {avant n); faire ~ avec to team up with; travailler en ~ to work together OU as a team; ~ de secours rescue team. équipée [ekipe] nf -1. [aventure] venture. -2. [promenade] outing. équipement [ekipmâ] nm -1. [matériel] equipment. -2. [aménagement] facilities (pf); plan d'~ national national development plan; —s sportifs/scolaires sports/ educational facilities. équiper [ekipe] [3] vt -1. [navire, armée] to equip. -2. [personne, local] to equip, to fit out; ~ qqn/qqch de to equip sb/sthg with, to fit sb/sthg out with. ♦ s'équiper vp: s'~ (de) to equip o.s. (with). équipier, -ière [ekipje, jer] nm, f team member. équitable [ekitabl] adj fair. équitablement [ekitablamû] adv fairly. equitation [ekitasj5] «f riding, horse-riding; faire de l'~ to go riding OU horse-riding, to ride. équité [ekite] «/fairness. équivalent, -e [ekivalà, ât] adj equivalent. ♦ équivalent nm equivalent. équivaloir [ekivalwar] [60] vi: ~ à to be equivalent to. équivalu [ekivaly] pp inv —> équivaloir.

s • équivaut 200 équivaut —► équivaloir. équivoque [ekivok] o adj -1. [ambigu] ambiguous. -2. [mystérieux] dubious. O nf ambiguity; sans ~ unequivocal (adf), unequivocally (adv). érable [erabl] nm maple. érablière [erablijer] nf maple grove, sugar bush Am. eradication [eradikasjô] nf -1. [suppression] eradication. -2. [ablation] removal. éradiquer [eradike] [3] vt to eradicate. érafler [erafle] [3] vt -1. [peau] to scratch. -2. [mur, voiture] to scrape. ♦ s'érafler vy to scratch o.s. éraflure [eraflyr] nf-1. [de peau] scratch. -2. [de mur, voiture] scrape. éraillé, -e [eraje] adj [voix] hoarse. ère [er] nf era; l'an 813 de notre ~ the year 813 A.D. érection [ereksjô] «f erection; en ~ erect. éreintant, -e [erêtâ, ât] adj exhausting. éreinter [erête] [3] vt -1. [fatiguer] to exhaust. -2. [critiquer] to pull to pieces. érémiste [eremist] nmf fam person entitled to RMl benefit. ergonomique [ergonomik] adj ergonomie. ergot [ergo] nm -1. [de coq] spur; se dresser sur ses —s to get one's hackles up. -2. [de mammifère] dewelaw. -3. [de blé] ergot. ergoter [ergote] [3] vi to quibble. ériger [eri3e] [17] vt -1. [monument] to erect. -2. [tribunal] to set up. -3. fig [transformer]: ~ qqn en to set sb up as. ♦ s'ériger vy. s'~ en to set o.s. up as. ermite [ermit] nm hermit. éroder [erode] [3] vt to erode. érogène [er^en] adj erogenous. érosion [erozjô] nf erosion. erotique [erotik] adj erotic. érotisme [erotism] nm eroticism. errance [eras] «f wandering. errant, -e [era, ât] adj [chien, chat] stray {avant n). erratum [eratom] (pi errata [erata]) nm erratum. errements [ermà] nmpl bad habits. errer [ere] [4] vi to wander. erreur [ercer] nf mistake; par ~ by mistake; sauf ~ de ma part unless I'm mistaken; faire ~ to be mistaken; faire une ~ to make a mistake; ~ judiciaire miscarriage of justice. erroné, -e [crone] adj sout wrong. ersatz [erzats] nm inv ersatz. éructer [erykte] [3] vi to belch. érudit, -e [erydi, it] O adj erudite, learned.

O nm, f learned person. érudition [erydisj5] «f learning, erudition. éruption [erypsj5] nf -1. MÉD rash. -2. [de volcan] eruption. es —► être. es [es] prép> of (in certain titles); docteur ~ lettres — PhD, doctor of philosophy. E/S (abr de entrée/sortie) I/O. ESA, Esa [eza] (abr de European Space Agency) «f ESA. esbroufe [czbruf] nf fam showing-off; faire de l'~ to show off. escabeau, -x [eskabo] nm -1. [échelle] stepladder. -2. vieilli [tabouret] stool. escadre [eskadr] nf -1. [navires] fleet. -2. [avions] wing. escadrille [eskadrij] nf -1. [navires] flotilla. -2. [avions] flight. escadron [eskadr5] nm squadron. escalade [eskalad] nf-1. [de montagne, grille] climbing. -2. [des prix, de violence] escalation. escalader [eskalade] [3] vt to climb. escale [eskal] nf-1. [lieu - pour navire] port of call; [- pour avion] stopover. -2. [arrêt - de navire] call; [- d'avion] stopover, stop; ~ technique refuelling stop; faire ~ à [navire] to put in at, to call at; [avion] to stop over at. escalier [eskalje] nm stairs (pt); descendre/ monter l'~ to go downstairs/upstairs; ~ en colimaçon spiral staircase; — de secours fire escape; ~ de service backstairs; ~ roulant OU mécanique escalator. escalope [eskalop] «f escalope. escamotable [eskamotabl] adj -1. [train d'atterrissage] retractable; [antenne] telescopic. -2. [table] folding. escamoter [eskamote] [3] vt -1. [faire disparaître] to make disappear. -2. [voler] to lift. -3. [rentrer] to retract. -4. [phrase, mot] to swallow. -5. [éluder - question] to evade; [- objection] to get round. escampette [eskâpet] —► poudre. escapade [eskapad] nf -1. [voyage] outing. -2. [fugue] escapade. escarbille [eskarbij] «/"cinder. escargot [eskargo] nm snail; comme un ~ [très lentement] at a snail's pace. escarmouche [eskarmuf] nf skirmish. escarpé, -e [eskarpe] adj steep. escarpement [eskarpamâ] nm -1. [de pente] steep slope. -2. GÉOGR escarpment. escarpin [eskarpe] nm pump Am, court shoe Br.

201 esquiver escarre [eskar] «/"bedsore, pressure sore. Escaut [esko] nm: l'~ the River Scheldt. escient [esjâ] nm: à bon ~ advisedly; à mauvais ~ ill-advisedly. esclaffer [csklafe] [3] ♦ s'esclaffer vp to burst out laughing. esclandre [esklâdr] nm sout scene; faire un ~ to make a scene. esclavage [esklava3] nm slavery. esclavagisme [esklava3ism] nm slavery. esclave [esklav] O nmf slave. O adj: être ~ de to be a slave to. escogriffe [cskDgrif] nm fam: un grand ~ a beanpole. escompte [esk5t] nm discount. escompter [esk5te] [3] vt -1. [prévoir] to count on. -2. FIN to discount. escorte [eskort] nf escort. escorter [esksrte] [3] vt to escort. escouade [eskwad] «/"squad. escrime [eskrim] «/"fencing. escrimer [eskrime] [3] ♦ s'escrimer vp: s'~ à faire qqch to work (away) at doing sthg. escroc [eskro] nm swindler. escroquer [eskroke] [3] vt to swindle; ~ qqch à qqn to swindle sb out of sthg. escroquerie [eskrokri] nf swindle, swindling ([/). eskimo, Eskimo —► esquimau. ésotérique [ezDterik] adj esoteric. espace [espas] nm space; ~ publicitaire advertising space; ~ vert green space, green area; ~ vital living space. espacement [espasmâ] nm -I. [spatial] spacing. -2. [temporel] spacing out. espacer [espase] [16] vt -1. [dans l'espace] to space out. -2. [dans le temps - visites] to space out; [- paiements] to spread out. ♦ s'espacer vp to become less frequent. espadon [espad5] nm -1. [poisson] swordfish. -2. [épée] two-handed sword. espadrille [espadrij] «/"espadrille. Espagne [espaji] nf: l'~ Spain. espagnol, -e [espajiol] adj Spanish. ♦ espagnol nm [langue] Spanish. ♦ Espagnol, -e nm, f Spaniard; les Espagnols the Spanish. espagnolette [espajiolet] nf latch (for window or shutter). espalier [espalje] nm -t. [arbre] espalier. -2. SPORT wall bars (pi). espèce [espes] nf -1. BIOL, BOT & ZOOL species. -2. [sorte] kind, sort; ~ d'idiot! you stupid fool! -3. [circonstance]: en l'~ littéraire in the case in point. ♦ espèces nfpl cash; payer en ~s to pay

(in) cash. espérance [espéras] nf hope; ~ de vie life expectancy. espéranto [esperâto] nm Esperanto. espérer [espère] [18] O vt to hope for; ~ que to hope (that); ~ faire qqch to hope to do sthg. O vi to hope; ~ en qqn/qqch to trust in sb/sthg. espiègle [espjegl] adj mischievous. espièglerie [espjeglari] nf -1. [malice] mischievousness. -2. [tour, farce] prank. espion, -ionne [espjô, jon] nm, fspy. espionnage [espjona3] nm spying; ~ industriel industrial espionage. espionner [espjone] [3] vt to spy on. esplanade [csplanad] «f esplanade. espoir [espwar] nm hope; avoir bon ~ que to be confident that; nourrir P~ de faire qqch to live in hope of doing sthg; sans ~ hopeless; sans ~ de without hope of. esprit [espri] nm -1. [entendement, personne, pensée] mind; avoir P~ mal tourné to have a dirty OU filthy mind; être large d'~ to be broad-minded; ouvrir l'~ de qqn to open sb's eyes; reprendre ses ~s to recover; venir à l'~ de qqn to cross sb's mind. -2. [attitude] spirit; ~ de compétition competitive spirit; ~ de contradiction argumentative nature, contrariness; ~ critique critical acumen; ~ d'équipe team spirit. -3. [humour] wit; faire de l'~ to try to be funny. -4. [fantôme] spirit, ghost. esquif [eskif] nm littéraire skiff. esquimau, -aude, -aux, eskimo [eskimo, od] adj Eskimo. ♦ esquimau, eskimo nm [langue] Eskimo. ♦ Esquimau, -aude nm, f, Eskimo nmf Eskimo (beware: the term 'Esquimau', like its English equivalent, is often considered offensive in North America. The term '\nuit' is preferred). Esquimau®, -x [eskimo] nm inv: ~ (glacé) ice cream on a stick. esquinter [eskête] [3] vt fam -1. [abîmer] to ruin. -2. [critiquer] to pan, to slate Br. ♦ s'esquinter vp: s'~ à faire qqch to kill o.s. doing sthg. esquisse [eskis] nf [croquis] sketch; fig [de projet] outline; fig [de geste, sourire] trace. esquisser [eskise] [3] vt to sketch; ~ un sourire fig to give a half-smile. ♦ s'esquisser vp to take shape. esquiver [eskive] [3] vt to dodge. ♦ s'esquiver vp to slip away.

essai 202 essai [ese] nm -1. [vérification] test, testing (U); à l'~ on trial. -2. [tentative] attempt. -3. [étude]: ~ (sur) essay (on). -4. RUGBY try. essaie, essaies etc —► essayer. essaim [esè] nm lin & fig swarm. essaimer [eseme] [4] vi to swarm; fig to spread. essayage [eseja3] nm fitting. essayer [eseje] [11] vt to try; ~ de faire qqch to try to do sthg; essaie un peu, pour voir! go on then, why don't you try£ ♦ s'essayer vp: s'~ à qqch à faire qqch to try one's hand at sthg/at doing sthg. ESSEC, Essec [esek] (abr de École supérieure des sciences économiques et commerciales) nf grande école for management and business studies. essence [esâs] nf-1. [fondement, de plante] essence; par ~ sout in essence. -2. [carburant] gas Am, petrol Br; prendre de l'~ to get some petrol. -3. [d'arbre] species. essentiel, -ielle [esâsjel] adj -1. [indispensable] essential. -2. [fondamental] basic. ♦ essentiel nm -1. [point]: l'~ [le principal] the essential OU main thing; [objets] the essentials (yî); l'~ est que ( + subjonctif) the essential OU main thing is that. -2. [quantité]: l'~ de the main OU greater part of. essentiellement [esâsjelmà] adv -1. [avant tout] above all. -2. [par essence] essentially. esseulé, -e [escele] adj littéraire forsaken. essieu, -x [esjo] nm axle. essor [esor] nm flight, expansion, boom; en plein ~ booming; prendre son ~ to take flight; fig to take off. essorage [esDra3] nm [manuel, à rouleaux] wringing (out); [à la machine] spin-drying. essorer [esore] [3] vt [à la main, à rouleaux] to wring out; [à la machine] to spin-dry; [salade] to spin, to dry. essoreuse [esoroz] nf [à rouleaux] mangle; [électrique] spin-dryer; [à salade] salad spinner. essouffler [esufle] [3] vt to make breathless. ♦ s'essouffler vp to be breathless OU out of breath; fig to run out of steam. essuie, essuies etc —► essuyer. essuie-glace [esqiglas] {pi essuie-glaces) nm windshield wiper Am, windscreen wiper Br. essuie-mains [esqimê] nm inv hand towel. essuie-tout [esqitu] nm inv kitchen roll. essuyer [esqije] [14] vt -1. [sécher] to dry. -2. [nettoyer] to dust. -3. fig [subir] to suffer. ♦ s'essuyer vp to dry o.s. est1 [est] O nm east; un vent d'~ an

easterly wind; le vent d'~ the east wind; à l'~ in the east; à l'~ (de) to the east (of). O adj inv east; [province, région] eastern. est2 [e] —* être. establishment [establijment] nm: l'~ the Establishment. estafette [estafet] nf dispatch-rider; MIL liaison officer. estafilade [cstafilad] nf slash, gash. est-allemand, -e [cstalmô, âd] adj East German. estaminet [estamine] nm — inn. estampe [estop] nf print. estamper [estàpe] [3] vt -1. [monnaie] to mint. -2. fam [escroquer] to fleece. estampille [estàpij] nf stamp. est-ce que [eska] adv interrogatif. est-ce qu'il fait beauprijasj5] nf expropriation. exproprier [eksprnprije] [10] vt to expropriate. expulser [ekspylse] [3] vt: ~ (de) to expel (from); [locataire] to evict (from). expulsion [ekspylsjS] «/"expulsion; [de locataire] eviction. expurger [ekspyr3e] [17] vt to expurgate. exquis, -e [ekski, iz] adj -1. [délicieux] exquisite. -2. [distingué, agréable] delightful. exsangue [eksâg] adj [blême] deathly pale. extase [ekstaz] nf ecstasy; tomber en ~ devant to go into ecstasies over. extasier [ekstazje] [9] ♦ s'extasier vp: s'~ devant to go into ecstasies over. extatique [ekstatik] adj ecstatic. extenseur [ekstâsœr] o nm GYM chest expander. O adj —*■ muscle. extensible [ekstâsibl] adj stretchable. extensif, -ive [ekstâsif, iv] adj extensive. extension [ekstâsj5] nf -1. [étirement]

stretching. -2. [développement] spread. -3. [élargissem*nt] extension; par ~ by extension; ~ de nom de fichier INFORM (filename) extension. exténuant, -e [ckstenqâ, ût] adj exhausting. exténuer [ekstenqe] [7] vt to exhaust. extérieur, -e [eksterjœr] adj [au dehors] outside; [étranger] external; [apparent] outward. ♦ extérieur nm -1. [dehors] outside; [de maison] exterior; à l'~ de qqch outside sthg. -2. ÉCON & POLIT: l'~ foreign countries Hextérieurement [eksterjœrmâ] adv -1. [à l'extérieur] on the outside, externally. -2. [en apparence] outwardly. extérioriser [eksterprize] [3] vt to show. ♦ s'extérioriser vp to show one's feelings. extermination [eksterminasj5] nf extermination. exterminer [ekstermine] [3] vt to exterminate. externat [eksterna] nm -1. SCOL day school. -2. MED non-resident medical studentship. externe [ekstern] O nmf-1. SCOL day pupil. -2. MÉD non-resident medical student, — extern Am. O adj outer, external; ~ à qqch outside sthg. extincteur [ekstêktœr] nm (fire) extinguisher. extinction [ekstêksjS] nf -1. [action d'éteindre] putting out, extinguishing; ~ des feux lights out. -2. fig [disparition] extinction; ~ de voix loss of one's voice. extirper [ekstirpe] [3] vt: ~ (de) [épine, réponse, secret] to drag (out of); [plante] to uproot (from); [erreur, préjugé] to root out (of). ♦ s'extirper vp: s'~ de qqch to struggle out of sthg. extorquer [ekstorke] [3] vt: ~ qqch à qqn to extort sthg from sb. extorsion [ekstorsjo] nf extortion; ~ de fonds extortion of money. extra [ekstra] O nm inv -1. [employé] extra help (U). -2. [chose inhabituelle] (special) treat. O adj inv -1. [de qualité] top-quality. -2. fam [génial] great, fantastic. extraction [ekstraksj5] nf extraction. extrader [ekstrade] [3] vt to extradite. extradition [ekstradisj5] «/"extradition. extraire [ekstrer] [112] vt: ~ (de) to extract (from). extrait, -e [ekstre, et] pp -+ extraire. ♦ extrait nm extract; ~ de café coffee extract; ~ de naissance birth certificate.

extralucide 212 extralucide [ekstralysid] —* voyante. extraordinaire [ckstraDrdincr] adj extraordinary. extraplat, -e [ekstrapla, at] adj wafer-thin. extrapoler [ekstrapDle] [3] vt & vi to extrapolate. extraterrestre [ekstraterestr] nmf 6i adj extraterrestrial. extravagance [ekstravagâs] nf extravagance. extravagant, -e [ckstravagâ, ât] adj extravagant; [idée, propos] wild. extraverti, -e [ekstraverti] o adj extrovert. O nm, f extrovert. extrême [ekstrcm] O nm extreme; d'un ~ à l'autre from one extreme to the other, o adj extreme; [limite] furthest. extrêmement [ekstremmâ] adv extremely. extrême-onction [ekstrem5ksj5] {pi extrêmes-onctions) nf la"st rites (pt), extreme unction. Extrême-Orient [ekstremDrjâ] nm: l'~ the Far East. extrémiste [ekstremist] nmf 6i adj extremist. extrémité [ekstremite] nf -\. [bout] end. -2. [situation critique] straights {pi); à la dernière ~ fig at death's door. exubérant, -e [egzyberâ, ât] adj -1. [personne] exuberant. -2. [végétation] luxuriant. exulter [egzylte] [3] vi to exult. exutoire [egzytwar] nm oudet. ex-voto [eksvDto] nm inv votive offering. eye-liner [ajlajnoer] {pi eye-liners) nm eyeliner. F f, F [ef] nm inv f, F; F3 three-room apartment Am OU flat Br. ♦ F -1. abr de femme. -2. abr de féminin -3. {abr de Fahrenheit) F. -4. {abr de franc) F, Fr. fa [fa] nm inv F; [chanté] fa. FAB [fab] {abr de franco à bord) FOB, fob. fable [fabl] «/"fable. fabricant, -e [fabrikâ, ât] nm, f manufacturer. fabrication [fabrikasjS] nf manufacture, manufacturing; de ~ artisanale hand-made. fabrique [fabrik] «/"[usine] factory. fabriquer [fabrike] [3] vt -1. [confectionner] to manufacture, to make; fabriqué en France made in France. -2. fam [faire]: qu'est-ce que tu fabriques^ what are you up to£ -3. [inventer] to fabricate. fabulation [fabylasj5] «/"fabrication. fabuleusem*nt [fabylozmû] adv fabulously.

fabuleux, -euse [fabylo, oz] adj fabulous. fac [fak] nf fam college, uni Br. FAC {abr de franc d'avarie commune) adj FGA, fga. façade [fasad] nflitt & fig façade. face [fas] nf-1. [visage] face; perdre la ~ to lose face; sauver la ~ to save face. -2. [côté] side; faire ~ à qqch [maison] to face sthg, to be opposite sthg; fig [affronter] to face up to sthg; de ~ from the front; en ~ de qqn/qqch opposite sb/sthg; d'en ~ across the street, opposite; ~ à facing; ~ à qqch [situation] faced with sthg; ~ à ~ face to face; regarder qqch en ~ fig to face up to sthg. face-à-face [fasafas] nm inv debate. facétie [fasesi] nf practical joke. facétieux, -ieuse [fasesjo, jez] o adj playful, o nm, f joker. facette [faset] nflitt & fig facet. fâché, -e [faJe] adj -1. [en colère] angry; [contrarié] annoyed. -2. [brouillé] on bad terms.

213 faim fâcher [faje] [3] vt [mettre en colère] to anger, to make angry; [contrarier] to annoy, to make annoyed. ♦ se fâcher vp> -1. [se mettre en colère]: se ~ (contre qqn) to get angry (with sb). -2. [se brouiller]: se ~ (avec qqn) to fall out (with sb). fâcherie [fajri] «/"disagreement. fâcheux, -euse [fajo, oz] adj unfortunate. facho [fa/o] nmf & adj fam fascist. facial, -e, -iaux [fasjal, jo] adj facial. faciès [fasjes] nm péj [visage] features (yt). facile [fasil] adj -1. [aisé] easy; ~ à faire/ prononcer easy to do/pronounce. -2. [peu subtil] facile. -3. [conciliant] easy-going; ~ à vivre easy to get on with. facilement [fasilmù] adv easily. facilité [fasilite] nf -1. [de tâche, problème] easiness. -2. [capacité] ease. -3. [dispositions] aptitude. -4. COMM: —s de paiement easy (payment) terms; —s de crédit credit facilities. faciliter [fasilite] [3] vt to make easier. façon [fas5] nf -1. [manière] way; ~ de parler figure of speech. -2. [travail] work; COU TURE making-up. -3. [imitation]: ~ cuir imitation leather. ♦ façons nfpl manner (sg), ways; faire des ~s to make a fuss. ♦ de façon à loc prép so as to. ♦ de façon que loc conj (+ subjonctif) so that. ♦ de toute façon loc adv anyway, in any case. ♦ sans façon o loc adj unpretentious, o loc adv [sincèrement] really, honestly; [accepter] without fuss. façonner [fasone] [3] vt -1. [travailler, former] to shape. -2. [fabriquer] to manufacture, to make. fac-similé [faksimile] (pi fac-similés) nm facsimile. facteur, -trice [faktœr, tris] nm, f [des postes] mailman (f mailwoman) Am, postman (f postwoman) Br. ♦ facteur nm -1. MUS [fabricant] maker; ~ d'orgues organ-builder. -2. [élément & MATHS] factor; ~ rhésus MÉD Rhesus factor; ~ vent Can windchill factor. factice [faktis] adj artificial. faction [faksjS] nf -1. [groupe] faction. -2. MIL: être en OU de ~ to be on guard (duty). factotum [faktDtDm] nm odd jobber Am, odd-job man Br. factuel, -elle [faktqcl] adj factual. facturation [faktyrasj'5] nf -1. [action] invoicing. -2. [bureau] invoice office.

facture [faktyr] nf -1. COMM invoice; [de gaz, d'électricité] bill. -2. ART technique. -3. MUS [fabrication] making. facturer [faktyre] [3] vt COMM to invoice. facultatif, -ive [fakyltatif, iv] adj optional. facultativement [fakyltativmâ] adv optionally. faculté [fakylte] «f-1. [don & UNIV] faculty; ~ de lettres/de droit/de médecine Faculty of Arts/Law/Medicine. -2. [possibilité] freedom. -3. [pouvoir] power. ♦ facultés nfpl (mental) faculties. fada [fada] fam o nm nutcase, o adj nuts. fadaises [fadez] nfpl drivel (U). fade [fad] adj -1. [sans saveur] bland. -2. [sans intérêt] insipid. fa*got [fa*go] nm bundle of sticks; de derrière les ~s fig kept for a special occasion. fa*goté, -e [fa*gote] adj fam dressed. fa*goter [fa*gDte] [3] vt fam to dress up. ♦ se fa*goter vp fam to dress o.s. up. Fahrenheit [farenajt] n inv Fahrenheit. faible [febl] o adj -1. [gén] weak. -2. [petit montant, proportion] small; [- revenu] low. -3. [lueur, bruit] faint. O nmf weak person; ~ d'esprit feeble-minded person, o nm weakness; avoir un ~ pour to have a weakness for. faiblement [febtamâ] adv -1. [mollement] weakly, feebly. -2. [imperceptiblement] faintly. -3. [peu] slightly. faiblesse [febles] nf-1. [gén] weakness; ~ d'esprit feeble-mindedness. -2. [petitesse] smallness. faiblir [feblir] [32] vi -1. [personne, monnaie] to weaken. -2. [forces] to diminish, to fail. -3. [tempête, vent] to die down. faience [fajâs] «f earthenware. faignant, -e = fainéant. faille [faj] O -> falloir, o nf-1. CÉOL fault. -2. [défaut] flaw. faillible [fajibl] adj fallible. faillir [fajir] [46] vi -1. [manquer]: ~ à [promesse] not to keep; [devoir] not to do. -2. [être sur le point de]: ~ faire qqch to nearly OU almost do sthg. faillite [fajit] nf FIN bankruptcy; faire ~ to go bankrupt; en ~ bankrupt. faim [fë] «/"hunger; avoir ~ to be hungry; avoir ~ de fig to hunger for; mourir de ~ to be starving; ne pas manger à sa ~ not to eat one's fill; rester sur sa ~ to be still hungry; fig to be disappointed; avoir une ~ de loup to be starving.

fainéant 214 fainéant, -e [feneâ, ât], feignant, -er faifnant, -e [fejiâ, ât] O adj lazy, idle, o nm, lazybones. fainéanter [feneâte] [3] vi to laze about. faire [fer] [109] O vt -1. [fabriquer, préparer] to make; ~ une maison to build a house; ~ une tarte/du café/un film to make a tart/coffee/a film; ~ qqch de qqch [transformer] to make sthg into sthg; — qqch de qqn fig to make sthg of sb; il veut en ~ un avocat he wants him to be a lawyer, he wants to make a lawyer of him. -2. [s'occuper à] to do; qu'est-ce qu'il fait dans la vie«r what does he do (for a living)^; que fais-tu dimanche^ what are you doing on Sunday^ -3. [entreprendre] to do; qu'est-ce que je peux ~ pour vous aidera what can I do to help you£ -4. [étudier] to do; ~ de l'anglais du droit to do English/law. -5. [sport, musique] to play; ~ du football/de la clarinette to play football/the clarinet. -6. [effectuer] to do; ~ le ménage to do the housework; ~ la cuisine to cook, to do the cooking; ~ la lessive to do the washing. -7. [occasionner]: ~ de la peine à qqn to hurt sb; ~ du mal à to harm; ~ du bruit to make a noise; ça m'a fait quelque chose it affected me; ça ne fait rien it doesn't matter. -8. [tenir le rôle de] to be, to play. -9. [imiter]: ~ le sourd l'innocent to act deaf/ (the) innocent. -10. [calcul, mesure]: un et un font deux one and one are OU make two; ça fait combien (de kilomètres) jusqu'à la merS how far is it to the sea£; la table fait 2 mètres de long the table is 2 meters Am OU metres Br long. -11. [dire]: «tiens», fit-elle "really", she said. -12. ne ~ que [faire sans cesse] to do nothing but; elle ne fait que bavarder she does nothing but gossip, she's always gossiping; je ne fais que passer I've just popped in. O vi [agir] to do, to act; fais vite! hurry up!; tu ferais bien d'aller voir ce qui se passe you ought to OU you'd better go and see what's happening; ~ comme chez soi to make o.s. at home. O v attr [avoir l'air] to look; ~ démodé/joli to look old-fashioned/pretty; ça fait jeune it makes you look young. O v suhstitut to do; je lui ai dit de prendre une échelle mais il ne l'a pas fait I told him to use a ladder but he didn't; faites! please do! O v impers -1. [climat, temps]: il fait beau/ froid it's fine/cold; il fait 20 degrés it's 20 degrees; il fait jour/nuit it's light/dark; il fait bon se reposer it's OU it feels good to

have a rest. -2. [exprime la durée, la distance]: ça fait six mois que je ne l'ai pas vu it's six months since I last saw him; ça fait six mois que je fais du portugais I've been going to Portuguese classes for six months; ça fait 30 kilomètres qu'on roule sans phares we've been driving without lights for 30 kilometres. O y auxiliaire -1. [à l'actif] to make; ~ démarrer une voiture to start a car; ~ tomber qqch to make sthg fall; ~ travailler qqn to make sb work; ~ traverser la rue à un aveugle to help a blind man cross the road. -2. [au passif]: ~ faire qqch (par qqn) to have sthg done (by sb); ~ réparer sa voiture/nettoyer ses vitres to have one's car repaired/one's windows cleaned. ♦ se faire vp -1. [avoir lieu] to take place. -2. [être à la mode] to be in. -3. [être convenable]: ça ne se fait pas (de faire qqch) it's not done (to do sthg). -4. [devenir]: se ~ (+ adjectif) to get, to become; il se fait tard it's getting late; se ~ beau to make o.s. beautiful. -5. [causer] (+ nom): se ~ mal to hurt o.s.; se ~ des amis to make friends; se ~ une idée sur qqch to get some idea about sthg. -6. (+ infinitif): se ~ écraser to get run over; se ~ opérer to have an operation; se ~ aider (par qqn) to get help (from sb); se ~ faire un costume to have a suit made (for o.s.). -7. loc: comment se fait-il que ... faire. fait, faite [fe, fet] o pp —► faire. O adj -1. [fabriqué] made; être ~ pour litt & fig to be made OU meant for; il n'est pas ~ pour mener cette vie he's not cut out for this kind of life; ils sont —s l'un pour l'autre they are made for each other; ~ sur mesure made to measure. -2. [physique]: bien ~ well-built. -3. [fromage] ripe. -4. loc:

215 fantaisie c'est bien — pour lui (it) serves him right; c'en est ~ de nous we're done for. ♦ fait nm -1. [acte] act; mettre qqn devant le ~ accompli to present sb with a fait accompli; prendre qqn sur le ~ to catch sb in the act; —s et gestes doings, actions. -2. [événement] event; —s divers news in brief. -3. [réalité] fact; le ~ est que ... the fact is (that) .... ♦ au fait loc adv by the way. ♦ en fait loc adv in (actual) fact. ♦ en fut de loc prép by way of. ♦ tout à fait loc adv completely, quite. faîte [fct] nm -1. [de toit] ridge. -2. [d'arbre] top. -3. fig [sommet] pinnacle. faites —* faire. faîtière [fetjer] «/"skylight. fait-tout {pi inv), faitout (pi faitouts) [retu] nm stewpan. fakir [fakir] nm fakir. falaise [falez] «/"cliff. falbalas [falbala] nmpl furbelows. fallacieux, -ieuse [falasjo, joz] adj -1. [promesse] false. -2. [argument] fallacious. falloir [falwar] [69] v impers: il me faut du temps I need (some) time; il lui faudra de l'énergie he'll need (a lot of) energy; il te faut un peu de repos you need some rest; il faut que tu partes you must go OU leave, you'll have to go OU leave; il faut toujours quelle intervienne! she always has to interfere!; il faut agir we/you etc must act; il faut faire attention we/you etc must be careful, we'll/you'll etc have to be careful; s'il le faut if necessary. ♦ s'en falloir v impers: il s'en faut de peu pour qu'il puisse acheter cette maison he can almost afford to buy the house; il s'en faut de 20 cm pour que l'armoire tienne dans le coin the cupboard is 20 cm too big to fit into the corner; il s'en faut de beaucoup pour qu'il ait l'examen it'll take a lot for him to pass the exam; peu s'en est fallu qu'il démissionne he very nearly resigned, he came close to resigning; tant s'en faut far from it, on the contrary. fallu [faly] pp inv —» falloir. falot, -e [falo, ot] adj dull. ♦ falot nm lantern. falsification [falsihkasjS] nf -1. [de document] forgery; [de monnaie] counterfeiting. -2. [de produit alimentaire] adulteration. falsifier [falsifje] [9] vt -1. [document, signature, faits] to falsify. -2. [pensée, paroles] to misrepresent. -3. [produit alimentaire] to adulterate. famé, -e [fame] adj: mal ~ with a (bad)

reputation. famélique [famelik] adj half-starved. fameusem*nt [famozmà] adv fam really. fameux, -euse [fame, az] adj -1. [célèbre] famous. -2. fam [remarquable] great; pas ~ not up to much, nothing great. familial, -e, -iaux [familjal, jo] adj family (avant «). ♦ familiale nf station wagon Am, estate car Br. familiariser [familjarize] [3] vt: ~ qqn avec to familiarize sb with. ♦ se familiariser vp: se ~ avec to get used to. familiarité [familjarite] «/"familiarity. ♦ familiarités nfpl liberties. familier, -ière [familje, jer] adj familiar. ♦ familier nm regular (customer). famille [famij] nf family; [ensemble des parents] relatives, relations; de bonne ~ of good family; fonder une ~ to start a family; ~ nombreuse large family. famine [famin] nf famine; crier ~ fig to complain of one's poverty. fan [fan] nmffam fan. fanal, -aux [fanal, o] nm -1. [de phare] beacon. -2. [de train] headlight. -3. [lanterne] lantern. fanatique [fanatik] O nmf fanatic. O adj fanatical. fanatiser [fanatize] [3] vt to make fanatics out of. fanatisme [fanatism] nm fanaticism. fane [fan] nf-1. [de carotte] top. -2. [d'arbre] fallen leaf. faner [fane] [3] O vt [altérer] to fade, o vi -1. [fleur] to wither. -2. [beauté, couleur] to fade. ♦ se faner vp -1. [fleur] to wither. -2. [beauté, couleur] to fade. fanfare [fâfar] «/"-1. [orchestre] brass band. -2. [musique] fanfare; en ~ noisy. fanfaron, -onne [fâfarS, sn] o adj boastful. O nm, f braggart. fanfaronnade [fâfaronad] «/"boasting (17). fanfreluche [fâfralyj] nf trimming. fange [fâ3] nf littéraire mire; traîner qqn dans la ~ to drag sb through the mire. fanion [fanj5] nm pennant. fantaisie [fâtezi] O nf -1. [caprice] whim. -2. (U) [goût] fancy. -3. [imagination] imagination; de ~ imaginary. -4. MUS fantasia. O adj inv: chapeau ~ fancy hat; bijoux ~ fake jewelry Am OU jewellery Br.

fantaisiste 216 fantaisiste [fâtezist] O nmf entertainer. O adj -1. [fumiste] dilettante. -2. [bizarre] fanciful. fantasmagorique [fâtasmagorik] adj phantasmagorical, extraordinary. fantasme [fâtasm] nm fantasy. fantasmer [fâtasme] [3] vi to fantasize. fantasque [fâtask] adj -1. [personne] whimsical. -2. [humeur] capricious. -3. [chose] fantastic. fantassin [fâtasê] nm infantryman. fantastique [fâtastik] o adj fantastic, o nm: le ~ the fantastic. fantoche [fâtof] o adj puppet {avant n). o nm puppet. fantomatique [fâtomatik] adj ghostly. fantôme [fâtom] O nm ghost. O adj -1. [spectral] ghostly. -2. [inexistant] phantom. FAO nf -\. (abr de fabrication assistée par ordinateur) CAM. -2. (abr de Food and Agriculture Organisation) FAO. faon [fâ] nm fawn. FAP (abr de franc d'avarie particulière) adj FPA, fpa. far [far] nm: ~ breton sweet flan containing plums. faramineux, -euse [faramino, oz] adj fam -1. [prix] astronomical. -2. [génial] fantastic. farandole [farâdol] nf farandole. farce [fars] nf -1. CULIN stuffing. -2. [blague] (practical) joke; faire une ~ à qqn to play a (practical) joke on sb; ~s et attrapes jokes and novelties. -3. LITTÉRATURE farce. farceur, -euse [farsœr, az) nm, f (practical) joker. fard, -e [farsi] adj -1. CULIN stuffed. -2. fig [plein] stuffed, crammed. farcir [farsir] [32] vt -1. CULIN to stuff. -2. [remplir]: ~ qqch de to stuff OU cram sthg with. ♦ se farcir vp fam -1. [faire]: se ~ qqch to get stuck with sthg. -2. [supporter]: se ~ qqn to put up with sb. -3. [manger]: se ~ qqch to scoff sthg. fard [far] nm make-up; ~ à joues blusher; ~ à paupières eyeshadow; piquer un ~ fam fig to blush. fardeau, -x [fardo] nm [poids] load; fig burden. farder [farde] [3] vt -1. [maquiller] to make up. -2. fig [masquer] to disguise. ♦ se farder vp to make o.s. up, to put on one's make-up. farfadet [farfade] nm sprite. farfelu, -e [farfaly] fam O adj weird, o nm, f weirdo. farfouiller [farfuje] [3] vi fam to rummage.

farine [farm] nf flour; rouler qqn dans la ~ fig to take sb for a ride. farineux, -euse [farine, oz] adj -1. [aspect, goût] floury. -2. [aliment] farinaceous. ♦ farineux nm starchy food. farniente [farnjente] nm idleness. farouche [faruj] adj -1. [animal] wild, not tame; [personne] shy, withdrawn. -2. [sentiment] fierce. farouchement [farufmâ] adv fiercely. fart [far(t)] nm (ski) wax. farter [farte] [3] vt to wax. fascicule [fasikyl] nm part, installment Am, instalment Br. fascinant, -e [fasinâ, ât] adj -1. [regard] alluring, captivating. -2. [personne, histoire] fascinating. fascination [fasinasp] nf fascination. fasciner [fasine] [3] vt to fascinate. fascisant, -e [faji*zâ, ât] adj fascistic. fascisme [fa/ism] nm fascism. fasciste [fajist] nmf' & adj fascist. fasse, fassions etc —► faire. faste [fast] O nm splendor Am, splendour Br. o adj [favorable] lucky. fast-food [fastfud] (pi fast-foods) nm fast food. fastidieux, -ieuse [fastidjo, jez] adj boring. fastueux, -euse [fastqe, oz] adj luxurious. fatal, -e [fatal] adj -1. [mortel, funeste] fatal. -2. [inévitable] inevitable. fatalement [fatalmâ] adv inevitably. fataliste [fatalist] o nmf fatalist, o adj fatalistic. fatalité [fatalité] nf-1. [destin] fate. -2. [inéluctabilité] inevitability. fatidique [fatidik] adj fateful. fatigant, -e [fatigâ, ât] adj -1. [épuisant] tiring. -2. [ennuyeux] tiresome. fatiguant [fatigâ] ppr —*■ fatiguer. fatigue [fatig] nf tiredness; tomber de ~, être mort de ~ to be dead tired. fatigué, -e [fatige] adj tired; [cœur, yeux] strained. fatiguer [fatige] [3] o vt -1. [épuiser, affecter] to tire; [- cœur, yeux] to strain. -2. [ennuyer] to wear out. o vi -1. [personne] to grow tired. -2. [moteur] to strain. ♦ se fatiguer vp to get tired; se ~ de qqch to get tired of sthg; se ~ à faire qqch to wear o.s. out doing sthg. fatras [fatra] nm jumble. fatuité [fatqite] nf littéraire complacency. faubourg [fobur] nm suburb.

217 fécond fauché, -e [foje] adj fam broke, hard-up. faucher [foje] [3] vt -1. [couper - herbe, blé] to cut. -2. fam [voler]: ~ qqch à qqn to pinch sthg from sb. -3. [piéton] to run over. -4. fig [suj: mort, maladie] to cut down. faucille [fosij] nf sickle. faucon [fok5] nm hawk. faudra —> falloir. faufil [fofil] nm tacking OU basting thread. faufiler [fofile] [3] vt to tack, to baste. ♦ se faufiler vp: se ~ dans to slip into; se ~ entre to thread one's way between. faune [fon] o nf-1. [animaux] fauna. -2. péj [personnes]: la ~ qui fréquente ce bar the sort of people who hang round that bar. O nm MYTH faun. faussaire [foser] nmf forger. faussem*nt [fosmâ] adv -1. [à tort] wrongly. -2. [prétendument] falsely. fausser [fose] [3] vt -1. [déformer] to bend. -2. [rendre faux] to distort. ♦ se fausser vp [voix] to become strained. fausset [fose] —► voix. fausseté [foste] nf-1. [hypocrisie] duplicity. -2. [de jugement, d'idée] falsity. faut —> falloir. faute [fot] nf -1. [erreur] mistake, error; faire une ~ to make a mistake OU an error; ~ de calcul miscalculation; ~ de frappe [à la machine à écrire] typing error; [à l'ordinateur] keying error; ~ de goût error of taste; ~ d'inattention careless mistake; — d'orthographe spelling mistake. -2. [méfait, infraction] offense Am, offence Br; prendre qqn en ~ to catch sb out; ~ professionnelle professional misdemeanor Am OU misdemeanour Br. -3. TENNIS fault; FOOTBALL foul. -4. [responsabilité] fault; de ma/ta ~ my/your fault; par la ~ de qqn because of sb; rej^er la ~ sur qqn to shift the blame onto so: ♦ faute de loc prép for want OU lack of; ~ de mieux for want OU lack of anything better. ♦ sans faute o loc adv without fail, o loc adj faultless. fauteuil [fotcej] nm -1. [siège] armchair; ~ à bascule rocking chair; ~ roulant wheelchair. -2. [de théâtre] seat; ~ d'orchestre seat in the orchestra Am OU stalls Br. -3. [de président] chair; [d'académicien] seat. fauteur, -trice [fotoer, tris] nm, f: ~ de troubles troublemaker. fautif, -ive [fotif, iv] o adj -1. [coupable] guilty. -2. [défectueux] faulty. O nm, f guilty party. fauve [fov] O nm -1. [animal] big cat. -2. [couleur] fawn. -3. ART Fauve. O adj -1.

[animal] wild. -2. [cuir, cheveux] tawny. -3. ART Fauvist. fauvette [fovet] «/"warbler. faux, fausse [fo, fos] adj -1. [incorrect] wrong. -2. [postiche, mensonger, hypocrite] false; ~ témoignage JUR perjury. -3. [monnaie, papiers] forged, fake; [bijou, marbre] imitation, fake. -4. [injustifié]: fausse alerte false alarm; c'est un ~ problème that's not an issue (here). ♦ faux O nm [document, tableau] forgery, fake. O nf scythe. O adv. chanter jouer ~ MUS to sing/play out of tune; sonner ~ fig not to ring true. faux-filet {pi faux-filets), faux filet (pi faux filets) [fofile] nm sirloin. faux-fuyant [fofqijd] {pi faux-fuyants) nm excuse. faux-monnayeur [fomonejeer] {pi fauxmonnayeurs) nm counterfeiter. faux-semblant [fosûblû] {pi fauxsemblants) nm pretense Am, pretence Br. faux-sens [fosâs] nm inv mistranslation. faveur [favoer] nf favor Am, favour Br, £aire une ~ à qqn to do sb a favor Am OU favour Br; intercéder en ~ de qqn to intercede on sb's behalf. ♦ à la faveur de loc prép thanks to. ♦ en faveur de loc prép in favor Am OU favour Br of. favorable [favorabl] adj: ~ (à) favorable Am OU favourable Br (to). favorablement [favDrabbmâ] adv favorably Am, favourably Br. favori, -ite [favori, it] adj & nm, f favorite Am, favourite Br. ♦ favoris nmpl side whiskers. favoriser [favDrize] [3] vt -1. [avantager] to favor Am, to favour Br. -2. [contribuer à] to promote. -3. [aider] to assist. favoritisme [favoritism] nm favoritism Am, favouritism Br. faxer [fakse] [3] vt to fax. fayot [fajo] nm fam [personne] creep, crawler. FB (abr de franc belge) BF. FC (abr de Football club) nm FC. FCFA (abr de franc CFA) currency still used in former French colonies in Africa. FCFP (abr de franc CFP) currency still used in former French colonies in the Pacific. fébrile [febril] adj feverish. fébrilement [febrilmâ] adv feverishly. fécal, -e, -aux [fekal, o] —> matière. fécond, -e [fek5, 3d] adj -1. [femelle, terre,

fécondation 218 esprit] fertile. -2. [écrivain] prolific. -3. [histoire, situation]: ~ en qqch rich in sthg. fécondation [fek5dasj5] nf fertilization; ~ in vitro in vitro fertilization. féconder [fek5de] [3] vt -1. [ovule] to fertilize. -2. [femme, femelle] to impregnate. -3. littéraire [fertiliser] to make fertile. fécondité [fek5dite] nf-1. [gén] fertility. -2. [d'écrivain] productiveness. fécule [fekyl] «/"starch. féculent, -e [fekylâ, ât] adj starchy. ♦ féculent nm starchy food. fédéral, -e, -aux [federal, o] adj federal. fédéralisme [federalism] nm federalism. fédératif, -ive [federatif, iv] adj federative. fédération [federasjS] «/"federation. fée [fe] nf fairy; ~ du logis model housekeeper. féed-back [fidbak] nm inv feedback. féerie [fe(e)ri] «/"-l. THÉÂTRE spectacular; CIN fantasy. -2. [de lieu] enchantment; [de vision] enchanting sight. féerique [fe(e)rik] adj [enchanteur] enchanting. feignais, feignions etc —* feindre. feignant, -e = fainéant. feindre [fêdr] [81] O vt to feign; ~ de faire qqch to pretend to do sthg. O vi to pretend. feint, -e [fê, fêt] pp —* feindre. feinte [fêt] nf -1. [ruse] ruse. -2. FOOTBALL dummy; BOXE feint. fêlé, -e [fêle] O adj -1. [assiette] cracked. -2. fam [personne] cracked, loony. O nm, f fam freak, nutter. fêler [fêle] [4] vt to crack. ♦ se fêler vp to crack. félicitations [felisitasjS] nfpl congratulations; avec les ~ du jury highly commended. féliciter [felisite] [3] vt to congratulate. ♦ se féliciter vp: se ~ de to congratulate o.s. on. félin, -e [felê, in] adj feline. ♦ félin nm big cat. félon, -onne [fel5, on] littéraire O adj traitorous. O nm, f traitor. fêlure [felyr] «/"crack. femelle [famel] nf'& adj female. féminin, -e [feminê, in] adj -1. [gén] feminine. -2. [revue, équipe] women's [avant «). ♦ féminin nm GRAM feminine. féminiser [feminize] [3] vt -1. [efféminer] to make effeminate. -2. BIOL to feminize. ♦ se féminiser vp -1. [institution] to attract more women. -2. [homme] to become effeminate.

féminisme [feminism] nm feminism. féministe [feminist] nmf faire. FIS [fis] (abr de Front islamique du salut) nm: le ~ the Islamic Salvation Front. fisc [fisk] nm — Internai Revenue Am, — Inland Revenue Br. fiscal, -e, -aux [fiskal, o] adj tax (avant n), fiscal. fiscaliser [fiskalize] [3] vt to (make) subject to tax. fiscalité [fiskalite] nf tax system. fissure [fisyr] nf I'm & fig crack. fissurer [fisyre] [3] vt [fendre] to crack; fig to split. ♦ se fissurer vp> to crack. fiston [fistô] nm fam son. FFV (abr de fécondation in vitro) nfYVF. FIVETE, Fivete [fivet] (abr de fécondation in vitro et transfert d'embryon) nf GIFT; une ~ a test-tube baby. fixateur, -trice [fiksatcer, tris] adj -1. PHOT fixing (avant «). -2. [lotion, crème] setting (avant «). ♦ fixateur nm PHOT fixer. fixatif [fiksatif] nm fixative. fixation [fiksasjS] nf -1. [action de fixer] fixing. -2. [attache] fastening, fastener; [de ski] binding. -3. PSYCHOL fixation. fixe [fiks] adj fixed; [encre] permanent; à heure ~ at set OU fixed times.

♦ fixe nm fixed salary. fixement [fiksamâ] adv fixedly; regarder ~ qqn/qqch to stare at sb/sthg. fixer [fikse] [3] vt -1. [gén] to fix; [règle] to set; ~ son choix sur to decide on. -2. [monter] to hang. -3. [regarder] to stare at. -4. [renseigner]: ~ qqn sur qqch to put sb in the picture about sthg; être fixé sur qqch to know all about sthg. ♦ se fixer vp to settle; se ~ sur [suj: choix, personne] to settle on; [suj: regard] to rest on. fixité [fiksite] «f steadiness. fjord [fprd] nm fjord. fil. (abr de fleuve) R. FL (abr de florin) FI, F, G. flacon [flakô] nm small bottle. flageller [fla3ele] [4] vt -1. [fouetter] to flagellate. -2. fig [fustiger] to denounce. flageoler [fla3Dle] [3] vi to tremble. flageolet [fla3Dle] nm -1. [haricot] flageolet bean. -2. MUS flageolet. flagornerie [flagornari] «/"flattery. flagrant, -e [flagrâ, ât] adj flagrant; —» délit. flair [fier] nm sense of smell; avoir du ~ fig to be intuitive. flairer [flere] [4] vt to sniff, to smell; fig to scent. flamand, -e [flamâ, âd] adj Flemish. ♦ flamand nm [langue] Flemish. ♦ Flamand, -e nm, f Flemish person, Fleming. flamant [flamâ] nm flamingo; ~ rose pink flamingo. flambant, -e [flâbâ, ât] adj: ~ neuf brand new. flambeau, -x [flâbo] nm torch; fig flame; se passer le ~ fig to hand on the torch. flambée [flâbe] nf-1. [feu] blaze. -2. fig [de colère] outburst; [de violence] outbreak; U y a eu une ~ des prix prices have skyrocketed. flamber [flâbe] [3] O vi -1. [brûler] to blaze. -2. fam JEU to play for high stakes. O vt -1. [crêpe] to flambé. -2. [volaille] to singe. flamboie, flamboies etc —> flamboyer. flamboyant, -e [flâbwajâ, ât] adj -1. [ciel, regard] blazing; [couleur] flaming. -2. ARCHIT flamboyant. flamboyer [flâbwaje] [13] vi to blaze. flamingant, -e [flamêgâ, ât] adj -1. [nationaliste] Flemish-nationalist. -2. [de langue] Flemish-speaking.

flamme 224 ♦ Flamingant, -e nm, f -1. [nationaliste] Flemish nationalist. -2. [de langue] Flemish speaker. flamme [flam] nf flame; fig fervor Am, fervour Br, fire. flan [flu] nm baked custard. flanc [flâ] nm [de personne, navire, montagne] side; [d'animal, d'armée] flank; à ~ de coteau on the hillside; être sur le ~ fig to feel washed out; tirer au ~ fam fig to shirk, to skive Br. flancher [flâJe] [3] vi fam to give up. flanelle [flanel] «/"flannel. flâner [flâne] [3] vi -1. [se promener] to stroll. -2. [s'attarder] to hang about, to lounge about. flânerie [flanri] ///"stroll. flâneur, -euse [flanoer, az] nm, /"stroller. flanquer [flâke] [3] vt -1. fam [jeter]: ~ qqch par terre to fling sthg to the ground; ~ qqn dehors to chuck OU fling sb out. -2. fam [donner]: ~ une gifle à qqn to clout sb round the ear; ~~ la frousse à qqn to put the 'wind up sb. -3. [accompagner]: être flanqué de to be flanked by. ♦ se flanquer vp fam: se ~ par terre to fall flat on one's face. flapi, -e [flapi] adj fam dead beat. flaque [flak] «/"pool; ~ (d'eau) puddle. flash [flaj] nm -1. PHOT flash. -2. RADIO & TELE: ~ (d'information) newsflash; ~ de publicité commercial. flash-back [flafbak] {p\ inv OU flash-backs) nm CIN flashback. flasher [flafe] [3] vi fam: ~ sur qqn/qqch to be turned on by sb/sthg. flasque [flask] O nf flask. O adj flabby, limp. flatter [flate] [3] vt -1. [louer] to flatter. -2. [caresser] to stroke. ♦ se flatter vp to flatter o.s.; je me flatte de le convaincre I flatter myself that I can convince him; se ~ de faire qqch to pride o.s. on doing sthg. flatterie [flatri] «/"flattery. flatteur, -euse [flatœr, 0z] o adj flattering. O nm, f flatterer. flatulence [flatylôs] wf flatulence, wind. FLE, fie [fh] (abr de français langue étrangère) nm French as a foreign language. fléau, -x [fleo] nm -1. litt & fig [calamité] scourge. -2. [instrument] flail. flèche [flej] nf -\. [gén] arrow. -2. [d'église] spire. -3. fig [critique] shaft. -4. toc: monter en ~ to shoot up; partir comme une ~ to shoot off. flécher [flefe] [18] vt to mark (with

arrows). fléchette [flejet] «/"dart. ♦ fléchettes nfpl darts (sg). fléchir [flejir] [32] O vt to bend, to flex; fig to sway. O vi to bend; fig to weaken. fléchissem*nt [flejismâ] nm flexing, bending; fis weakening. flegmatique [flegmatik] adj phlegmatic. flegme [flcgm] nm composure. flemmard, -e [flemar, ard] fam O adj lazy. o nm, /"lazybones (sg). flemmarder [flemarde] [3] vi fam to lounge about. flemme [flem] nf fam laziness; j'ai la ~ (de sortir) I can't be bothered (to go out). flétan [fletâ] nm halibut. flétrir [flétrir] [32] vt [fleur, visage] to wither. ♦ se flétrir vp to wither. fleur [flœr] «/"BOT & fig flower; en ~, en ~s [arbre] in flower, in blossom; à ~s [motif] flowered; la fine ~ de fig the flower OU the cream of; ~ de lys fleur-de-lis; dans la ~ de l'âge in the prime of life; être ~ bleue to be a romantic, to be sentimental; faire une ~ à qqn fam to do sb a good turn; avoir les nerfs à ~ de peau to be all on edge. fleurer [floere] [5] vt: ~ bon la vanille to have a pleasant smell of vanilla. fleuret [floere] nm foil. fleurette [flœret] nf: conter ~ à qqn vieilli ou hum to whisper sweet nothings to sb. fleuri, -e [floeri] adj -1. [jardin, pré] in flower; [vase] of flowers; [tissu] flowered; [table, appartement] decorated with flowers. -2. fig [style] flowery. fleurir [floerir] [32] O vi to blossom; fig to flourish. O vt [maison] to decorate with flowers; [tombe] to lay flowers on. fleuriste [floerist] nmf florist. fleuron [flœr5] nm fig jewel. fleuve [floev] nm -1. [cours d'eau] river. -2. (en apposition) [interminable] lengthy, interminable; un discours— an interminable speech. flexible [fleksibl] adj flexible. flexion [fleksj5] nf -\. [de genou, de poutre] bending. -2. LING inflexion. flibustier [flibystje] nm buccaneer. flic [flik] nm fam cop. flingue [flêg] nm fam gun. flinguer [flêge] [3] vt fam to gun down. ♦ se flinguer vp fam to blow one's brains out.

225 fœtal flipper1 [flipcer] nm pin-ball machine. flipper2 [flipe] [3] vi fam -1. [être déprimé] to feel down. -2. [planer] to freak out. flirt [floert] nm -1. [amourette] flirtation. -2. [personne] boyfriend (/"girlfriend). flirter [floerte] [3] vi: ~ (avec qqn) to flirt (with sb); ~ avec qqch fig to flirt with sthg. FLN (abr de Front de libération nationale) nm Algerian national liberation front. FLNC (abr de Front de libération nationale corse) nm Corsican national liberation front. FLNKS (abr de Front de libération nationale kanak et socialiste) nm political movement in New Caledonia. flocon [fbk5] nm flake; ~ de neige snowflake; —s d'avoine oat flakes. flonflon [A5fl5] nm (gén pi) blare. flop [fbp] nm [échec] flop, failure. flopée [fbpe] nf fam: une ~ de heaps of, masses of. floraison [fbrezS] nf litt & fig flowering, blossoming. floral, -e, -aux [floral, o] adj floral. floralies [fbrali] nfpl flower show (sg). flore [fbr] «/"flora. Florence [fbrâs] n Florence. Floride [fbrid] nf: la ~ Florida. florilège [fbrilc3] nm anthology. florissant, -e [fbrisâ, ât] adj [santé] blooming; [économie] flourishing. flot [flo] nm flood, stream; être à ~ [navire] to be afloat; fig to be back to normal; couler à ~s fig to flow like water. ♦ flots nmpl littéraire waves. flottage [£bta3] nm floating (of logs). flottaison [fbtezS] «/"floating. flottant, -e [fbtâ, ât] adj -1. [gén] floating; [esprit] irresolute. -2. [robe] loose-fitting. flotte [fbt] nf -1. AÉRON & NAV1G fleet; ~ aérienne air fleet. -2. fam [eau] water. -3. fam [pluie] rain. flottement [fbtmâ] nm -1. [de drapeau] fluttering. -2. [indécision] hesitation, wavering. -3. [de monnaie] floating. flotter [fbte] [3] O vi -1. [sur l'eau] to float. -2. [drapeau] to flap; [brume, odeur] to drift. -3. [dans un vêtement]: tu flottes dedans it's baggy on you. O v impers fam: il flotte it's raining. flotteur [fbtcer] nm [de ligne de pêche, d'hydravion] float; [de chasse d'eau] ballco*ck. flou, -e [flu] adj -1. [couleur, coiffure] soft. -2. [photo] blurred, fuzzy. -3. [pensée] vague, woolly. ♦ flou nm [de photo] fuzziness; [de décision] vagueness; le ~ artistique CIN & PHOT soft

focus; fig vagueness. flouer [flue] [3] vt fam to do, to swindle. fluctuant, -e [flyktqâ, ât] adj fluctuating. fluctuation [flyktqasjS] «/"fluctuation. fluctuer [flyktqe] [3] vi to fluctuate. fluet, -ette [flye, et] adj [personne] thin, slender; [voix] thin. fluide [flqid] O nm -1. [matière] fluid. -2. fig [pouvoir] (occult) power. O adj [matière] fluid; [circulation] flowing freely. fluidifier [flqidifje] [9] vt [trafic] to improve the flow of. fluidité [flqidite] nf [gén] fluidity; [de circulation] easy flow. fluor [flyor] nm fluorine. fluorescent, -e [flyoresâ, ât] adj fluorescent. flûte [flyt] O nf -\. MUS flute; ~ à bec recorder; ~ traversière flute. -2. [verre] flute (glass); ~ à champagne champagne flute. -3. [pain] French stick. O interj fam bother! flûtiste [flytist] nmf flutist Am, flautist Br. fluvial, -e, -iaux [flyvjal, jo] adj [eaux, pêche] river (avant «); [alluvions] fluvial. flux [fly] nm -1. [écoulement] flow; un ~ de fig a flood of. -2. [marée] flood tide; le ~ et le reflux the ebb and flow. -3. PHYS flux. fluxion [flyksjS] nf inflammation; ~ de poitrine pneumonia. FM (abr de frequency modulation) «f FM. FMI (abr de Fonds monétaire international) nm IMF. FN (abr de Front national) nm extreme rightwing French political party. FNAC, Fnac [mak] (abr de Fédération nationale des achats des cadres) nf chain of large stores selling books, records, audio and video equipment etc. FNEF, Fnef [fnef] (abr de Fédération nationale des étudiants de France) nf students' union. FNSEA (abr de Fédération nationale des syndicats d'exploitants agricoles) nf farmers' union. FO (abr de Force ouvrière) nf workers' trade union. foc [fsk] nm jib. focal, -e, -aux [fskal, o] adj focal. focaliser [fskalize] [3] vt to focus. ♦ se focaliser vp fig: se ~ sur qqch to focus on sthg. fœtal, -e, -aux [fetal, o] adj foetal.

fœtus 226 fœtus [fetys] nm foetus. foi [fwa] nf -1. RELIG faith. -2. [confiance] trust; avoir ~ en qqn/qqch to trust sb/sthg, to have faith in sb/sthg. -3. loc: ajouter ~ à sout to lend credence to; faire ~ to serve as proof; être de bonne/mauvaise ~ to be in good/bad faith; ma ~ ... well ...; sur la ~ de on the strength of. foie [fwa] nm ANAT & CULIN liver; ~ de veau/de volaille calf's/chicken liver; ~ gras foie gras; avoir les ~s fam fig to be scared out of one's wits. foin [fwê] nm hay; faire les ~s to make hay; faire du ~ fam fig to make a din. foire [fwar] nf-1. [fête] funfair. -2. [exposition, salon] trade fair. -3. fam [agitation] circus; ~ d'empoigne free-for-all; faire la ~ fam fig to have a wild time. foirer [fware] [3] vi fam [projet] to fall through. foireux, -euse [fware, ez] adj fam [raté] disastrous; [qui va rater] doomed. fois [fwa] nf time; une ~ once; deux ~ twice; trois/quatre ~ three/four times; deux ~ plus long twice as long; neuf ~ sur dix nine times out of ten; deux ~ trois two times three; cette ~ this time; il était une ~ ... once upon a time there was ...; pour une ~ (que) for once; pour la énième ~ for the umpteenth time; une autre ~ another time; une (bonne) ~ pour toutes once and for all; une ~ n'est pas coutume just the once won't hurt. ♦ à la fois loc adv at the same time, at once. ♦ des fois loc adv [parfois] sometimes; non, mais des ~! fam look here! ♦ si des fois loc conj fam if ever. ♦ une fois que loc conj once. foison [fwaz5] ♦ à foison loc adv in abundance. foisonnement [rwazonmâ] nm abundance. foisonner [fwazone] [3] vi to abound; ~ en OU de to abound in. folâtre [folatr] adj playful. folâtrer [folâtre] [3] vi to romp (about). folichon, -onne [foli/Sn, on] adj: ça n'est pas ~ fam it's not much fun. folie [h\i] nf litt & fig madness; à la ~ madly; c'est de la ~ it's madness OU lunacy; avoir la ~ des grandeurs to have delusions of grandeur; faire des —s fig to be extravagant. folio [foljo] nm folio. folk [blk] O nm folk music. O adj inv folk; la musique ~ folk music. folklore [fslkbr] nm [de pays] folklore; c'est

du ~ fig you can't take it seriously. folklorique [folkbrik] adj -1. [danse] folk. -2. fig [situation, personne] bizarre, quaint. folle —> fou. follement [folmô] adv madly, wildly; ~ amoureux madly in love. follet [foie] -► feu. fomenter [formate] [3] vt to foment. foncé, -e [f5se] adj dark. foncer [f5se] [16] O vt to darken, to make darker, o vi -1. [teinte] to darken. -2. [se ruer]: ~ sur to rush at. -3. fam [se dépêcher] to get a move on. fonceur, -euse [f5scer, oz] o adj dynamic, go-ahead, o nm, f dynamic person. foncier, -ière [f5sje, jer] adj -1. [impôt] land (avant n); propriétaire ~ landowner. -2. [fondamental] basic, fundamental. foncièrement [fSsjermâ] adv basically. fonction [f5ksj5] nf -\. [gén] function; faire ~ de to act as. -2. [profession] post; se démettre de ses ~s to resign; entrer en ~ to take up one's post OU duties; la ~ publique the civil service. ♦ en fonction de loc prép according to. fonctionnaire [fSksjoner] nmf [de l'État] state employee; [dans l'administration] civil servant; haut ~ senior civil servant. fonctionnariat [fSksjonarja] nm employment by the state. fonctionnariser [fôksjDnarize] [3] vt -1. [personne] to make an employee of the state. -2. [service] to take into the public sector. fonctionnel, -elle [fSkspnel] adj functional. fonctionnement [BkspnmùJ nm working, functioning. fonctionner [fSksjone] [3] vi to work, to function. fond [f5] nm -1. [de récipient, puits, mer] bottom; [de pièce] back; un ~ [petite quantité] a drop; sans ~ bottomless; au fin ~ de in the depths of; de ~ en comble from top to bottom. -2. [substance, essentiel] heart, root; avoir un très bon ~ to be a good person at heart; le ~ de ma pensée what I really think; le ~ et la forme content and form; aller au ~ des choses to go to the heart OU root of things. -3. [arrière-plan] background; ~ sonore background music. ♦ fond d'artichaut nm artichoke heart. ♦ fond de bouteille nm lees {pi), dregs ♦ fond de teint nm foundation.

227 force ♦ à fond loc adv -1. [entièrement] thoroughly; se donner à ~ to give one's all. -2. [très vite] at top speed. ♦ au fond, dans le fond loc adv basically. ♦ au fond de loc prép: au ~ de moimême/lui-même etc at heart, deep down. fondais, fondions etc —► fondre. fondamental, -e, -aux [Bdamâtal, o] adj fundamental. fondamentalement [Bdamâtalmâ] adv fundamentally. fondamentaliste [Bdamâtalist] nmf faire. fontaine [Bten] nf [naturelle] spring; [publique] fountain. fonte [Bt] nf-1. [de glace, beurre] melting; [de métal] melting down; la ~ des neiges the thaw. -2. [alliage] cast iron; en ~ castiron. fonts [B] nmpl: ~ baptismaux (baptismal) font (sg). foot [fut] = football. football [futbol] nm soccer, football Br; ~ américain football Am, American football Br. footballeur, -euse [futbolœr, oz] nm, /"soccer player, footballer Br. footing [futirj] nm jogging; taire du ~ to go jogging for [Br] nm: dans son ~ intérieur in his/her heart of hearts. forage [Bra3] nm drilling. forain, -e [Brè, en] adj —» fête. ♦ forain nm stallholder. forban [Brbâ] nm -1. [corsaire] pirate. -2. [escroc] crook. forçat [Brsa] nm convict. force [Brs] nf -1. [vigueur] strength; avoir de la ~ to be strong; en ~ [passer] by (physical) effort; [arriver] in force; être une ~ de la nature to be a human dynamo; être de ~ à faire qqch to be up to doing sthg; c'est ce qui fait sa ~ that's where his strength lies; ~ de caractère strength of character; dans la ~ de l'âge fig in the prime of life. -2. [violence, puissance, MIL & PHYS] force; faire faire qqch à qqn de ~ to force sb to do sthg; par la ~ des choses by force of circ*mstances; avoir ~ de loi to have force of law; obtenir qqch par la ~ to obtain sthg by force; ~ centrifuge PHYS centrifugal force; ~ de dissuasion deterrent power; ~ de frappe strike force; ~ d'inertie PHYS force of inertia; ~ de vente COMM sales force. ♦ forces nfpl -1. [physique] strength (se); être à bout de —s to have no strength left; de toutes ses —s with all his/her strength; recouvrer ses —s to get one's strength back; reprendre des —s to recover one's strength. -2. [organisation]: les ~s armées the armed forces; —s d'intervention rapid deployment force (sg); les —s de l'ordre the

forcé 228 police (sg); les —s de police the police force (*g). ♦ à force de loc prép by dint of. forcé, -e [forse] adj forced. forcément [forsemâ] adv inevitably. forcené, -e [forsane] O adj [haine, critique] frenzied; [partisan] fanatical. O nm, f maniac. forceps [forseps] nm forceps (pi). forcer [forse] [16] O vt -1. [gén] to force; ~ qan à qqch/à faire qqch to force sb into sthg/to do sthg. -2. [admiration, respect] to compel, to command. -3. [talent, voix] to strain, o vi: ça ne sert à rien de ~, ça ne passe pas there's no point in forcing it, it won't go through; ~ sur qqch to overdo sthg. ♦ se forcer vp [s'obliger]: se ~ à faire qqch to force o.s. to do sthg. forcing [forsirj] nm SPORT & fig pressure; faire du ~ to push o.s. forcir [forsir] [32] vi to put on weight. forer [fore] [3] vt to drill. forestier, -ière [forestje, jer] adj forest (avant n). ♦ forestier nm forestry worker. forêt [fore] nf forest. foreuse [forez] «/"drill. forfait [forfe] nm -1. [prix fixe] fixed price; être au ~ [pour l'imposition] to pay an estimated amount of tax. -2. SPORT: déclarer ~ [abandonner] to withdraw; fig to give up. -3. littéraire [crime] heinous crime. forfaitaire [forfcter] adj inclusive. forfait-vacances [forfevakâs] (pi forfaitsvacances) nm package holiday. forfanterie [forfâtri] «/"bragging. forge [for3] «/"forge. forger [for3e] [17] vt -1. [métal] to forge. -2. fig [caractère] to form. -3. [plan, excuse] to concoct. forgeron [forjarS] nm blacksmith. formaliser [formalize] [3] vt to formalize. ♦ se formaliser vp: se ~ (de) to take offense Am OU offence Br (at). formalisme [formalism] nm formality. formaliste [formalist] o nmf formalist, o adj [milieu] conventional; [personne]: être ~ to be a stickler for the rules. formalité [formalité] nf formality; les ~s d'usage the usual formalities. format [forma] nm -1. [dimension] size; grand/petit ~ large/small size. -2. INFORM format. formatage [formatas] nm INFORM formatting. formater [formate] [3] vt INFORM to format.

formateur, -trice [formatœr, tris] o adj formative, o nm, f trainer. formation [formasj5] «/"-l. [gén] formation. -2. [apprentissage] training; ~ continue continuing education; ~ professionnelle vocational training. forme [form] nf-1. [aspect] shape, form; en ~ de in the shape or; sous ~ de in the form of; sous toutes ses ~s in all its forms; prendre ~ to take shape. -2. [état] form; être en (pleine) ~ to be in (great) shape, to be on (top) form. -3. loc: en bonne et due ~ in due form; faire qqch dans les —s to do sthg in the correct way; pour la ~ for form's sake; sans autre ~ de procès without further ado. ♦ formes nfp>l figure (sg). formel, -elle [formel] adj -1. [définitif, ferme] positive, definite. -2. [poli] formai. formellement [formelmâ] adv -1. [refuser] positively; [promettre] definitely. -2. [raisonner] formally. former [forme] [3] vt -1. [gén] to form. -2. [personnel, élèves] to train. -3. [goût, sensibilité] to develop. ♦ se former vp -1. [se constituer] to form. -2. [s'instruire] to train o.s. Formica® [formika] nm inv Formica®. formidable [formidabl] adj -1. [épatant] great, tremendous. -2. [incroyable] incredible. formol [formol] nm formalin. formosan, -e [formozâ, an] adj Formosan. ♦ Formosan, -e nm, /"Formosan. Formose [formoz] « Formosa; à ~ in Formosa. formulaire [formyler] nm form; remplir un ~ to fill in a form. fbrmulation [formylasjS] nf wording, formulation. formule [formyl] nf-1. [expression] expression; ~ de politesse [orale] polite phrase; [épistolaire] letter ending. -2. CHIM & MATHS formula. -3. [méthode] way, method; nouvelle ~ new style of show/restaurant etc. -4. [slogan]: ~ publicitaire advertising slogan. ♦ formule 1 «/"Formula One. formuler [formyle] [3] vt to formulate, to express. forniquer [fornike] [3] vi to fornicate. forsythia [forsisja] nm forsythia. fort, -e [for, fort] O adj -1. [gén] strong; et le plus ~, c'est que ... and the most amazing thing about it is ...; c'est un peu ~! fam

229 four that's a bit much!; c'est plus ~ que moi I can't help it. -2. [corpulent] heavy, big. -3. [doué] gifted; être ~ en qqch to be good at sthg. -4. [puissant - voix] loud; [- vent, lumière, accent] strong. -5. [considérable] large; il y a de —es chances qu'il gagne there's a good chance he'll win. O adv -1. [frapper] hard; [sonner, parler] loud, loudly. -2. sout [très] very; avoir ~ à faire (avec qqn) to have a hard job (with sb). O nm -1. [château] fort. -2. [personne]: un ~ en qqch a person who is good at sthg. -3. [spécialité]: ce n'est pas mon ~ it's not my forte OU strong point. ♦ au plus fort de loc prép [hiver] in the depths of; [tempête, dispute] at the height of. fortement [fortamâ] adv -1. [avec force] hard. -2. [très, beaucoup - intéressé, ému] deeply; [- bégayer, loucher] badly. forteresse [fDrtares] «f fortress. fortifiant, -e [fDrtifjâ, ât] adj fortifying. ♦ fortifiant nm tonic. fortification [fDrtifikasjS] «/"fortification. fortifier [fortifje] [9] vt [personne, ville] to fortify; ~ qqn dans qqch fig to strengthen sb in sthg. fortuit, -e [fsrtqi, it] adj chance (avant n), fortuitous. fortune [fDityn] nf -1. [richesse] fortune; faire ~ to make one's fortune. -2. [hasard] luck, fortune. fortuné, -e [fortyne] adj -1. [riche] wealthy. -2. [chanceux] fortunate, lucky. forum [farom] nm forum. fosse [fos] nf -t. [trou] pit; ~ septique septic tank; ~ aux lions lions' den; ~ d'orchestre orchestra pit; ~ de sable Can GOLF sand trap Am, bunker Br. -2. [tombe] grave; ~ commune common grave. fossé [fose] nm ditch; fig gap. fossette [foset] nf dimple. fossile [fosil] o adj fossil [avant «), fossilized. O nm -1. [de plante, d'animal] fossil. -2. fig péj [personne] fossil, fogy. fossoyeur, -euse [foswajcer, ez] nm, /"gravedigger. fou, folle [fu, fol] o adj (fol devant voyelle ou h muet) mad, insane; [prodigieux] tremendous; être ~ de qqn/qqch to be mad about sb/sthg; être ~ de joie to be deliriously happy; ~ à lier raving mad. O nm, f madman if madwoman); ~ furieux manic; faire le ~ fig to act the fool. foudre [fudr] nf lightning; encourir OU s'attirer les —s de qqn fig to bring down sb's wrath on o.s.

foudroyant, -e [fudrwajâ, ât] adj -1. [progrès, vitesse] lightning (avant «); [succès] stunning. -2. [nouvelle] devastating; [regard] withering. foudroyer [fudrwaje] [13] vt -1. [suj: foudre] to strike; l'arbre a été foudroyé the tree was struck by lightning. -2. fig [abattre] to strike down, to kill; ~ qqn du regard to glare at sb. fouet [fwe] nm -1. [en cuir] whip; de plein ~ direct; il prit la pluie de plein ~ the rain hit him full in the face. -2. CULIN whisk. fouetter [fwete] [4] vt -1. [gén] to whip; [suj: pluie] to lash (against). -2. [stimuler] to stimulate. fougasse [fugas] nf type of unleavened bread. fougère [fu3er] «/"fern. fougue [fug] nf ardor Am, ardour Br. fougueux, -euse [fugo, oz] adj ardent, spirited. fouille [fuj] nf -1. [de personne, maison] search. -2. [du sol] dig, excavation. ♦ fouilles nfpl fam pockets. fouiller [fuje] [3] o vt -1. [gén] to search. -2. fig [approfondir] to examine closely, o vi: ~ dans to go through. fouillis [fuji] nm jumble, muddle. fouine [fwin] nf stone-marten. fouiner [fwine] [3] vi to ferret about. foulard [fular] nm scarf. foule [fui] nf -1. [de gens] crowd; en ~ in great numbers; attirer les —s fig to draw the crowds. -2. péj [peuple]: la — the masses (pt). -3. fig [multitude]: une ~ de masses of. foulée [fuie] nf [de coureur] stride; je suis sorti faire des courses et dans la — ... I went out to do some shopping and while I was at it .... fouler [fuie] [3] vt [raisin] to press; [sol] to walk on. ♦ se fouler vy -1. MED: se ~ le poignet/la cheville to sprain one's wrist/ankle. -2. fam fig [se fatiguer]: ne pas se ~ not to strain O.S. foulure [fulyr] nf sprain. four [fur] nm -1. [de cuisson] oven; cuit au ~ baked; ~ électrique à micro-ondes electric/microwave oven; ~ crématoire [dans camp de concentration] oven; je ne peux pas être (à la fois) au ~ et au moulin fig I haven't got two pairs of hands, I can't be in two places at once; noir comme dans un ~ fig black as pitch. -2. THÉÂTRE flop; faire un ~ to flop.

fourbe 230 fourbe [furb] O adj treacherous, deceitful. O nmf rogue. fourbi [furbi] nm fam -1. [attirail] gear. -2. [fouillis] mess. fourbir [furbir] [32] vt litt & fig to polish. fourbu, -e [furby] adj tired out, exhausted. fourche [furf] nf-1. [outil] pitchfork. -2. [de vélo, route] fork. -3. Belg SCOL free period. fourcher [furfe] [3] vi -1. [cheveux] to split. -2. loc: sa langue a fourché he made a slip of the tongue. fourchette [fur/et] nf-1. [couvert] fork. -2. [écart] range, bracket. fourchu, -e [fur/y] adj forked. fourgon [furgô] nm -1. [camionnette] van; ~ cellulaire patrol wagon Am, police van Br; ~ mortuaire hearse. -2. [ferroviaire]: ~ à bestiaux cattle truck; ~ postal mail van. fourgonnette [furgDnet] «/"small van. fourguer [furge] [3] vt fam: ~ qqch à qqn to palm sthg off on sb. fourmi [furmi] nf [insecte] ant; fig hard worker; avoir des ~s dans les bras/les jambes to have pins and needles in one's arms/legs. fourmilière [furmiljer] «/"anthill. fourmillement [furmijmâ] nm -1. [d'insectes, de personnes] swarming. -2. [picotement] pins and needles (pf). fourmiller [furmije] [3] vi [pulluler] to swarm; ~ de fig to be swarming with. fournaise [fumez] «/"furnace. fourneau, -x [furno] nm -1. [cuisinière, poêle] stove. -2. [de fonderie] furnace. -3. [de pipe] bowl. fournée [fume] «/"batch. fourni, -e [fumi] adj [barbe, cheveux] thick. fournil [fumil] nm bakery. fournir [fumir] [32] O vt -1. [procurer]: ~ qqch à qqn to supply OU provide sb with sthg. -2. [produire]: ~ un effort to make an effort. -3. [approvisionner]: ~ qqn (en) to supply sb (with), o vi: ~ à to provide for. ♦ se fournir vp: se ~ chez/en to get supplies from/of. fournisseur, -euse [fumisœr, oz] nm, f supplier. fourniture [fumityr] nf supply, supplying (U). ♦ fournitures nfpl: —s de bureau office supplies; ~s scolaires school supplies. fourrage [fura3] nm fodder. fourrager1, -ère [fura3e, er] adj fodder {avant «). fourrager2 [fura3e] [17] vi fam: ~ dans qqch to rummage through sthg. fourré [fure] nm thicket.

fourreau, -x [furo] nm -1. [d'épée] sheath; [de parapluie] cover. -2. [robe] sheath dress. fourrer [fure] [3] vt -1. CULIN to stuff, to fill. -2. fam [mettre]: ~ qqch (dans) to stuff sthg (into). ♦ se fourrer vp: se ~ dans le pétrin to get into a mess; se — une idée dans la tête to get an idea into one's head; je ne savais plus où me ~ I didn't know where to put myself. fourre-tout [furtu] nm inv -1. [pièce] junk room Am, lumber room Br. -2. [sac] holdall. -3. fig & péj [d'idées] hotch-potch. fourreur [furoer] nm furrier. fourrière [furjer] nf pound; mettre à la ~ [voiture] to tow away. fourrure [furyr] nf fur; un manteau en fausse ~ a fake fur coat. fourvoyer [furvwaje] [13] ♦ se fourvoyer vp sout [s'égarer] to lose one's way; [se tromper] to go off on the wrong track. foutaise [futez] nf fam crap (U). foutoir [futwar] nm fam pigsty. foutre [futr] [116] vt tfam -1. [mettre] to shove, to stick; ~ qqn dehors OU à la porte to chuck sb out. -2. [donner]: ~ la trouille à qqn to put the wind up sb; il lui a foutu une baffe he thumped him one. -3. [faire] to do; ne rien ~ de la journée to do damn all all day; j'en ai rien à ~ I don't give a toss. ♦ se foutre vp tfam -1. [se mettre]: se ~ dans [situation] to get o.s. into. -2. [se moquer]: se ~ de (la gueule de) qqn to laugh at sb, to take the mickey out of sb Br. -3. [ne pas s'intéresser]: je m'en fous I don't give a damn about it. foutu, -e [futy] adj fam -1. [maudit] damned, bloody Br; [caractère] nasty. -2. [fait, conçu]: bien ~ [projet, maison] great; elle est bien ~e, celle-là [femme] she's a real stunner. -3. [perdu]: il est ~ he's/it's had it. -4. [capable]: être ~ de faire qqch to be liable OU quite likely to do sthg. fox-terrier [fsksterje] (pi fox-terriers) nm fox terrier. foyer [fwaje] nm -1. [maison] home; rentrer au ~ to go home. -2. [famille] family; fonder un ~ to set up home. -3. [résidence] home, hostel. -4. [point central] center Am, centre Br. -5. [de lunettes] focus; verres à double ~ bifocals. FP (abr de franchise postale) PP.

231 francophile FPA (abr de formation professionnelle des adultes) nf state-run adult training scheme. FPLP (abr de Front populaire de libération de la Palestine) nm PFLP. frac [frak] nm tails {pt). fracas [fraka] nm roar. fracassant, -e [frakasâ, ât] adj [bruyant] thunderous; fig staggering, sensational. fracasser [frakase] [3] vt to smash, to shatter. ♦ se fracasser vp: se ~ contre/sur to crash against/into. fraction [fraksjS] «/"fraction. fractionner [fraksjone] [3] vt to divide (up), to split up. ♦ se fractionner vj? to split up. fracture [fraktyr] nf MÉD fracture; ~ du crâne fractured skull. fracturer [fraktyre] [3] vt -1. MED to fracture. -2. [coffre, serrure] to break open. ♦ se fracturer vp to break, to fracture. fragile [fra3il] adj [gén] fragile; [peau, santé] delicate. fragiliser [fra3ilize] [3] vt to weaken. fragilité [fra3ilite] «/"fragility. fragment [fragmâ] nm -1. [morceau] fragment. -2. [extrait - d'oeuvre] extract; [- de conversation] snatch. fragmentaire [fragmâter] adj fragmentary. fragmenter [fragmâte] [3] vt to fragment, to break up. ♦ se fragmenter vp> to fragment, to break up. fraîche —► frais. fraîchement [frcjmâ] adv -1. [récemment] recendy. -2. [froidement] coolly. fraîcheur [frejœr] nf -1. [d'air, d'accueil] coolness. -2. [de teint, d'aliment] freshness. fraîchir [frejir] [32] vi to freshen. frais, fraîche [fre, frej] adj -1. [air, accueil] cool; «servir ~» "serve chilled". -2. [récent trace] fresh; [- encre] wet; ~ émoulu (de) fresh (from). -3. [teint] fresh, clear; — et dispos hale and hearty. ♦ frais O nm: mettre qqch au ~ to put sthg in a cool place; prendre le ~ to take a breath of fresh air. O nmpl [dépenses] expenses, costs; aux ~ de la maison at the company's expense; faire des ~ to spend a lot of money; rentrer dans ses ~ to cover one's expenses; faux ~ incidentals; ~ d'entretien upkeep; ~ d'équipement capital expenditure; ~ généraux overheads; ~ de justice legal costs; ~ de représentation entertainment allowance; à grands ~ at a high price; à peu de ~ cheaply; faire les ~ de qqch to bear the

brunt of sthg. O adv. il fait ~ it's cool. fraise [frez] nf-1. [fruit] strawberry; ~ des bois wild strawberry. -2. [de dentiste] drill; [de menuisier] bit. fraiser [freze] [4] vt to countersink. fraiseuse [frezez] «f milling machine. fraisier [frezje] nm -1. [plante] strawberry plant. -2. [gâteau] strawberry sponge. framboise [frabwaz] nf-1. [fruit] raspberry. -2. [liqueur] raspberry liqueur. framboisier [frâbwazje] nm -1. [plante] raspberry bush. -2. [gâteau] raspberry sponge. franc, franche [frâ, frâj] adj -1. [sincère] frank. -2. [net] clear, definite. ♦ franc nm franc; ancien/nouveau ~ old/ new franc; ~ français/belge suisse French/ Belgian/Swiss franc. français-e [frâse, ez], adj French. ♦ français nm [langue] French. ♦ Français, -e nm, /"Frenchman (f Frenchwoman); les Français the French; le Français moyen the average Frenchman. France [frâs] nf la ~ France; ~ 2, 3 TÉLÉ French state-owned television channels; ~-Inter RADIO radio station broadcasting mainly current affairs programmes, interviews and debates. franche —► franc. franchement [frâ/mâ] adv -1. [sincèrement] frankly. -2. [nettement] clearly. -3. [tout à fait] completely, downright. franchir [frôfir] [32] vt -1. [obstacle] to get over. -2. [porte] to go through; [seuil] to cross. -3. [distance] to cover. franchise [frôfiz] nf-1. [sincérité] frankness. -2. COMM franchise; agent en ~ franchise holder. -3. [d'assurance] excess. -4. [détaxe] exemption. franciscain, -e [frâsiskè, en] adj 62 nm, f Franciscan. franciser [frâsize] [3] vt to frenchify. franc-jeu [frû3e] nm: jouer ~ to play fair. franc-maçon, -onne [frâmas5, on] (mpl francs-maçons, fpl franc-maçonnes) adj masonic. ♦ franc-maçon nm freemason. franc-maçonnerie [frâmasDnri] {pi francmaçonneries) nf freemasonry (U). franco [frâko] adv -1. fam [franchement]: y aller — to go straight to the point. -2. COMM: ~ à bord free on board; ~ de port carriage paid. francophile [frâkohl] nmf 62 adj francophile.

francophone 232 francophone [frâlobn] o adj Frenchspeaking, o ««//"French speaker. francophonie [frûkDfDni] nf la — Frenchspeaking nations (pi). FRANCOPHONIE: This is a wide-ranging cultural and political concept involving the promotion of Frenchspeaking communities around the world, with a view to creating a 'French Commonwealth' with a strong identity franc-parler [frâparle] {pi francs-parlers) tint: avoir son ~ to speak one's mind. franc-tireur [frâtirœr] {pi francs-tireurs) ««/ -1. MIL irregular. -2. fig [indépendant] freelance; agir en ~ to act independently. frange [frÛ3] «/"fringe. frangin, -e [frÛ3ê, in] nm, f fam brother (f sister). frangipane [frÔ3ipan] «f almond paste. franglais [frâgle] nm Franglais. franquette [frâkct] ♦ à la bonne franquette he adv informally, without any ceremony. frappant, -e [frapà, ât] adj striking. frappe [frap] nf -1. [de monnaie] minting, striking. -2. [à la machine] typing; INFORM keying. -3. [de boxeur] punch. -4. péj [voyou] lout, yob Br. frappé, -e [frape] adj -1. [champagne] chilled. -2. fam [personne] crazy, nutty. frapper [frape] [3] O vt -1. [gén] to strike. -2. [boisson] to chill. O vi to knock. frasques [frask] nfpl pranks, escapades. fraternel, -elle [fraternel] adj fraternal, brotherly. fraterniser [fraternize] [3] vi to fraternize. fraternité [fraternité] «/"brotherhood. fratricide [fratrisid] O «/«/"fratricide. O adj fratricidal. fraude [frod] nf fraud; passer qqch en ~ to smuggle sthg in; ~ électorale ballotrigging; — fiscale tax evasion; ~ informatique computer crime. frauder [frode] [3] vt (Si vi to cheat. fraudeur, -euse [frodoer, oz) nm, /"cheat. frauduleux, -euse [frodyle, oz] adj fraudulent. frayer [freje] [11] O vt: ~ la voie à qqn to clear the way for sb. o vi [fréquenter]: ~ avec to associate OU mix with. ♦ se frayer vp: se ~ un chemin (à travers une foule) to force one's way through (a crowd). frayeur [frejœr] «/"fright, fear. fredaines [fraden] nfpl pranks. fredonner [fradsne] [3] vt 62 vi to hum. freezer [frizoer] nm freezer compartment.

frégate [fregat] nf -1. [bateau] frigate. -2. [oiseau] frigate-bird. frein [frè] nm -1. AUTOM brake; ~ à main handbrake; ~ moteur engine brake. -2. fig [obstacle] brake, check; mettre un ~ à to curb. -3. be ronger son — fig to champ at the bit. freinage [frena3] nm braking. freiner [frêne] [4] o vt -1. [mouvement, véhicule] to slow down; [inflation, dépenses] to curb. -2. [personne] to restrain. O vi to brake. frelaté, -e [fralate] adj [vin] adulterated; fig corrupt. frêle [frel] adj -1. [enfant, voix] frail. -2. [construction] flimsy, fragile. frelon [fral5] nm hornet. freluquet [fralyke] nm péj whippersnapper. frémir [frémir] [32] vi -1. [corps, personne] to tremble. -2. [eau] to simmer. frémissem*nt [fremismâ] nm -1. [de corps, personne] shiver, trembling {U). -2. [d'eau] simmering. frêne [fren] nm ash. frénésie [frenezi] «/"frenzy. frénétique [frenetik] adj frenzied. frénétiquement [frenetikmâ] adv [applaudir] furiously. fréquemment [frekamâ] adv frequently. fréquence [frekûs] «/"frequency. fréquent, -e [frekû, ût] adj frequent. fréquentable [frekâtabl] adj respectable. fréquentation [frekâtasj5] nf -1. [d'endroit] frequenting. -2. [de personne] association. ♦ fréquentations nfpl company {U); avoir de mauvaises ~s to keep bad company. fréquenté, -e [frekûte] adj: très ~ busy; c'est très bien/mal ~ the right/wrong sort of people go there. fréquenter [frekûte] [3] vt -1. [endroit] to frequent. -2. [personne] to associate with; [petit ami] to go out with, to see. frère [frer] o nm brother; faux ~ false friend; ~ de lait foster brother; grand ~ big brother, o adj [parti, pays] sister {avant «). fresque [fresk] «/"fresco. fret [fre] nm freight. frétiller [fretije] [3] vi [poisson, personne] to wriggle; ~ de joie fig to quiver with delight.

233 fromager fretin [fratc] nm: le menu ~ the small fry. freudien, -ienne [fredjê, jen] adj Freudian. friable [frijabl] adj crumbly. friand, -e [frijâ, âd] adj: être ~ de to be partial to. ♦ friand nm savory Am OU savoury Br tartlet. friandise [frijâdiz] «/"delicacy. fric [frik] nm fam cash. fricassée [frikase] «/"fricassee. fric-frac [frikfrak] nm inv fam break-in. friche [frij] «/"fallow land; en ~ fallow. fricoter [frikote] [3] vt litt & fig to cook up. friction [friksjo] «/" -1. [massage] massage. -2. fig [désaccord] friction. frictionner [friksJDne] [3] vt to rub. Frigidaire® [fri3ider] nm fridge, refrigerator. frigide [fri3id] adj frigid. frigidité [fri3idite] «/"frigidity. frigo [frigo] nm fam fridge. frigorifié, -e [frigDrifje] adj fam frozen. frigorifique [frigDrifik] adj refrigerated. frileux, -euse [friha, az] adj -1. [craignant le froid] sensitive to the cold. -2. [prudent] unadventurous. frimas [frima] nm littéraire foggy winter weather. frime [frim] nf fam showing off. frimer [frime] [3] vi fam [bluffer] to pretend; [se mettre en valeur] to show off. frimeur, -euse [frimœr, oz] ««//"show-off. frimousse [frimus] nf fam dear little face. fringale [frêgal] nf fam: avoir la ~ to be starving. fringant, -e [frëgâ, ât] adj high-spirited. fringuer [frêge] [3] vt to dress. ♦ se fringuer vp fam to get dressed. fringues [frêg] nfpl fam clothes. fripe [frip] nf: les —s secondhand clothes. friper [fripe] [3] vt to crumple. ♦ se friper vp to crumple. fripier, -ière [fripje, jer] nm, f secondhand clothes dealer. fripon, -onne [fripô, on] o nm, f fam vieilli rogue, rascal, o adj mischievous, cheeky. fripouille [fripuj] nf fam scoundrel; petite ~ little devil. frire [frir] [115] O vt to fry. O vi to fry; faire ~ to fry. Frisbee® [frizbi] nm Frisbee®. frise [friz] nf ARC H IT frieze. frisé, -e [frize] adj [cheveux] curly; [personne] curly-haired. ♦ frisée «/"[salade] curly endive. friser [frize] [3] o vt -1. [cheveux] to curl. -2. fig [ressembler à] to border on. O vi to curl.

frisette [frizet] «/"curl. frisotter [frizDte] [3] o vt to crimp, to frizz. O vi to be frizzy. frisquet [friske] adj m: il fait ~ it's chilly. frisson [fris5] nm [gén] shiver; [de dégoût] shudder. frissonner [frisone] [3] vi -1. [trembler] to shiver; [de dégoût] to shudder. -2. [s'agiter eau] to ripple; [- feuillage] to tremble. frit, -e [fri, frit] pp —> frire. frite [frit] nf (French) try Am, chip Br. friterie [fritri] nf = chip shop Br. friteuse [fritoz] nf deep fat fryer. friture [frityr] nf-1. [action de frire] frying. -2. [poisson] fried fish; petite ~ fried whitebait. -3. fam RADIO crackle. frivole [frivol] adj frivolous. frivolité [frivolité] «/"frivolity. froc [frsk] nm -1. RELIG habit. -2. fam [pantalon] pants (pt) Am, trousers (pt) Br. froid, froide [frwa, frwad] adj litt & fig cold; rester ~ to be unmoved. ♦ froid O ««/ -1. [température] cold; prendre ~ to catch (a) cold; crever de ~ fam to be freezing to death; grand ~ intense cold; il fait un ~ de canard it's freezing cold; n'avoir pas ~ aux yeux fig to be bold. -2. [tension] coolness; être en ~ (avec qqn) to be on bad terms (with sb). o adv. il fait ~ it's cold; avoir ~ to be cold; manger ~ to have something cold (to eat). ♦ à froid loc adv [dire, faire] coolly, unemotionally. froidement [frwadmâ] adv -1. [accueillir] coldly. -2. [écouter, parler] coolly. -3. [tuer] cold-bloodedly. froideur [frwadcer] nf-1. [indifférence] coldness. -2. [impassibilité] coolness. froisser [frwase] [3] vt -1. [tissu, papier] to crumple, to crease. -2. fig [offenser] to offend. ♦ se froisser vp -1. [tissu] to crumple, to crease. -2. MÉD: se ~ un muscle to strain a muscle. -3. [se vexer] to take offense Am OU offence Br. frôler [frôle] [3] vt to brush against; fig to have a brush with, to come close to. fromage [frDma3] nm cheese; ~ à pâte molle/dure soft/hard cheese; ~ de chèvre goat's cheese; ~ de tête headcheese Am, brawn Br. fromager, -ère [fronce, er] O adj cheese (avant «). O nm, /"[fabricant] cheesemaker.

fromagerie 234 fromagerie [frDma3ri] nf cheese-dairy. froment [fromâ] nm wheat. fronce [fr5s] «/"gather. froncement [fr5smâ] nm: ~ de sourcils frown. froncer [frase] [16] vt -1. COUTURE to gather. -2. [plisser]: ~ les sourcils to frown. frondaison [fr5dez5] nf-1. [phénomène] foliation. -2. [feuillage] foliage. fronde [frâd] nf-1. [arme] sling; [jouet] slingshot Am, catapult Br. -2. [revoke] rebellion. frondeur, -euse [frâdœr, ez] O nm, f rebel, o adj rebellious. front [fr5] nm -1. ANAT forehead. -2. fig [audace] cheek; avoir le ~ de faire qqch to have the cheek to do sthg. -3. [avant] front; [de bâtiment] front, façade; ~ de mer (sea) front; de ~ [attaquer] head on. -4. METEOR, MIL & POLIT front. -5. be: faire ~ à to face up to; mener plusieurs activités de ~ to do several things at the same time. frontal, -e, -aux [fratal, o] adj -1. ANAT frontal. -2. [collision, attaque] head-on. frontalier, -ière [frâtalje, jer] o adj frontier {avant n); travailleur ~ person who lives on one side of the border and works on the other, o nm, f inhabitant of border area. frontière [frâtjer] o adj border (avant n). o «f frontier, border; fig frontier. frontispice Ifrâtispis] nm frontispiece. fronton [fr5t5] nm -1. ARCHIT pediment. -2. SPORT upper part of the wall in the game of pelota. frottement [fratmâ] nm -1. [action] rubbing. -2. [contact, difficulté] friction. frotter [frate] [3] O vt to rub; [parquet] to scrub. O vi to rub, to scrape. ♦ se frotter vp -1. [se blottir]: se ~ contre OU à to rub (up) against; il ne faut pas s'y ~ fig don't cross swords with him. -2. [se laver] to rub o.s. frottis [froti] nm smear; ~ vagin*l cervical smear. froufrou, -s [frufru] nm rustle, swish. ♦ froufrous nmpl [de robe] frills. froussard, -e [frusar, ard] adj clou. giroflée [3in>fle] «/"stock. girolle [3irDl] «/"chanterelle. giron [3ir5] nm lap; le ~ familial fig the bosom of one's family. girouette foirwet] nf weatherco*ck. gisait, gisions etc —► gésir. gisant fôizâ] o participe présent —► gésir, o nm recumbent figure (on tomb). gisem*nt [3izmâ] nm deposit. gît —> gésir. gitan, -e [3itâ, an] ad] Gipsy (avant «). ♦ Gitan, -e nm, f Gipsy. Gitane® foitan] «/"[cigarette] Gitane®. gîte [3it] nm -1. [logement]: ~ (rural) gîte, self-catering accommodation in the country. -2. littéraire [abri] lodging; le ~ et le couvert board and lodging. -3. [du lièvre] form. -4. [du bœuf] shank Am, shin Br. gîter [3ite] [3] vi -1. [lièvre] to lie. -2. [bateau] to list.

givrant, -e [3ivrâ, 5t] ad] freezing. givre [3ivr] nm frost. givré, -e [3ivre] ad] -1. CULIN: orange etc ~e orange etc sorbet (served in the hollowed-out fruit). -2. fam [personne] round the twist. glabre [glabr] ad] hairless. glaçage [glasa3] nm -1. [de gâteau] frosting Am, icing Br. -2. [de tissu] glazing. glaçant, -e [glasâ, ât] ad] cold. glace [glas] nf-1. [eau congelée] ice; rester de ~ fig to be unmoved; rompre la ~ fig to break the ice. -2. [crème glacée] ice cream. -3. [vitre] pane; [- de voiture] window. -4. [miroir] mirror. ♦ glaces nfpl ice floes. glacé, -e [glase] ad] -1. [gelé] frozen. -2. [très froid] freezing. -3. fig [hostile] cold. -4. [fruit] glacé. glacer [glase] [16] vt -1. [geler, paralyser] to chill. -2. [étoffe, papier] to glaze. -3. [gâteau] to frost Am, to ice Br. ♦ se glacer vp [sang] to run cold. glaciaire [glasjcr] ad] glacial. glacial, -e, -iaux [glasjal, jo] ad] litt & fig icy. glaciel -elle [glasjel] ad] Can of an ice floe. ♦ glaciel nm Can ice floe. glacier [glasje] nm -1. GÉOGR glacier. -2. [marchand] ice cream seller OU man. glacière [glasjer] «/"icebox. glaçon [glas5] nm -1. [dans boisson] ice cube. -2. [sur toit] icicle. -3. fam fig [personne] iceberg. glaïeul [glajcel] nm gladiolus. glaire [gler] nf -1. MÉD phlegm. -2. [d'oeuf] white. glaise [glez] «/"clay. glaive [glev] nm sword. gland [glâ] nm -1. [de chêne] acorn. -2. [ornement] tassel. -3. ANAT glans. glande [glôd] «/"gland. glander [glâde] [3] vi tfam to bugger about. glaner [glane] [3] vt to glean. glapir [glapir] [32] vi to yelp, to yap. glapissem*nt [glapismâ] nm yelping, yapping. glas [gla] nm knell; sonner le ~ to toll the bell; sonner le ~ de fig to sound the death knell for. glaucome [glokom] nm glaucoma. glauque [glok] ad] -1. [couleur] bluey-green. -2. fam [lugubre] gloomy.

243 golfe glissade [glisad] nf slip; faire des —s to slide. glissant, -e [glisâ, ât] adj slippery. glissem*nt [glismâ] nm -1. [action de glisser] gliding, sliding; ~ de terrain landslip, landslide. -2. fig [électoral] swing, shift. glisser [glise] [3] O vi -1. [se déplacer]: ~ (sur) to glide (over), to slide (over). -2. [déraper]: ~ (sur) to slip (on). -3. fig [passer rapidement]: — sur to skate over. -4. [surface] to be slippery. -5. [progresser] to slip; ~ dans to slip into, to slide into; ~ vers to slip toward Am OU towards Br, to slide toward Am OU towards Br. o vt to slip; ~ un regard à qqn fig to give sb a sidelong glance. ♦ se glisser vp to slip; se ~ dans [lit] to slip OU slide into; fig to slip OU creep into. glissière [glisjer] nf runner; à ~ sliding; ~ de sécurité crash barrier. glissoire [gliswar] nf slide. global, -e, -aux [gbbal, o] adj global. globalement [gbbalmâ] adv on the whole. globalisation [gbbalizasj5] nf [d'un marché] globalization. globalité [gbbalite] «/"entirety. globe [gbb] nm -1. [sphère, terre] globe; le ~ terrestre the globe. -2. [de verre] glass cover. globe-trotter [gbbtroter] {pi globe-trotters) nmf globe-trotter. globule [gbbyl] nm corpuscle, blood cell; ~ blanc/rouge white/red corpuscle. globuleux [gbbylo] —> ceil. gloire [glwar] nf -1. [renommée] glory; [de vedette] fame, stardom. -2. [mérite] credit; à la ~ de in praise of. glorieux, -ieuse [gbrjo, joz] adj [mort, combat] glorious; [héros, soldat] renowned. glorifier [gbrifje] [9] vt to glorify, to praise. ♦ se glorifier vp: se ~ de to glory in. gloriole [gbipl] «f vainglory. glose [gloz] «/"gloss. gloser [gloze] [3] O vi: ~ sur to gossip about, o vt to gloss. glossaire [gbser] nm glossary. glotte [gbt] «/"glottis. glouglou [gluglu] nm -1. fam [de liquide] gurgling. -2. [de dindon] gobbling. gloussem*nt [glusmâ] nm -1. [de poule] cluck, clucking (U). -2. fam [de personne] chortle, chuckle. glousser [gluse] [3] vi -1. [poule] to cluck. -2. fam [personne] to chortle, to chuckle. glouton, -onne [glut5, Dn] o adj greedy, o nm, /"glutton. gloutonnerie [glutonri] nf gluttony, greed.

glu [gly] nf-1. [colle] glue. -2. fam fig [personne] limpet, leech. gluant, -e [glyâ, ât] adj sticky. glucide [glysid] nm glucide. glucose [glykoz] nm glucose. gluten [glyten] nm gluten. glycémie [glisemi] «/"glycaemia. glycérine [gliserin] «f glycerine. glycine [glisin] «/"wisteria. GMT (abr de Greenwich Mean Time) GMT. gnangnan [pâriâ] adj inv fam spineless, wet. GNL {abr de gaz naturel liquéfié) nm LNG. gnôle [pol] «/"brandy. gnome [gnom] nm gnome. gnon [p5] nm fam thump. go [go] ♦ tout de go loc adv straight. GO {abr de grandes ondes) nfpl LW. goal [gol] nm goalkeeper. gobelet [gable] «/« beaker, tumbler. gober [gobe] [3] vt -1. [avaler] to gulp down. -2. fam [croire] to swallow. -3. fam [aimer]: je ne peux pas la ~ I can't stand her. goberger [gr>ber3e] [17] ♦ se goberger vp fam -1. [manger] to stuff o.s. -2. [se prélasser] to take it easy. godasse [godas] nf fam shoe. godet [gode] nm -1. [récipient] jar, pot. -2. COUTURE flare. godiller [godije] [3] vi -1. [rameur] to scull. -2. [skieur] to wedeln. goéland [goelâ] nm gull, seagull. goélette [gDelet] «/"schooner. goémon [gDem5] nm wrack. gogo [gogo] ♦ à gogo loc adv fam galore. goguenard, -e [gognar, ard] adj mocking. goguette [gDget] ♦ en goguette loc adv fam a bit tipsy. goinfre [gwêfr] nmf fam pig. goinfrer [gwêfre] [3] ♦ se goinfrer vp: se ~ de fam to stuff OU pig o.s. with. goitre [gwatr] nm goitre. golden [gnlden] nf inv Golden Delicious. golf [gDlf] nm [sport] golf; [terrain] golf course. golfe [golf] nm gulf, bay; le ~ de Gascogne the Bay of Biscay; le — Persique the (Persian) Gulf.

gommage 244 gommage [g:>ma3] nm -1. [d'écriture] erasing, rubbing out. -2. [cosmétique] face scrub. gomme [gsm] nf -1. [substance, bonbon] gum. -2. [pour effacer] eraser, rubber Br. -3. loc: à la ~ fam hopeless, useless. gommé, -e [gome] adj gummed. gommer [gome] [3] vt to rub out, to erase; fig to erase. gond [g5] nm hinge; sortir de ses ~s fam fig to fly off the handle. gondole [g5dol] '//gondola. gondoler [gSdole] [3] vi [bois] to warp; [carton] to curl. ♦ se gondoler vp -1. [bois] to warp. -2. fam [rire] to split one's sides laughing. gonflable [gSflabl] adj inflatable. fonfler [g5fle] [3] o vt -1. [ballon, pneu] to low up, to inflate; [rivière, poitrine, yeux] to swell; [joues] to blow out. -2. fig [grossir] to exaggerate. -3. loc: être gonflé fam [être courageux] to have guts; [exagérer] to have a cheek OU a nerve, o vi to swell. ♦ se gonfler vp -1. [se distendre] to swell. -2. [être envahi]: se ~ de [orgueil] to swell with; [espoir] to be filled with. gonflette [g5fkt] nf fam: faire de la — to pump iron. gonfleur [gôflœr] nm pump. gong [g5g] nm gong. gonzesse [g5zes] nftfam bird, chick. goret [gore] nm -1. [cochon] piglet. -2. fam [garçon] dirty little pig. gorge [gors] nf-1. [gosier, cou] throat; avoir la ~ serrée to have a lump in one's throat; s'éclaircir la ~ to clear one's throat; faire des —s chaudes de qqch to laugh sthg to scorn; prendre qqn à la ~ to put sb in a difficult situation; rire à ~ déployée to laugh heartily. -2. littéraire [poitrine] breast, bosom. -3. (gén pf) [vallée] gorge. gorgée [g:>r3e] nf mouthful; à petites —s in sips. gorger [go^e] [17] vt: ~ qqn de qqch [gaver] to stuff sb with sthg; [combler] to heap sthg on sb; ~ qqch de to fill sthg with. ♦ se gorger vp: se ~ de to gorge o.s. on. gorille [gsrij] nm -1. [animal] gorilla. -2. fam [personne] bodyguard. gosier [gozje] nm throat, gullet. gosse [gDs] nmffam kid. gothique [gotik] adj -1. ARCHIT Gothic. -2. TYPO: écriture ~ Gothic script. ♦ gothique nm: le ~ the Gothic style. gouache [gwaj] «/"gouache. gouaille [gwaj] «/"cheek. goudron [gudr5] nm tar.

goudronner [gudrone] [3] vt to tar. gouffre [gufr] nm abyss; le ~ de l'oubli du désespoir the depths of oblivion/despair; au bord du ~ fig on the edge of the abyss. goujat [gu3a] nm boor. goujaterie [gu3atri] «f boorishness. goujon [gu35] nm [poisson] gudgeon; taquiner le ~ to do a bit of fishing. goulet [gule] nm narrows (pf); ~ d'étranglement bottleneck. goulot [gulo] nm neck; boire au ~ to drink straight from the bottle. goulu, -e [guly] o adj greedy, gluttonous. O nm, f glutton. goulûment [gulymâ] adv greedily. goupille [gupij] nf pin. goupiller [gupije] [3] vt fam to fix. ♦ se goupiller vp fam to work out. goupillon [gupij5] nm -1. RELIC (holy water) sprinkler. -2. [à bouteille] bottle brush. gourd, -e [gur, gurd] adj numb. gourde [gurd] o «/"-l. [récipient] flask, waterbottle. -2. fam [personne] idiot, clot Br. O adj fam thick. gourdin [gurdc] nm club. gourer [gure] [3] ♦ se gourer vp fam to slip up. gourgane [gurgan] nf Can broad bean. gourmand, -e [gurmâ, ûd] o adj greedy; ~ de fond of. o nm, f glutton. gourmandise [gurmôdiz] nf -1. [caractère] greed, greediness. -2. [sucrerie] sweet thing. gourme [gurm] nf-1. MÉD impetigo. -2. [maladie du cheval] strangles (U). -3. loc: jeter sa ~ vieilli to sow one's wild oats. gourmet [gourme] nm: (fin) ~ gourmet. gourmette [gurmet] nf chain bracelet. gourou [guru] nm guru. gousse [gus] «/"pod; ~ d'ail clove of garlic. gousset [guse] nm [de gilet] fob pocket. goût [gu] ««7 taste; au ~ du jour fashionable; avoir du ~ to have taste; avoir le ~ de qqch to have a taste OU liking for sthg; de bon ~ [élégant] tasteful, in good taste; hum [bienséant] advisable; de mauvais ~ tasteless, in bad taste; prendre ~ à qqch to take a liking to sthg; chacun ses —s each to his own. goûter [gute] [3] o vt -1. [déguster] to taste. -2. [savourer] to enjoy. -3. littéraire [estimer] to appreciate, o vi to have an afternoon snack; ~ à to taste; ~ de lift & fig to have a taste of. o nm afternoon snack for children,

245 grammaticalement typically consisting of bread, butter, chocolate and a drink. goutte [gut] O nf-1. [de pluie, d'eau] drop; la ~ (d'eau) qui fait déborder le vase fig the last straw; une ~ dans l'océan a drop in the ocean; se ressembler comme deux —s d'eau to be as like as two peas in a pod. -2. fam [alcool]: la ~ the hard stuff. -3. M£D [maladie] gout, o adv (de négation) littéraire: ne ... ~ not a thing, nothing; je n'y vois ~ I can't see a thing. ♦ gouttes nfpl MÈD drops. goutte-à-goutte [gutagut] nm inv IV Am, (intravenous) drip Br. gouttelette [gutlet] «/"droplet. gouttière [gutjer] nf -1. [CONSTR - horizontale] gutter; [- verticale] drainpipe. -2. MÉD splint. gouvernail [guvernaj] nm rudder. gouvernante [guvernât] nf -1. [d'enfants] governess. -2. [de maison] housekeeper. gouverne [guvem] nfAÉRON control surface; ~ de direction rudder; pour ma/ta ~ fig for my/your guidance. gouvernement [guvemamâ] nm government. gouvernemental, -e, -aux [guvemamâtal, o] adj [politique, organisation] government (avant n); [journal] pro-government. gouverner [guverne] [3] vt to govern. gouverneur [guvemoer] nm governor. GPL (abr de gaz de pétrole liquéfié) nm LPG. GQG (abr de grand quartier général) nm GHQ. gr abr de grade. GR (abr de (sentier de) grande randonnée) nm long-distance hiking path. grabataire [grabater] O nmf invalid. O adj bedridden. grabuge [graby3] nm fam trouble. grâce [gras] nf -1. [charme] grace; de bonne ~ with good grace, willingly; de mauvaise ~ with bad grace, reluctaridy. -2. [faveur] favor Am, favour Br; être dans les bonnes ~s de qqn to be in sb's good books; faire ~ de qqch à qqn to spare sb sthg. -3. [miséricorde] mercy; rendre ~ à littéraire to give thanks to. ♦ de grâce inter] for heaven's sake! ♦ grâce à loc prép thanks to. gracier [grasje] [9] vt to pardon. gracieusem*nt [grasjozmâ] adv -1. [avec grâce] graciously. -2. [gratuitement] free (of charge). gracieux, -ieuse [grasjo, joz] adj -1. [charmant] graceful. -2. [gratuit] free.

gracile [grasil] adj slender. gradation [gradasjS] a// gradation. grade [grad] nm [échelon] rank; [universitaire] qualification; monter en ~ to be promoted; en prendre pour son ~ to get hauled over the coals. gradé, -e [grade] o adj non-commissioned. O nm, f non-commissioned officer, NCO. gradin [grade] nm [de stade, de théâtre] tier; [de terrain] terrace; en ~s terraced. graduation [gradqasjS] nf graduation. gradué, -e [gradqe] Belg o adj [étudiant] college (avant n). o nm, f college graduate. graduel, -elle [gradqel] adj graduai; [difficultés] increasing. graduellement [gradqelmâ] adv gradually. graduer [gradqe] [7] vt -1. [récipient, règle] to graduate. -2. fig [effort, travail] to increase gradually. graffiti [grafiti] nm inv graffiti (U). grailler [graje] [3] vi fam to chow down Am, to nosh Br. graillon [graj5] nm péj burnt fat. grain [grè] nm -1. [gén] grain; [de moutarde] seed; [de café] bean; ~ de raisin grape. -2. [point]: ~ de beauté beauty spot. -3. [averse] squall. -4. fig [petite quantité]: un ~ de a touch of; un ~ de bon sens an ounce of common sense. -5. loc: avoir un ~ fam to be a bit touched; mettre son ~ de sel péj to put one's oar in; veiller au ~ to be on one's guard. graine [gren] nf -1. BOT seed; mauvaise ~ fig bad lot. -2. be: être de la ~ de voleur to be a thief in the making; en prendre de la ~ fam to follow my/his etc example; monter en ~ [salade] to bolt, to run to seed; fig to shoot up. grainetier, -ière [grcntje, jer] nm, f seed merchant. graissage [gresa3J nm lubrication. graisse [gres] nf -1. ANAT & CULIN fat. -2. [pour lubrifier] grease. graisser [grese] [4] vt -1. [machine] to grease, to lubricate. -2. [vêtements] to get grease on. graisseux, -euse [grcso, ez] adj -1. [papier] greasy. -2. [bourrelet] of fat. grammaire [gramer] «f grammar. grammatical, -e, -aux [gramatikal, o] adj grammatical. grammaticalement [gramadkalmâ] adv grammatically.

gramme 246 gramme [gram] nm gram, gramme; il n'a pas un ~ de jugeote he hasn't got an ounce of common sense. grand, -e [grâ, grâd] o adj -1. [en hauteur] tall; [en dimensions] big, large; [en quantité, nombre] large, great; une ~e partie de a large OU great proportion of; un ~ nombre de a large OU great number of; en ~ [dimension] full-size. -2. [âgé] grown-up; les ~es personnes grown-ups; ~ frère big OU older brother; ~e soeur big OU older sister; il est assez ~ pour ... he's old enough to .... -3. [puissant] big, leading. -4. [important, remarquable] great; un ~ homme a great man. -5. [intense]: un grand blessé/brûlé a person with serious wounds/burns; un ~ buveur fumeur a heavy drinker/smoker. O nm, figén p>î) -1. [personnage] great man (f woman); c'est l'un des ~s de l'électroménager he's one of the big names in electrical appliances. -2. [enfant] older OU bigger boy (/"girl). ♦ grand adv. voir ~ to think big. grand-angle [grâtâgl] {pi grands-angles), grand-angulaire [grâtàgyler] {pi grandsangulaires) o adj wide-angle, o nm wideangle lens. grand-chose [grâ/oz] ♦ pas grand-chose o pron indéf not much. O nmf inv fam worthless person. grand-duché [grâdy/e] {pi grands-duchés) nm grand duchy. Grande-Bretagne [grâdbrataji] nf. la ~ Great Britain. grandement [grâdmâ] adv -1. [beaucoup] greatly. -2. [largement] a lot; avoir ~ de quoi vivre to have plenty to live on. grandeur [grâdœr] nf -1. [taille] size; ~ nature life-size, life-sized. -2. [apogée & fig] greatness; ~ d'âme fig magnanimity. grand-guignolesque [grâgijiDlcsk] adj bloodthirsty and melodramatic. grandiloquent, -e [grâdibkâ, ât] adj grandiloquent. grandiose [grâdjoz] adj imposing. grandir [grâdir] [32] O vt: ~ qqn [suj: chaussures] to make sb look taller; fig to increase sb's standing, o vi [personne, plante] to grow; [obscurité, bruit] to increase, to grow; ~ dans l'estime de qqn to go up in sb's estimation. ♦ se grandir vp to make o.s. (appear) taller; fig to increase one's standing. grandissant, -e [grôdisâ, ât] adj growing. grand-maman [grâmamâ] {pi grandmamans OU grands-mamans) nf granny, grandma.

grand-mère [grâmer] {pi grand-mères OU grands-mères) nf grandmother; fam fig old biddy; ~ maternelle/paternelle maternal/ paternal grandmother. grand-messe [grâmes] {pi grand-messes OU grands-messes) nf high mass. grand-oncle [grâtôkl] {pi grands-oncles) nm great-uncle. grand-papa [grùpapaj {pi grands-papas) nm grandpa, grandad. grand-peine [grâpen] ♦ à grand-peine loc adv with great difficulty. grand-père [grâper] {pi grands-pères) nm grandfather; fam fig old geezer; ~ maternel/paternel maternal/paternal grandfather. grands-parents [grâparâ] nmpl grandparents. grand-tante [grâtât] {pi grand-tantes OU grands-tantes) ///great-aunt. grand-voile [grâvwal] (j?l grands-voiles) nf mainsail. grange [grÛ3] «/"barn. granit(e) [granit] nm granite. granité, -e [granite] adj [tissu] pebbleweave. ♦ granité nm -1. [tissu] pebble weave. -2. [glace] granita. granule [granyl] nm -1. [grain] granule. -2. MED pill. granulé, -e [granyle] adj [surface] granular. ♦ granulé nm tablet. granuleux, -euse [granylo, oz] adj granular. grape-fruit [grcpfrut] {pi grape-fruits) nm grapefruit. graphe [graf] nm graph. graphie [grafi] nf spelling. graphique [grafik] O nm diagram; [graphe] graph, o adj graphic. graphisme [grafism] nm -1. [écriture] handwriting. -2. ART style of drawing. graphiste [grafist] nmf graphic artist. graphologie [grafDb3i] nf graphology. graphologue [grafobg] nmf graphologist, handwriting expert. grappe [grap] nf -1. [de fruits] bunch; [de fleurs] stem; ~ de raisin bunch of grapes. -2. fig [de gens] knot. grappiller [grapije] [3] O vt litt & fig to gather, to pick up. o vi [financièrement] to make money. grappin [grapê] nm [ancre] grapnel; mettre

247 gréer le ~ sur qqn fig & péj to get one's claws into sb. gras, grasse [gra, gras] adj -1. [personne, animal] fat. -2. [plat, aliment] fatty; matières grasses fats. -3. [cheveux, mains] greasy. -4. [sol] clayey; [crayon] soft. -5. fig [plaisanterie] crude. -6. fig [rire] throaty; [toux] phlegmy. -7. fig [plante] succulent. ♦ gras O nm -1. [du jambon] fat. -2. [de jambe] soft OU fleshy part. -3. TYPO bold (type). O adv. manger ~ to eat fatty foods; tousser ~ to have a loose cough. gras-double [gradubl] (pi gras-doubles) nm tripe. grassem*nt [grasmâ] adv -1. [rire] coarsely. -2. [payer] a lot. grassouillet, -ette [grasuje, et] adj fam plump. gratifiant, -e [gratifjâ, ât] adj gratifying. gratification [gratifikasj5] nf -1. [en argent] bonus. -2. [psychologique] gratification. gratifier [gratifje] [9] vt -1. [accorder]: ~ qqn de qqch to present sb with sthg, to present sthg to sb; fig to reward sb with sthg. -2. [stimuler] to gratify. gratin [grate] nm -1. CUUN dish sprinkled with breadcrumbs or cheese and browned) ~ dauphinois sliced potatoes baked in cream. -2. fam fig [haute société] upper crust. gratiné, -e [gratine] adj -1. CULIN sprinkled with breadcrumbs or cheese and browned. -2. fam fig [ardu] stiff. -3. fam fig [déroutant] weird. ♦ gratinée nf onion soup sprinkled with cheese and browned. gratiner [gratine] [3] vt to sprinkle with breadcrumbs or cheese and then brown. gratis [gratis] adv free. gratitude [gratityd] nf: ~ (envers) gratitude (to). gratte-ciel [gratsjel] nm inv skyscraper. grattement [gratmâ] nm scratching. gratte-papier [gratpapje] nm inv fam penpusher. gratter [grate] [3] o vt -1. (gen] to scratch; [pour enlever] to scrape off. -2. fam [gagner] to make. -3. fam [devancer] to overtake, o vi -1. [démanger] to itch, to be itchy. -2. fam [écrire] to scribble. -3. [frapper]: ~ à la porte to tap at the door. -4. fam [travailler] to slave, to slog. -5. fam [jouer]: ~ de [violon] to scrape away at; [guitare] to strum on. ♦ se gratter vp to scratch. grattoir [gratwar] nm -1. [outil] scraper. -2. [de boîte d'allumettes] striking surface. gratuit, -e [gratqi, it] adj -1. [entrée] free. -2. [hypothèse] unwarranted. -3. [violence]

gratuitous. gratuité [gratqite] nf -1. [d'entrée] free nature. -2. [d'hypothèse] unwarranted nature. gratuitement [gratqitmâ] adv -1. [sans payer] free, for nothing. -2. [sans raison] gratuitously. gravats [grava] nmpl rubble (U). grave [grav] O adj -1. [attitude, faute, maladie] serious, grave; ce n'est pas ~ [ce n'est rien] don't worry about it. -2. [voix] deep. -3. LING: accent ~ grave accent, o nm (gén pt) MUS low register. graveleux, -euse [gravl0, az] adj -1. [sol] gravelly. -2. [fruit] gritty. -3. [propos] crude. gravement [gravmâ] adv gravely, seriously. graver [grave] [3] vt -1. [gén] to engrave. -2. [bois] to carve. -3. [disque] to cut. graveur, -euse [gravoer, oz] nm, /"engraver. gravier [gravje] nm gravel (U). gravillon [gravijS] nm fine gravel (U). gravir [gravir] [32] vt to climb. gravité [gravite] nf-1. [importance] seriousness, gravity; sans ~ not serious. -2. PHYS gravity. graviter [gravite] [3] vi -1. [astre] to revolve. -2. fig [évoluer] to gravitate. gravure [gravyr] nf-1. [technique]: ~ (sur) engraving (on); ~ sur bois woodcutting. -2. [reproduction] print; [dans livre] plate. gré [gre] nm -1. [goût]: à mon/son — for my/his taste, for my/his liking. -2. [volonté]: bon ~ mal ~ willy nilly; contre mon/ son ~ against my/his will; de ~ ou de force fig whether you/they etc like it or not; de mon/son plein ~ of my/his own free will; au ~ de qqn/qqch at the will of sb/sthg, at the pleasure of sb/sthg. -3. [gratitude]: je vous saurais ~ de bien vouloir ... littéraire I should be grateful if you would .... grec, grecque [grek] adj Greek. ♦ grec nm [langue] Greek; ~ ancien/ moderne ancient/modern Greek. ♦ grecque nf CULIN: à la grecque stewed in oil (with tomatoes) and served cold. ♦ Grec, Grecque nm, /"Greek. Grèce [grès] nf. la ~ Greece. gredin, -e [grade, in] nm, /"rogue. gréement [gremâ] nm rigging. green [grin] nm GOLF green. Greenwich n [grinwitj] Greenwich; le méridien de ~ the Greenwich Meridian. gréer [grée] [15] vt to rig.

greffe 248 greffe [gref] O nf -1. MÉD transplant; [de peau] graft; ~ du cœur heart transplant. -2. BOT graft. O nm JUR: ~ (du tribunal) office of the clerk of court. greffer [grefe] [4] vt -1. MÉD to transplant; [peau] to graft; ~ un rein/un cœur à qqn to give sb a kidney/heart transplant. -2. BOT to graft. ♦ se greffer vp: se ~ sur qqch to be added to sthg. greffier [grefje] nm clerk of the court. grégaire [greger] adj gregarious. grège [gre3] -> soie. grégorien, -ienne [gregDrjê, jen] adj Gregorian. grêle [grel] O nf hail. O adj -1. [jambes] spindly. -2. [son] shrill. grêlé, -e [grêle] adj pockmarked. grêler [grêle] [4] O v impers to hail; il grêle it's hailing, o vt to devastate by hail. grêlon [grel5] nm hailstone. grelot [gralo] nm bell. grelotter [grabte] [3] vi: ~ (de) to shiver (with). grenade [granad] nf-1. [fruit] pomegranate. -2. MIL grenade; ~ lacrymogène tear-gas grenade. Grenade [granad] o nf [Ik]: la ~ Grenada; à la ~ in Grenada, o n [ville d'Espagne] Granada. grenadier [granadje] nm -1. [arbre] pomegranate tree. -2. MIL grenadier. grenadine [granadin] «/"grenadine (pomegranate syrup). grenat [grana] O nm garnet. O adj inv dark red. grenier [granje] nm -1. [de maison] attic. -2. [à foin] loft. -3. fig [région] breadbasket. grenouille [granuj] nf frog; ~ de bénitier fig fanatical churchgoer. grenouillère [granujer] nf [de bébé] all-inone. grenu, -e [grany] adj -1. [cuir] grained. -2. [roche] granular. grès [gre] nm -1. [roche] sandstone. -2. [poterie] stoneware. grésil [grezil] nm hail. grésillement [grezijmâ] nm [de friture] sizzling; [de feu] crackling. grésiller [grezije] [3] vi -1. [friture] to sizzle; [feu] to crackle. -2. [radio] to crackle. grève [grev] nf-1. [arrêt du travail] strike; être en ~ to be on strike; faire ~ to strike, to go on strike; ~ de la faim hunger strike; ~ générale general strike; ~ sauvage wildcat strike; ~ sur le tas sit-down strike; ~ tournante rotating strike; ~ du zèle work-

to-rule. -2. [rivage] shore. grever [grave] [19] vt to burden; [budget] to put a strain on. gréviste [grevist] o nmf striker, o adj striking. GRH (abr de gestion des ressources humaines) «/"personnel management. gribouillage [gribuja3] nm -1. [écriture] scrawl. -2. [dessin] doodle. gribouiller [gribuje] [3] vt d? vi -1. [écrire] to scrawl. -2. [dessiner] to doodle. gribouillis [gribuji] = gribouillage. grief [grijef] nm grievance; faire ~ de qqch à qqn to hold sthg against sb. grièvement [grijevmâ] adv seriously. griffe [grif] nf-1. [d'animal] claw; montrer les ~s litt & fig to bare OU show one's claws; tomber dans les —s de qqn fig to fall into sb's clutches. -2. [de créateur] hallmark; [de couturier] label. -3. Belg [éraflure] scratch. griffer [grife] [3] vt -1. [suj: chat etc] to claw. -2. [suj: créateur] to put one's name to. griffonner [grifone] [3] o vt -1. [écrire] to scrawl. -2. [dessiner] to make a rough sketch of. O vi -1. [écrire] to scrawl. -2. [dessiner] to make a rough sketch. griffure [grifyr] «/"scratch. grignoter [grijiDte] [3] o vt -1. [manger] to nibole. -2. fam fig [réduire - capital] to eat away (at). -3. fam fig [gagner - avantage] to gain. O vi -1. [manger] to nibble. -2. fam fig [prendre]: ~ sur to nibble away at. grigou [grigu] nm fam skinflint. gri-gri (pi gris-gris), grigri (pi grigris) [grigri] nm talisman, charm. gril [gril] nm grill; sur le ~ on the grill; être sur le ~ fig to be like a cat on hot bricks. grillade [grijad] «/"CULIN grilled meat. grillage [grija3] nm -1. [de porte, de fenêtre] wire netting. -2. [clôture] wire fence, grillager [grija3e] [ 17] v/to put wire netting on. grille [grij] nf-1. [portail] gate. -2. [d'orifice, de guichet] grille; [de fenêtre] bars (pt). -3. [de mots croisés, de loto] grid. -4. [tableau] table; ~ des programmes program Am OU programme Br listings (pf); ~ des salaires salary scale. grille-pain [grijpê] nm inv toaster. griller [grije] [3] O vt -1. [viande] to broil Am, to grill Br; [pain] to toast; [café, marrons] to roast; ~ une cigarette fam to have a fa*g. -2. fig [au soleil - personne] to burn; [- végétation] to shrivel. -3. [moteur] to burn

249 groseillier out. -4. fam fig [dépasser - concurrents] to outstrip; — un feu rouge to jump the lights; ~ une étape to rush ahead. -5. fig [compromettre] to ruin; être grillé to be done for. O vi -1. [viande] to broil Am, to grill Br. -2. [ampoule] to blow. -3. [personne]: ~ de [envie, impatience] to be burning with; ~ de faire qqch to be longing to do sthg. ♦ se griller vp fam to be done for; se ~ auprès de qqn to blow it with sb. grillon [grij5] nm [insecte] cricket. grimace [grimas] nf grimace; faire des —s to pull faces; faire la ~ to pull a face. grimacer [grimase] [16] vi to grimace. grimer [grime] [3] vt CIN & THÉÂTRE to make up. ♦ se grimer vp CIN & THÉÂTRE to make (o.s.) up. grimoire [grimwar] nm [de sorcier] book of spells. grimpant, -e [grëpâ,ât] ^/climbing(avantn). grimper [grêpe] [3] O vt to climb. O vi to climb; ~ à un arbre/une échelle to climb a tree/a ladder. grimpeur, -ease [grêpœr, oz] O adj climbing (avant n). O nm, /"climber. grinçant, -e [grêsâ, ât] adj -1. [charnière] squeaking; [porte, plancher] creaking. -2. fig [ironie] jarring. grincement [grësmâ] nm [de charnière] squeaking; [de porte, plancher] creaking; ~s de dents fig gnashing of teeth. grincer [grcse] [16] vi [charnière] to squeak; [porte, plancher] to creak. grincheux, -euse [grêjo, oz] o adj grumpy. O nm, f moaner, grumbler. gringalet [grêgale] nm weakling. griotte [grijDt] nfmoreWo (cherry). grippe [grip] nf MÉD flu (U); avoir la ~ to nave flu; ~ intestinale gastric flu; prendre qqn/qqch en ~ fig to take a sudden dislike to sb/sthg. grippé, -e [gripe] adj [malade]: être ~ to have flu. gripper [gripe] [3] vi -1. [mécanisme] to jam. -2. fig [processus] to stall. ♦ se gripper vp -1. [mécanisme] to jam. -2. fig [système] to seize up. grippe-sou [gripsu] (pi inv OU grippe-sous) nm fam skinflint. gris, -e [gri, griz] adj -1. [couleur] gray Am, grey Br. -2. fig [mome] dismal. -3. [saoul] tipsy. ♦ gris nm -1. [couleur] gray Am, grey Br. -2. [tabac] shag. grisaille [grizaj] nf-1. [de ciel] grayness Am,

greyness Br. -2. fig [de vie] dullness. grisant, -e [grizâ, ât] adj intoxicating. grisâtre [grizatr] adj grayish Am, greyish Br. grisé [grize] nm ( grayi4w OU grey fir) shading. griser [grize] [3] vt to intoxicate. ♦ se griser vp>: se ~ de [vin] to get tipsy on; [air, succès] to get drunk on. grisonnant, -e [grizonâ, ât] adj graying Am, greying Br. grisonner [grizone] [3] vi to turn gray Am OU grey Br. grisou [grizu] nm firedamp. grive [griv] «/"thrush. grivois, -e [grivwa, az] adj ribald. Groenland [groenlâd] nm: le ~ Greenland; au ~ in Greenland. grog [grog] nm (hot) toddy. groggy [grogi] adj inv -1. [boxeur] groggy. -2. fig [assommé] stunned. grogne [groji] «f discontent, grumbling. grognement [grDjimâ] nm -1. [son] grunt; [d'ours, de chien] growl. -2. [protestation] grumble. grogner [grape] [3] vi -1. [émettre un son] to grunt; [ours, chien] to growl. -2. [protester] to grumble. grognon, -onne [grsjiS, sn] adj grumpy. groin [grwê] nm snout. grommeler [gromle] [24] vt & vi to mutter. grondement [grôdmâ] nm [d'animal] growl; [de tonnerre, train] rumble; [de torrent] roar. gronder [gr5de] [3] o vi -1. [animal] to growl; [tonnerre] to rumble. -2. littéraire [grommeler] to mutter, o vt to scold. groom [grum] nm page. gros, grosse [gro, gros] O adj (gén avant n) -1. [gén] large, big; péj big. -2. (avant ou après n) [corpulent] fat. -3. [grossier] coarse. -4. [fort, sonore] loud. -5. [important, grave] serious; [dépense] major. -6. [plein]: ~ de full of. O nm, f -1. [personne corpulente] fat person. -2. [personnage important] big shot. ♦ gros O adv [beaucoup] a lot; en avoir ~ sur le cœur to be upset. O nm -1. [partie]: le (plus) ~ (de qqch) the main part (of sthg); le (plus) ~ du travail the bulk of the work. -2. COMM: le ~ wholesale. ♦ de gros he adj COMM wholesale. ♦ en gros he adv & he adj -1. COMM wholesale. -2. [en grands caractères] in large letters. -3. [grosso modo] roughly. groseille [grozcj] O nf currant; ~ blanche white currant; ~ à maquereau gooseberry; ~ rouge redcurrant. O adj inv red. groseillier [grozeje] nm currant bush.

gros-porteur 250 gros-porteur [groportcer] (/?/ gros-porteurs) nm jumbo (jet). grosse [gros] o nf -1. [douze douzaines] gross. -2. JUR engrossment, o adj —> gros. grossesse [groses] nf pregnancy; ~ extrautérine ectopic pregnancy; ~ nerveuse phantom pregnancy. grosseur [grosœr] nf -1. [dimension, taille] size. -2. [corpulence] fatness. -3. MÉD lump. grossier, -ière [grosje, jer] adj -1. [matière] coarse. -2. [sommaire] rough. -3. [insolent] rude. -4. [vulgaire] crude. -5. [erreur] crass. grossièrement [grosjermâ] adv -1. [sommairement] roughly. -2. [vulgairement] crudely. grossièreté [grosjerte] nf -1. [vulgarité] crudeness. -2. [parole grossière] crude remark. -3. [superficialité] superficiality. grossir [grssir] [32] O vi -1. [prendre du poids] to put on weight. -2. [augmenter] to grow. -3. [s'intensifier] to increase. -4. [cours d'eau] to swell. O vt -1. [suj: microscope, verre] to magnify. -2. [suj: vêtement]: ~ qqn to make sb look fatter. -3. [exagérer] to exaggerate. grossissant, -e [grosisâ, ât] adj [verre] magnifying. grossissem*nt [grosismâ] nm -1. [de personne] increase in weight. -2. [de loupe, de microscope] magnification. -3. [exagération] exaggeration. grossiste [grosist] nmf wholesaler. grosso modo [grosomodo] adv roughly. grotesque [grotcsk] o adj grotesque, ludicrous. O nm: le ~ the grotesque. grotte [grot] «/"cave. grouillant, -e [grujâ, ât] adj -1. [foule] milling. -2. [lieu]: ~ (de) swarming (with). grouiller [gruje] [3] vi: ~ (de) to swarm (with). ♦ se grouiller vy fam to get a move on; se ~ de faire qqch to rush to do sthg. groupage [grupa3] nm bulking. groupe [grup] nm group; en ~ as a group; ~ de pression pressure group. ♦ groupe électrogène «w generator. ♦ groupe sanguin nm blood group. groupement [grupmâ] nm -1. [action] grouping. -2. [groupe] group. grouper [grupe] [3] vt to group. ♦ se grouper vy to come together. groupie [grupi] nmf groupie. groupuscule [grupyskyl] nm faction. gruau [gryo] nm [farine] wheat flour. grue [gry] «/"TECHNOL & ZOOL crane; faire le pied de ~ fig to stand about. &n*g,er [g^e] [17] vt littéraire to dupe. grumeau, -x [grymo] nm lump.

grumeleux -euse [grymlo, 0z], adj -1. [pâte] lumpy. -2. [fruit] gritty. -3. [peau] bumpy. gruyère [gryjer] nm Gruyère (cheese). Guadeloupe [gwadlup] nf la ~ Guadeloupe; à la ~ in Guadeloupe. guadeloupéen, -enne [gwadlupeè, en] adj of/from Guadeloupe. ♦ Guadeloupéen, -enne nm, /"native ou inhabitant of Guadeloupe. Guatemala [gwatemala] nm: le ~ Guatemala; au ~ in Guatemala. guatémaltèque [gwatemaltek] adj Guatemalan. ♦ Guatémaltèque nmf Guatemalan. gué [ge] nm ford; traverser à ~ to ford. guenilles [ganij] «//?/ rags. guenon [gan5] «/"female monkey. guépard [gepar] nm cheetah. guêpe [gep] «f wasp. guêpier [gepje] nm wasp's nest; fig hornet's nest; aller se fourrer dans un ~ to stir up a hornet's nest. guère [ger] adv [peu] hardly; ne (+ verbe) ~ [peu] hardly; il ne l'aime ~ he doesn't like him/her very much; l'appel n'a ~ eu de succès the appeal met with very little success; ne (+ verbe) plus ~: il ne m'écrit plus ~ he hardly (ever) writes (to me) now OU any more; il n'y a ~ plus de six ans it's barely more than six years ago; il n'y a — de there are hardly any. guéridon [gerid5] nm pedestal table. guérilla [gerija] nf guerrilla warfare. guérir [gerir] [32] O vt to cure; ~ qqn de lift & fig to cure sb of. o vi to recover, to get better. guérison [geriz5] nf -1. [de malade] recovery. -2. [de maladie] cure. guérissable [gerisabl] adj curable. guérisseur, -euse [geriscer, az] nm, /"healer. guérite [gerit] «/"mil sentry box. Guernesey [gernze] « Guernsey; à ~ on Guernsey. guerre [ger] nf -\. MIL & fig war; en ~ at war; déclarer la ~ to declare war; faire la ~ à un pays to make OU wage war on a country; faire la ~ à qqch to wage war on sthg; Première/Seconde Guerre mondiale First/Second World War; ~ civile civil war; ~ économique trade war; ~ froide cold war; ~ des nerfs war of nerves; ~ sainte holy war. -2. [technique] warfare (U). -3. be: à la ~ comme à la ~ you'll/we'll etc

251 gyrophare just have to make the best of things; c'est de bonne ~ that's fair enough OU perfectly fair; de ~ lasse for the sake of peace. guerrier, -ière [gerje, jer] adj -1. [de guerre] war {avant n). -2. [peuple] warlike. ♦ guerrier nm warrior. guerroyer [gerwaje] [13] vi littéraire to wage war. guet [ge] nm: Éaire le ~ to be on the lookout. guet-apens [gctapâ] {pi guets-apens) nm ambush; fig trap; tomber dans un ~ to fall into an ambush ou a trap. guêtre [getr] nf gaiter; trainer ses —s fam to lounge about. guetter [gete] [4] vt -1. [épier] to lie in wait for. -2. [attendre] to be on the look-out for, to watch for. -3. [menacer] to threaten. gueulante [gœlât] nf fam uproar; pousser une ~ to yell (one's head oft). gueulard, -e [goelar, ard] fam o adj who shouts a lot. O nm, f person who shouts a lot. ♦ gueulard nm TECHNOL throat. gueule [gcel] nf -1. [d'animal, ouverture] mouth. -2. tfam [bouche de l'homme] yap Am, gob Br; ta ~! shut your gob!, shut it!; c'est une grande ~ he/she is all mouth. -3. fam [visage] face. -4. loc: avoir la ~ de bois to have a hangover; casser la ~ à qqn to smash sb's face in; se casser la ~ fam [torn ber] to fall flat on one's face; faire la ~ fam to pull a long face; se jeter dans la ~ du loup to enter the lion's den. gueule-de-loup [goeldalu] {pi gueules-deloup) «f snapdragon. gueuler [gcele] [5] fam O vt to yell, o vi -1. [crier] to yell. -2. [protester] to kick up a stink, to scream and shout. gueuleton [gœlt5] nm fam blowout. gueux, gueuse [ga, goz] nm, f littéraire beggar. gui [gi] nm mistletoe. guichet [gijc] nm counter; [de gare, de théâtre] ticket office; jouer à ~s fermés fig to be sold out. guide [gid] O nm -1. [gén] guide; ~ de montagne mountain guide. -2. [livre] guidebook, o «f Girl Scout Am, Girl Guide Br. ♦ guides nfpl reins. guider [gide] [3] vt to guide. guidon [gid5] nm handlebars {pt). guigne [giji] nffam bad OU rotten luck. guigner [gijie] [3] vt fam -1. [regarder] to eye. -2. [convoiter] to have one's eye on. guignol [gijiDl] nm -1. [marionnette] glove puppet. -2. [théâtre] — Punch and Judy

show; faire le ~ fig to act OU play the fool. guillemet [gijme] nm inverted comma, quotation mark; entre —s in inverted commas OU quotation marks; ouvrir/fermer les ~s to open/close quotation marks. guilleret, -ette [gijre, et] adj perky. guillotine [gijotin] nf-1. [instrument] guillotine. -2. [de fenêtre] sash. guillotiner [giptine] [3] vt to guillotine. guimauve [gimov] nf -1. [confiserie, plante] marshmallow. -2. fam [sentimentalité] mush. guimbarde [gêbard] nf -1. MUS Jew's harp. -2. fam [voiture] jalopy. guindé, -e [gêde] adj stiff. Guinée [gine] nf. la ~ Guinea; la —Bissau Guinea-Bissau; la --Equatoriale Equatorial Guinea. guinéen, -enne [gineê, en] adj Guinean. ♦ Guinéen, -enne nm, f Guinean. guingois [gêgwa] ♦ de guingois adv sout lopsidedly. guinguette [gêget] nf open-air dance floor. guirlande [girlâd] nf -t. [de fleurs] garland. -2. [de papier] chain; [de Noël] tinsel {U). guise [giz] nf: à ma ~ as I please OU like; en ~ de by way of. guitare [gitar] nf guitar; ~ électrique electric guitar. guitariste [gitarist] nmf guitarist. Gulf Stream [gœlfstrim] nm: le ~ the Gulf Stream. gustatif, -ive [gystatif, iv] adj: sensibilité gustative sense of taste. guttural, -e, -aux [gytyral, o] adj guttural. Guyana [gqijana] nf: la ~ Guyana. gym [3im] «f gym {U). gymkhana fôimkana] nm rally. gymnase fôimnaz] nm gymnasium. gymnaste [3imnast] nmf gymnast. gymnastique [3imnastik] nf SPORT & fig gymnastics {U); faire de la ~ to do gymnastics; ~ corrective remedial gymnastics. gynéco [3ineko] nmf fam gynecologist Am, gynaecologist Br. gynécologie [3inelob3i] nf gynecology Am, gynaecology Br. gynécologique [3ineIob3ik] adj gynecological Am, gynaecological Br. gynécologue fôinekDbg] nmf gynecologist Am, gynaecologist Br. gypse [3ips] nm gypsum. gyrophare foirofar] nm flashing light.

h 252 H h1, H [aj] nm inv h, H; ~ aspiré/muet aspirate/silent h. h2 -1. {abr de heure) hr. -2. {abr de hecto) h. ♦ H -1. abr de homme. -2. {abr de hydrogène) H. ha {abr de hectare) ha. hab. abr de habitant. habile [abil] adj skilful; [démarche] clever. habilement [abilmâ] adv skilfully; [manœuvrer] cleverly. habileté [abilte] «/"skill. habiliter [abilite] [3] vt to authorize; être habilité à faire qqch to be authorized to do sthg. habillage [abija3] nm -1. [action] dressing. -2. [enveloppe, protection] covering. habillé, -e [abije] adj [tenue] dressy; [réception] smart. habillement [abijmâ] nm -1. [action] clothing. -2. [profession] clothing trade. habiller [abije] [3] vt -1. [vêtir]: ~ qqn (de) to dress sb (in). -2. [suj: fournisseur] to provide with clothing; [suj: fabricant] to make clothes for. -3. [recouvrir] to cover. ♦ s'habiller vp -1. [se vêtir] to dress, to get dressed; s'~ de to dress in. -2. [se vêtir élégamment] to dress up. -3. [se fournir en vêtements] to buy one's clothes. habilleur, -euse [abijoer, ez] nm, /"dresser. habit [abi] nm -1. [costume] suit; ~ de neige Can snowsuit; ~ de soirée evening dress. -2. RELIC habit. ♦ habits nntpl [vêtements] clothes. habitable [abitabl] adj habitable. habitacle [abitakl] nm [d'avion] co*ckpit; [de voiture] passenger compartment. habitant, -e [abitâ, ât] nm, /"-l. [de pays] inhabitant; loger chez l'~ to stay with local people. -2. [d'immeuble] occupant. -3. Can [paysan] farmer. habitat [abita] nm -1. [conditions de logement] housing conditions {yt). -2. [mode de peuplement] settlement. -3. [d'animal] habitat. habitation [abitasjS] nf -1. [fait d'habiter] housing. -2. [résidence] house, home. habiter [abite] [3] O vt -1. [résider] to live in. -2. [suj: passion, sentiment] to dwell within. O vi to live; ~ à to live in. habitude [abityd] nf-1. [façon de faire] habit; avoir P~ de faire qqch to be in the habit of doing sthg; d'~ usually; comme d'as usual; par ~ out of habit. -2. [coutume] custom. habitué, -e [abitye] nm, /"regular.

habituel, -elle [abityel] adj -1. [coutumier] usual, customary. -2. [caractéristique] typical. habituellement [abityelmâ] adv usually. habituer [abitye] [7] vt: ~ qqn à qqch/à faire qqch to get sb used to sthg/to doing sthg. ♦ s'habituer vp>: s'~ à qqch à faire qqch to get used to sthg/to doing sthg. hâbleur, -euse ['abloer, az) littéraire o adj boastful. O nm, f braggart. hache ['aJ] nf ax Am, axe Br; enterrer la ~ de guerre fig to bury the hatchet. haché, -e ['a|e] adj -1. [coupé - gén] finely chopped; [- viande] ground Am, minced Br. -2. [entrecoupé] jerky. hacher ['aje] [3] vt -1. [couper - gén] to chop finely; [- viande] to grind Am, to mince Br. -2. [entrecouper] to interrupt. hachette ['ajet] nf hatchet. hachis ['aji] nm: un ~ de persil finely chopped parsley; un ~ de porc ground pork Am, minced pork Br; ~ Parmentier = shepherd's pie, — cottage pie. hachisch = haschisch. hachoir ['a/war] nm -1. [couteau] chopper. -2. [appareil] grinder Am, mincer Br. -3. [planche] chopping-board. hachure ['a/yr] nf hatching. hachurer ['a/yre] [3] vt to hatch. haddock ['adr>k] nm smoked haddock. hagard, -e ['agar, ard] adj haggard. hagiographie [aspgrafi] nf hagiography. haï, -e ['ai] pp —> haïr. haie ['e] nf -1. [d'arbustes] hedge. -2. [de personnes] row; [de soldats, d'agents de police] line; ~ d'honneur guard of honor Am OU honour Br. -3. SPORT hurdle; 400 mètres ~s 400 meters Am OU metres Br hurdles. haillons ['ap] nmpl rags. haine ['en] «/"hatred. haineusem*nt [xnozmù] adv with hatred. haineux, -euse ['ene, oz] adj full of hatred. haïr ['air] [33] vt to hate.

253 harmonisation hais, hait etc —> haïr. haïssable ['aisabl] adj hateful. haïssais, haïssions etc —> haïr. Haïti [aiti] « Haiti; à ~ in Haiti. haïtien, -ienne [aisjê, jcn] adj Haitian. ♦ Haïtien, -ienne nm, /"Haitian. hâle ['al] nm tan. hâlé, -e ['ale] adj tanned. haleine [alen] nf breath; avoir l'~ forte, avoir mauvaise ~ to have bad breath; courir à perdre ~ to run until one is breathless; hors d'~ out of breath, de longue ~ exacting and time-consuming; reprendre ~ to catch one's breath; tenir qqn en ~ to keep sb in suspense. haler ['ale] [3] vt -1. [tirer] to haul in. -2. [remorquer] to tow. haletant, -e ['altâ, ùt] adj panting. halètement ['alctmâ] nm panting. haleter ['alte] [28] vi to pant. hall ['ol] nm -1. [vestibule, entrée] foyer, lobby. -2. [salle publique] concourse; ~ d'arrivée/de départ arrival/departure hall. halle ['al] nf covered market. ♦ halles nfpl wholesale food market (sg). hallucinant, -e [alysinâ, àt] adj -1. [incroyable] extraordinary. -2. [grandiose] impressive. hallucination [alysinasjS] nf hallucination. halluciné, -e [alysine] O adj crazed. o nm, f lunatic. hallucinogène [alysinD3cn] O nm hallucinogen, o adj hallucinogenic. halo ['alo] nm -1. [cercle lumineux] halo. -2. fîg [rayonnement] aura. halogène fallen] nm & adj halogen. halte ['alt] O nf stop; faire ~ to stop, o inter j stop! haltère [alter] nm dumbbell. haltérophile [alterofil] O nmf weight-lifter. O adj weight-lifting {avant n). haltérophilie [alterofili] «^weight-lifting. hamac ['amak] nm hammock. hamburger ['âburgoer] nm hamburger. hameau, -x ['amo] nm hamlet. hameçon [ams5] nm fish-hook; mordre à l'~ fig to rise to the bait. hammam ['amam] nm Turkish baths (^/). hampe ['âp] «/"[de drapeau] pole. hamster ['amster] nm hamster. hanche ['5J] nf hip; rouler des ~s to swing one's hips. handball [âdbal] nm handball. handicap ['âdikap] nm handicap. handicapé, -e ['âdikape] o adj handicapped; être ~ par qqch fig to be handicapped by sthg. O nm, f handicapped

person; ~ mental mentally handicapped person; ~ moteur spastic. handicaper ['âdikape] [3] vt to handicap. hangar ['agar] nm shed; AÉRON hangar. hanneton ['ant5] nm co*ckchafer. hanter fâte] [3] vt to haunt. hantise ['âtiz] nf obsession; avoir la ~ de qqch de faire qqch to be obsessed by the fear of sthg/of doing sthg. happer ['ape] [3] vt -1. [attraper] to snap up. -2. [accrocher] to strike. hara-kiri ['arakiri] nm: (se) faire ~ to commit hara-kiri. harangue ['arôg] «/"harangue. haranguer ['arâge] [3] vt to harangue. haras ['ara] nm stud (farm). harassant, -e ['arasa, ùt] adj exhausting. harasser ['arase] [3] vt to exhaust. harcèlement ['arselmâ] nm harassment; ~ sexuel sexual harassment. harceler ['arsale] [25] vt -1. [relancer] to harass. -2. MIL to harry. -3. [importuner]: ~ qqn (de) to pester sb (with). hardes ['ard] nfpl old clothes. hardi, -e ['ardi] adj bold, daring. hardiesse [ardjes] «/"boldness, daring. hardware ['ardwer] nm INFORM hardware. harem ['arem] nm harem. hareng ['arà] nm herring; ~ saur kipper. harfang ['arfâ] nm snowy owl. hargne ['arp] «/"spite (U), bad temper. hargneux, -euse ['arp0, az] adj [personne] spiteful, bad-tempered; [remarque] spiteful, vicious. haricot ['ariko] nm bean; ~s verts/blancs/ rouges green/haricot/kidney beans. harmonica [armonika] nm harmonica, mouth organ. harmonie [armoni] nf -1. [gen] harmony; vivre en ~ (avec qqn) to live in harmony (with sb). -2. [de visage] symmetry. -3. [fanfare] wind band. harmonieusem*nt [armonjozmù] adv harmoniously. harmonieux, -ieuse [armonjo, ]oz] adj -1. [gén] harmonious. -2. [voix] melodious. -3. [traits, silhouette] regular. harmonique [armDnik] adj harmonic. harmonisation [armDnizasjS] «f-l. [coordination] harmonization. -2. MUS harmonizing.

harmoniser 254 harmoniser [armDnize] [3] vt MUS & fig to harmonize; [salaires] to bring into line. harmonium [arm.-mpm] nm harmonium. harnachement ['arna/mâ] nm -1. [équipement de cheval] harness. -2. [action] harnessing. -3. fig [attirail] gear. harnacher ['arnaje] [3] vt [cheval] to harness; être harnaché fig to be got up. harnais fame] nm -1. [de cheval, de parachutiste] harness. -2. TECHNOL train. haro ['aro] nm sout: crier ~ sur to rail against. harpagon [arpag5] nm = Scrooge. harpe ['arp] «f harp. harpie ['arpi] «/"harpy. harpon ['arp5] nm harpoon. harponner ['arpsne] [3] vt -1. [poisson] to harpoon. -2. fam [personne] to waylay. hasard ['azar] nm chance; au ~ at random; à tout ~ on the off chance; par ~ by accident, by chance; comme par ~ iron as if by chance; si par ~ if by chance. hasarder ['azarde] [3] vt -1. [tenter] to venture. -2. [risquer] to hazard. ♦ se hasarder vp: se ~ à faire qqch to risk doing sthg. hasardeux, -euse ['azardo, oz] adj risky. haschisch, haschich, hachisch ['a/ij] nm hashish. hâte ['at] «/"haste; à la ~, en ~ hurriedly, hastily; avoir ~ de faire qqch to be eager to do sthg. hâter ['ate] [3] vt -1. [activer] to hasten. -2. [avancer] to bring forward. ♦ se hâter vp> to hurry; se ~ de faire qqch to hurry to do sthg. hâtif, -ive ['atif, iv] adj [précipité] hurried, hasty. hauban ['obâ] nm NAUT shroud. hausse ['os] nf [augmentation] rise, increase; à la ~, en ~ rising. haussem*nt ['osmâ] nm: ~ d'épaules shrug (of the shoulders). hausser ['ose] [3] vt to raise. haut, -e [o, ot] adj -1. [gén] high; ~ de 20 m 20 m high. -2. [classe sociale, pays, région] upper. -3. [responsable] senior. ♦ haut O adv -1. [gén] high; [placé] highly. -2. [fort] loudly; dire bien ~ ce que l'on pense tout bas to say out loud what everyone else is thinking. O nm -1. [hauteur] height; faire 2 m de ~ to be 2 m high OU in height. -2. [sommet, vêtement] top. -3. loc: avoir OU connaître des ~s et des bas to have one's ups and downs. ♦ de haut toc adv [avec dédain] haughtily; le prendre de ~ to react haughtily.

♦ de haut en bas loc adv from top to bottom. ♦ du haut de loc prép from the top of. ♦ en haut loc adv at the top; [dans une maison] upstairs. ♦ en haut de loc prép at the top of. ♦ là-haut loc adv up there. hautain, -e ['otè, en] adj haughty. hautbois ['obwa] nm oboe. haut-de-forme ['odform] {pi hauts-deforme) nm top hat. haut de gamme [odgam] adj upmarket; une chaîne ~ a state-of-the-art hi-fi system. haute-fidélité [otfidelite] {pi hautesfidélités) nf high fidelity, hi-fi. hautement ['otmâ] adv highly. hauteur ['otoer] nf height; à ~ d'épaule at shoulder level OU height; ne pas être à la ~ de qqch not to be up to sthg. haut-fond ['oB] {pi hauts-fonds) nm shallows {pi). haut-fourneau ['ofurno] {pi hautsfourneaux) nm blast furnace. haut-le-cœur ['olkoer] nm inv retch; avoir des ~ to retch. haut-le-corps ['olksr] nm inv. avoir un ~ to start, to jump. haut-parleur ['oparlœr] {pi haut-parleurs) nm loudspeaker. havane ['avan] o nm Havana cigar. O adj inv tobacco-colored Am, tobacco-coloured Br. Havane ['avan] n: La ~ Havana. hâve ['av] adj littéraire haggard. havre ['avr] nm [refuge] haven. Hawaii ['awaj] n Hawaii; à ~ in Hawaii. hawaiien, -ienne ['awajê, jen] adj Hawaiian. ♦ Hawaiien, -ienne nm, f Hawaiian. Haye ['e] n: La ~ the Hague. hayon ['aj5] nm hatchback. hé ['e] inter/ hey! hebdo [ebdo] nm fam weekly. hebdomadaire [ebdomader] nm & adj weekly. hébergement [eber33mâ] nm accommodations (/?/) Am, accommodation Br. héberger [eberçe] [17] vt -1. [loger] to put up. -2. [suj: hôtel] to take in. hébété, -e [ebete] adj dazed. hébétement [ebetmâ] nm stupor. hébétude [ebetyd] nf littéraire stupor. hébraïque [ebraik] adj Hebrew. hébreu, -x [ebra] adj Hebrew.

255 hermétique ♦ hébreu nm [langue] Hebrew. ♦ Hébreu, -x nm Hebrew. Hébrides [ebrid] nfpk les ~ the Hebrides; aux ~ in the Hebrides. HEC (abr de (école des) Hautes études commerciales) n grande école for management and business studies. hécatombe [ekat5b] nf litt & fig slaughter. hectare [ektar] nm hectare. hectolitre [ektolitr] nm hectolitre. hédonisme [edonism] nm hedonism. hédoniste [edonist] O «/«/"hedonist. O adj hedonistic. hégémonie [e3emDni] «/"hegemony. hégire [e3ir] «/"hegira. hein ['ê] interj fam eh£, what£; tu m'en veux, ~£ you're cross with me, aren't you£ hélas [elas] inter] unfortunately, alas. héler ['ele] [18] vt sout to hail. hélice [élis] «/"-l. [d'avion, de bateau] propeller. -2. MATHS helix. hélicoïdal, -e, -aux [elikoidal, o] adj -1. [forme] spiral, helical. -2. MATHS helical. hélicoptère [elikopter] nm helicopter. héliomarin, -e [elpmarè, in] adj MÉD [cure] using sun and sea air. héliport [elipor] nm heliport. héliporté, -e [eliporte] adj [troupes, fournitures] transported by helicopter; [opération] helicopter {avant «). hélium [elpm] nm helium. Helsinki ['elzinki] « Helsinki. helvétisme [elvetism] nm Swiss expression. hem ['em] interj [indique le doute] hmm. hématologie [ematDb3i] «f haematology. hématome [ematom] nm MÉD haematoma. hémicycle [emisikl] nm POLIT: l'~ the Assemblée Nationale. hémiplégique [emiple3ik] nmf & adj hémiplégie. hémisphère [emisfer] nm hemisphere; l'~ nord/sud northern/southern hemisphere; ~ cerebral ANAT cerebral hemisphere. hémoglobine [emsgbbin] «/"haemoglobin. hémophile [emofil] O nmf haemophiliac. o adj haemophilic. hémorragie [em:>ra3i] nf -1. M£D haemorrhage; ~ cérébrale brain haemorrhage; ~ interne internal bleeding (I/). -2. fig [perte, fuite] loss. hémorroïdes [emorDid] nfpl haemorrhoids, piles. henné ['ene] nm henna. hennir ['enir] [32] vi to neigh, to whinny. hennissem*nt ['enismâ] nm neigh, whinny. hep ['ep] interj hey!

hépatique [epatik] o nmf person with liver problems. O adj liver (avant «). hépatite [epatit] nf MÉD hepatitis; ~ B hepatitis B; ~ virale viral hepatitis. heptagone [eptagon] nm heptagon. herbacé, -e [erbase] adj herbaceous. herbage [erba3] nm pasture. herbe [erb] nf -1. BOT grass; mauvaise ~ weed. -2. CULIN & MÉD herb; fines ~s herbs. -3. fam [marijuana] grass. -4. loc: en ~ budding; couper 1'— sous les pieds de qqn to cut the ground from under sb's feet. herbeux, -euse [erbe, ez] adj grassy. herbicide [erbisid] o nm weedkiller, herbicide, o adj herbicidal. herbier [erbje] nm herbarium. herbivore [crbivor] o nm herbivore, o adj herbivorous. herboriste [erborist] nmf herbalist. herboristerie [crboristari] nf herbalist's (shop). herculéen, -enne [erkyleê, en] adj Herculean. hère ['er] nm: pauvre ~ poor wretch. héréditaire [erediter] adj hereditary. hérédité [eredite] nf-1. [génétique] heredity. -2. [de biens, de titre] inheritance. hérésie [erezi] «/"heresy. hérétique [eretik] O nmf heretic. O adj heretical. hérisser ['erise] [3] vt -1. [dresser]: ~ son poil to bristle. -2. [garnir]: être hérissé de [de clous] to be studded with; fig [de difficultés] to be fraught with. -3. [irriter]: ~ qqn to get sb's back up. hérisson ['eris5] nm -1. ZOOL hedgehog. -2. [brosse] chimney sweep's brush. héritage [erita3] nm -1. [de biens] inheritance; faire un — to come into an inheritance; en ~ as an inheritance. -2. [culturel] heritage. hériter [erite] [3] O vi to inherit; ~ de qqch to inherit sthg. O vt: ~ qqch de qqn litt & fig to inherit sthg from sb. héritier, -ière [eritje, jer] nm, f heir (/"heiress). hermaphrodite [crmafrDdit] nmf & adj hermaphrodite. hermétique [crmetik] adj -1. [étanche] hermetic. -2. [incompréhensible] inaccessible, impossible to understand. -3. [impénétrable] impenetrable.

hermétiquement 256 hermétiquement [ermetikmâ] adv hermetically. hermétisme [ermetism] nm [de texte] obscurity. hermine [ermin] nf -1. [animal] stoat. -2. [fourrure] ermine. hernie ['erni] nf hernia; ~ discale slipped disk Am OU dise Br. héroïne [ersin] nf-1. [personne] heroine. -2. [drogue] heroin. héroïnomane [ersinoman] nmf heroin addict. héroïque [eroik] adj heroic. héroïquement [ereikmâ] adv heroically. héroïsme [eroism] nm heroism. héron ['er5] nm heron. héros ['ero] nm hero. herpès [erpes] nm herpes. herse ['ers] nf -1. AGBJC harrow. -2. [grille] portcullis. hertz ['erts] nm inv hertz. hésitant, -e [ezitâ, ùt] adj hesitant. hésitation [ezitasj5] nf hesitation; avec ~ hesitandy; sans ~ without hesitation, unhesitatingly. hésiter [ezite] [3] vi to hesitate; ~ entre/sur to hesitate between/over; ~ à faire qqch to hesitate to do sthg. hétéro [etero] adj 62 nmf hetero. hétérocl*te [etemklit] adj modey. hétérogène [etero3en] adj heterogeneous. hétérogénéité [eterD3eneite] nf heterogeneity. hétérosexuel, -elle [eteroscksyel] adj 62 nm, f heterosexual. hêtre ['etr] nm beech. heure [œr] nf-1. [unité de temps] hour; 250 km à l'~ 250 km per OU an hour; £aire des —s supplémentaires to work overtime. -2. [moment du jour] time; il est deux ~s it's two o'clock; donner/demander l'~ à qqn to tell/ask sb the time; quelle ~ est-ÛS what time is it£; être à l'~ to be on time; mettre à P~ [montre, pendule] to put right; ~ d'affluence [dans les transports] rush hour; [au magasin] peak time; ~ de battement break; ~ creuse off-peak time, slack period; ~ d'ouverture/de fermeture opening/ closing time; ~ de pointe rush hour; ~s de bureau office hours; ~s de réception office/surgery etc hours. -3. SCOL class, period. -4. be: à ~ fixe at a set time; à l'actuelle at the present time; à l'~ qu'il est at this moment in time; à la bonne ~! that's wonderful!; à la première ~ at the crack of dawn; à toute ~ at any time; c'est l'~ (de faire qqch) it's time (to do sthg); de

bonne ~ early; de la première ~ right from the start; sur l'~ at once. heureusem*nt [cerozmâ] adv -1. [par chance] luckily, fortunately. -2. [favorablement] successfully. heureux, -euse [oero, az] o adj -1. [gén] happy; [favorable] fortunate; être ~ de faire qqch to be happy to do sthg. -2. [réussi] successful, happy. -3. be: encore ~ (que) (+ subjonctif) ... fam it's just as well (tnat) .... O nm, f: faire un ~ to make somebody's day. heurt ['œr] nm -1. [choc] collision, impact. -2. [désaccord] clash; sans ~s smoothly. heurter ['oerte] [3] O vt -1. [rentrer dans gén] to hit; [- suj: personne] to bump into. -2. [offenser - personne, sensibilité] to offend. -3. [bon sens, convenances] to go against, o vi: ~ contre qqch to bump into sthg. ♦ se heurter vp -1. [gén]: se ~ (contre) to collide (with). -2. [rencontrer]: se ~ à qqch to come up against sthg. heurtoir ['oertwar] nm knocker. hexagonal, -e, -aux [egzagonal, o] adj -1. CÉOM hexagonal. -2. [français] French. hexagone [egzagon] nm GÉOM hexagon. ♦ Hexagone nm: l'Hexagone (mainland) France. HF (abr de hautes fréquences) HF. hiatus [jatys] nm inv hiatus. hibernation [ibemasjS] «/"hibernation. hiberner [iberne] [3] vi to hibernate. hibiscus [ibiskys] nm hibiscus. hibou, -x ['ibu] nm owl. hie ['ik] nm fam snag. hideux, -euse ['ido, 0z] adj hideous. hier [ijer] adv yesterday; ~ matin/soir yesterday morning/evening. hiérarchie ['jerar/i] «/"hierarchy. hiérarchique ['jerarfik] adj hierarchical. hiéroglyphe [jeroglif] nm hieroglyph, hieroglyphic. ♦ hiéroglyphes nmpl hieroglyphics. hilarant, -e [ilarâ, ât] adj hilarious. hilare [ilar] adj beaming. hilarité [ilarite] nf hilarity; provoquer l'~ générale to give rise to general hilarity. Himalaya [imalaja] nm: l'~ the Himalayas Hhim a lay en, -enne [imalajê, jen] adj Himalayan. hindi f'indi] nm [langue] Hindi. hindou, -e [êdu] adj Hindu. ♦ Hindou, -e nm, /"Hindu.

257 homme hindouisme [eduism] nm Hinduism. hippie, hippy ['ipi] (pi hippies) nmf : s'~ dans to interfere in OU with. immixtion [imiksjS] «/"interference. immobile [imobil] adj -1. [personne, visage] motionless. -2. [mécanisme] fixed, stationary. -3. fig [figé] immovable. immobilier, -ière [imobilje, jcr] adj: biens ~s real estate Am, property Br (U); société immobilière real estate Am OU property Br company. ♦ immobilier nm: P~ real estate Am, property Br. immobilisation [imobilizasp] nf immobilization. ♦ immobilisations nfpl FIN fixed assets. immobiliser [imobilize] [3] vt to immobilize. ♦ s'immobiliser vp to stop. immobilisme [imobilism] nm ptj opposition to progress. immobilité [imobilite] nf immobility; [de paysage, de lac] stillness. immodéré, -e [imodere] adj inordinate. immoler [imole] [3] vt to sacrifice; RELIG to immolate; ~ qqn/qqch à to sacrifice sb/ sthg to. ♦ s'immoler vp to immolate o.s. immonde [im5d] adj -1. [sale] foui. -2. [abject] vile. immondices [imSdis] nfpl waste (U), refuse (U). immoral, -e, -aux [imoral, o] adj immoral. immoralité [imoralite] nf -1. [dépravation] immorality. -2. [obscénité] obscenity. immortaliser [imortalize] [3] vt to immortalize. ♦ s'immortaliser vp to gain immortality. immortalité [imortalite] «f immortality. immortel, -elle [imortcl] ad) immortal. ♦ immortel nm fam member of the Académie française. ♦ immortelle «/"BOT everlasting flower. immuable [imqabl] adj -1. [éternel - loi] immutable. -2. [constant] unchanging. immunisation [imynizasjS] nf immunization. immuniser [imynize] [3] vt -1. [vacciner] to immunize. -2. fig [garantir]: ~ qqn contre qqch to make sb immune to sthg.

immunitaire [imyniter] adj immune {avant »)• immunité [imynite] nf immunity; ~ diplomatique/parlementaire fig diplomatic/ parliamentary immunity. immunologique [îmynnlnsik] adj immunological. impact [êpakt] nm impact; avoir de P~ sur to have an impact on; étude d'~ impact study. impair, -e [êper] adj odd. ♦ impair nm [faux-pas] gaffe. imparable [ëparabl] adj -1. [coup] unstoppable. -2. [argument] unanswerable. impardonnable [èpardonabl] adj unforgivable. imparfait, -e [ëparfe, et] adj -1. [défectueux] imperfect. -2. [inachevé] incomplete. ♦ imparfait nm GRAM imperfect (tense). imparfaitement [êparfetmâ] adv imperfectly. impartial, -e, -iaux [êparsjal, jo] adj impartial. impartialité [êparsjalite] «f impartiality. impartir [êpartir] [32] vt: ~ qqch à qqn littéraire [délai, droit] to grant sthg to sb; [don] to bestow sthg upon sb; [tâche] to assign sthg to sb. impasse [êpas] nf-1. [rue] dead end. -2. fig [difficulté] impasse, deadlock; être dans une ~ OU dans P~ to be at an impasse, to be deadlocked. -3. SCOL & UNIV: faire une ~ sur un sujet to give a subject a miss when revising for an exam. -4. JEU: faire une ~ to finesse. -5. FIN: ~ budgétaire budget deficit. impassibilité [êpasibilite] nf impassivity. impassible [cpasibl] adj impassive; rester ~ to be OU remain impassive. impatiemment [èpasjamâ] adv impatiently. impatience [èpasjâs] «/'impatience; bouillir d'~ to be burning with impatience. impatient, -e [êpasjâ, ât] o adj impatient; être ~ de faire qqch to be impatient OU longing to do sthg. O nm, /^impatient person. impatienter [êpasjâte] [3] vt to annoy. ♦ s'impatienter vp: s'~ (de/contre) to get impatient (at/with). impayable [êpcjabl] adj fam priceless. impayé, -e [èpeje] adj unpaid, outstanding. ♦ impayé nm outstanding payment. impeccable [êpekabl] adj -1. [parfait] impec-

265 importateur cable, faultless. -2. [propre] spodess, immaculate. impénétrable [êpenetrabl] adj impenetrable. impénitent, -e [êpenitâ, ât] adj unrepentant. impensable [êpôsabl] adj unthinkable. imper [ëper] nm fam mac. impératif, -ive [êperatif, iv] adj -1. [ton, air] imperious. -2. [besoin] imperative, essential. ♦ impératif nm GRAM imperative. impérativement [êperativmâ] adv. il faut ~ faire qqch it is imperative to do sthg. impératrice [êperatris] «/"empress. imperceptible [êperseptibl] adj imperceptible. imperceptiblement [ëperscptiblamâ] adv imperceptibly. imperfection [ëperfcksjô] «/"imperfection. impérial, -e, -iaux [êperjal, jo] adj imperial. ♦ impériale nf top deck. impérialisme [êperjalism] nm POLIT imperialism; fig dominance. impérialiste [êperjalist] nmf & adj imperialist. impérieusem*nt [cperjozmù] adv imperiously. impérieux, -ieuse [êperjo, j0z] adj -1. [ton, air] imperious. -2. [nécessité] urgent. impérissable [êperisabl] adj undying. imperméabilisation [ëpermeabilizasjS] nf waterproofing. imperméabiliser [ëpermeabilize] [3] vt to waterproof. imperméable [ëpermeabl] O adj waterproof; ~ à [étanche] impermeable to; fig impervious OU immune to. O nm raincoat. impersonnel, -elle [êpersDnel] adj impersonal. impertinence [ëpizrtinâs] nf impertinence (U). impertinent, -e [ëpertinâ, ât] o adj impertinent. O nm, /^impertinent person. imperturbable [ëpertyrbabl] adj imperturbable. impétigo [ëpetigo] nm impetigo. impétueux, -euse [ëpetq0, 0z] adj -1. [personne, caractère] impetuous. -2. littéraire [vent, torrent] raging. impétuosité [ëpetqozite] «/"impetuousness. impie [ëpi] littéraire & vieilli O nmf ungodly person, o adj impious. impiété [ëpjete] nf littéraire & vieilli impiesimpitoyable [ëpitwajabl] adj merciless,

pitiless. impitoyablement [êpitwajabtamâ] adv mercilessly, pitilessly. implacable [ëplakabl] adj implacable. implant [ëplâ] nm MÉD implant. implantation [ëplâtasj5] nf -1. [d'usine, de système] establishment. -2. [de cheveux] implant. implanter [ëplâtej [3] vt -1. [entreprise, système] to establish. -2. fig [préjugé] to implant. ♦ s'implanter vp [entreprise] to set up; [coutume] to become established. implication [ëplikasj5] nf -1. [participation]: ~ (dans) involvement (in). -2. (gén pf) [conséquence] implication. implicite [êplisit] adj implicit. implicitement [ëplisitmô] adv implicitly. impliquer [ëplike] [3] vt -1. [compromettre]: ~ qqn dans to implicate sb in. -2. [requérir, entraîner] to imply. ♦ s'impliquer vp: s'~ dans fam to become involved in. implorer [ëpbre] [3] vt to beseech. imploser [ëploze] [3] vi to implode. implosion [ëplozj5] «f implosion. impoli, -e [ëpnli] adj rude, impolite. impoliment [êpnlimâ] adv rudely, impolitely. impolitesse [ëpolites] nf rudeness, impoliteness. impondérable [ëp5derabl] adj imponderable. ♦ impondérables nmpl imponderables. impopulaire [cpopyler] adj unpopular. import [ëpDr] nm -1. COMM import. -2. Belg [montant] total. importance [ëpnrtâs] nf -1. [gén] importance; [de problème, montant] magnitude; attacher de P~ à to attach importance to; avoir de P~ to be important; d'~ [non négligeable] of some importance; sans ~ unimportant; [accident] minor. -2. [de dommages] extent. -3. [de ville] size. important, -e [êportâ, ât] o adj -1. [gén] important. -2. [considérable] considerable, sizeable; [- dommages] extensive. O nm, f. faire I'~ péj to act important. ♦ important nm: P~ the (most) important thing, the main thing. importateur, -trice [ëportatoer, tris] adj importing (avant n). ♦ importateur nm importer.

importation 266 importation [ëpDitasjS] «/"COMM & fig import. importer [ëporte] [3] O vt to import. O v impers: ~ (à) to matter (to); il importe de/ que it is important to/that; qu'importe!, peu importe! it doesn't matter!; n'importe qui anyone (at all); n'importe quoi anything (at all); n'importe où anywhere (at all); n'importe quand at any time (at all); n'importe comment anyhow. import-export [eporekspor] (yl importsexports) nm import-export. importun, -e [ëpsrtœ, yn] o adj -1. [indiscret] irksome, troublesome. -2. [embarrassant] awkward, o nm, f vieilli intruder. importuner [ë party ne] [3] vt to irk. imposable [êpozabl] adj taxable. imposant, -e [ëpozâ, ùt] adj imposing. imposé, -e [ëpoze] O adj -1. [contribuable] taxed. -2. SPORT [figure] compulsory. O nm, f [contribuable] taxpayer. imposer [èpoze] [3] vt -1. [gén]: ~ qqch/ qqn à qqn to impose sthg/sb on sb. -2. [impressionner]: en ~ à qqn to impress sb. -3. [taxer] to tax. ♦ s'imposer vp -1. [être nécessaire] to be essential OU imperative. -2. [forcer le respect] to stand out. -3. [avoir pour règle]: s'~ de faire qqch to make it a rule to do sthg. imposition [êpozisj5] nf-1. FIN taxation. -2. REL1G laying on. impossibilité [êposibilite] nf impossibility; être dans P~ de faire qqch to find it impossible to OU to be unable to do sthg. impossible [ëpnsibl] o adj impossible, o nm: tenter P~ to attempt the impossible. imposteur [ëpostœr] nm impostor. imposture [ëpostyr] «/"imposture. impôt [ëpo] nm tax; ~ direct/indirect direct/indirect tax; ~s locaux local tax Am, council tax Br; ~ sur les grandes fortunes wealth tax; ~ sur les plus-values capital gains tax; ~ sur le revenu income tax; être assujetti à l'~ to be subject to tax. impotence [ëpotâs] «f infirmity. impotent, -e [ëpotâ, ât] o adj disabled, o nm, f disabled person. impraticable [ëpratikabl] adj -1. [inapplicable] impracticable. -2. [inaccessible] impassable. imprécation [ëprekasj5] nf littéraire imprecation. imprécis, -e [ëpresi, iz] adj imprecise. imprécision [ëpresizjS] «f imprecision. imprégner [ëprejie] [18] vt [imbiber]: ~ qqch de qqch to soak sthg in sthg; — qqn de qqch fig to fill sb with sthg.

♦ s'imprégner vp>: s'~ de qqch [s'imbiber] to soak sthg up; fig to soak sthg up, to steep o.s. in sthg. imprenable [ëpranabl] adj -1. [forteresse] impregnable. -2. [vue] unimpeded. imprésario, impresario [ëpresarjo] nm impresario. impression [ëpresj5] nf-1. [gén] impression; avoir I'~ que to have the impression OU feeling that; faire (une) bonne/ mauvaise ~ (à) to make a good/bad impression (on). -2. [de livre, tissu] printing. -3. PHOT print. impressionnable [ëpresjonabl] adj -1. [émotif] impressionable. -2. PHOT sensitive. impressionnant, -e [ëprespno, ât] adj -1. [imposant] impressive. -2. [effrayant] frightening. impressionner [ëprespne] [3] vt -1. [frapper] to impress. -2. [choquer] to shock, to upset. -3. [intimider] to frighten. -4. PHOT to expose. impressionnisme [ëprespnism] nm impressionism. impressionniste [epresjonist] nmf & adj impressionist. imprévisible [ëprevizibl] adj unforeseeable. imprévoyance [ëprevwajâs] «/"lack of foresight, improvidence. imprévoyant, -e [ëprevwajâ, ât] adj improvident. imprévu, -e [ëprevy] adj unforeseen. ♦ imprévu nm unforeseen situation; sauf ~ barring unforeseen circ*mstances. imprimante [ëprimât] nf printer; ~ laser/à jet d'encre matricielle laser/ink-jet/dotmatrix printer. imprimé, -e [ëprime] adj printed. ♦ imprimé nm -1. POSTES printed matter (U). -2. [formulaire] printed form. -3. [tissu] print. imprimer [ëprime] [3) vt -1. [texte, tissu] to print. -2. [mouvement] to impart. -3. [marque, empreinte] to leave. imprimerie [ëprimri] nf -1. [technique] printing. -2. [usine] printing works (sg). imprimeur [ëprimœr] nm printer. improbable [ëprsbabl] adj improbable. improductif, -ive [ëprodyktif, iv] adj unproductive. impromptu, -e [ëprSpty] adj impromptu. ♦ impromptu o adv impromptu, o nm impromptu.

267 inaperçu imprononçable [ëpronSsabl] adj unpronounceable. impropre [ëpropr] adj -1. GRAM incorrect. -2. [inadapté]: ~ à unfit for. impropriété [êproprijete] nf [emploi erroné] incorrectness; [expression] (language) error. improvisation [ëprovizasjS] nf improvisation. improviser [ëprovize] [3] vt to improvise. ♦ s'improviser vp -1. [s'organiser] to be improvised. -2. [devenir]: s'~ metteur en scène to act as director. improviste [ëprovist] ♦ à l'improviste loc adv unexpectedly, without warning. imprudemment [ê pry da mû] adv rashly. imprudence [ëprydâs] nf -1. [de personne, d'acte] rashness. -2. [acte] rash act. imprudent, -e [ëprydâ, ât] o adj rash, o nm, f rash person. impubère [ëpyber] o adj [avant la puberté] pre-pubescent. O nmf]l)R — minor. impudence [ëpydâs] nf -1. [de personne, propos] impudence. -2. [propos] impudent remark. impudent, -e [ëpydâ, ât] o adj impudent. O nm, f impudent person. impudeur [èpydoer] «f shamelessness. impudique [ëpydik] adj shameless. impuissance [ëpqisâs] nf-1. [incapacité]: ~ (à faire qqch) powerlessness (to do sthg). -2. [sexuelle] impotence. impuissant, -e [ëpqisâ, ât] adj -1. [incapable]: ~ (à faire qqch) powerless to do sthg. -2. [homme, fureur] impotent. ♦ impuissant nm impotent man. impulsif, -ive [ëpylsif, iv] O adj impulsive. o nm, /"impulsive person. impulsion [ëpylsj5] nf -1. [poussée, essor] impetus. -2. [instinct] impulse, instinct. -3. fig: sous l'~ de qqn [influence] at the prompting OU instigation of sb; sous l'~ de qqch [effet] impelled by sthg. impulsivement [ëpylsivmâ] adv impulsively. impulsivité [ëpylsivite] «/"impulsiveness. impunément [ëpynemâ] adv with impunity. impuni, -e [ëpyni] adj unpunished. impunité [ëpynite] «/"impunity; en toute ~ with impunity. impur, -e [ëpyr] adj impure. impureté [ëpyrte] «/"impurity. imputable [ëpytabl] adj -1. [accident, erreur]: ~ à attributable to. -2. FIN: ~ à OU sur chargeable to. imputation [ëpytasj5] nf -1. [accusation]

charge. -2. FIN charging. imputer [ëpyte] [3] vt: ~ qqch à qqn/à qqch to attribute sthg to sb/to sthg; ~ qqch à qqch FIN to charge sthg to sthg. imputrescible [ëpytresibl] adj [bois] rotproof; [déchets] non-degradable. in [in] adj inv vieilli in, with it. INA [ina] (abr de Institut national de l'audiovisuel) nm national television archive. inabordable [inabsrdabl] adj -1. [prix] prohibitive. -2. GÉOGR inaccessible (by boat). -3. [personne] unapproachable. inacceptable [inakseptabl] adj unacceptable. inaccessible [inaksesibl] adj [destination, domaine, personne] inaccessible; [objectif, poste] unattainable; ~ à [sentiment] impervious to. inaccoutumé, -e [inakutyme] adj unaccustomed. inachevé, -e [inajve] adj unfinished, uncompleted. inactif, -ive [inaktif, iv] adj -1. [sans occupation, non utilisé] idle. -2. [sans effet] ineffective. -3. [sans emploi] non-working. inaction [inaksp] «/"inaction. inactivité [inaktivite] nf-1. [oisiveté] inactivity. -2. ADMIN: en ~ out of active service. inadapté, -e [inadapte] O adj -1. [non adapté]: ~ (à) unsuitable (for), unsuited (to). -2. [asocial] maladjusted, o nm, f maladjusted person. inadéquat, -e [inadekwa, at] adj: ~ (à) inadequate (for). inadéquation [inadekwasjô] nf: ~ (à) inadequacy (for). * inadmissible [inadmisibl] adj [conduite] unacceptable. inadvertance [inadvertâs] nf littéraire oversight; par ~ inadvertently. inaliénable [inaljenabl] adj inalienable. inaltérable [inalterabl] adj -1. [matériau] stable. -2. [sentiment] unfailing. jtiatwiral -e, -aux [inamikal, o] adj unfriendly. inamovible [inamovibl] adj fixed. inanimé, -e [inanime] adj -1. [sans vie] inanimate. -2. [inerte, évanoui] senseless. inanité [inanité] «/"futility. inanition [inanisj5] nf: tomber/mourir d'~ to faint with/die of hunger. inaperçu, -e [inapersy] adj unnoticed; passer ~ to go OU pass unnoticed.

inapplicable 268 inapplicable [inaplikabl] adj inapplicable. inappliqué, -e [inaplike] adj -1. [étourdi] lazy, lacking in application. -2. [inemployé] not applied OU practised. inappréciable [inapresjabl] adj -1. [infime] imperceptible. -2. [précieux] invaluable. inapprochable [inaprojabl] adj: il est vraiment ~ en ce moment you can't say anything to him at the moment. inapproprié, -e [inaproprije] adj: ~ à not appropriate for. inapte [inapt] adj -1. [incapable]: ~ à qqch à faire qqch incapable of sthg/of doing sthg. -2. MIL unfit. inaptitude [inaptityd] nf-1. [incapacité]: ~ à qqch à faire qqch incapacity for sthg/for doing sthg. -2. mil unfitness. inarticulé, -e [inartikyle] adj inarticulate. inassouvi, -e [inasuvi] adj [faim] unsatisfied; [soif] unquenched; fig [sentiment] unsatisfied, unfulfilled. inattaquable [inatakabl] adj -1. [imprenable] impregnable. -2. [irréprochable] irreproachable, beyond reproach. -3. [irréfutable] irrefutable. inattendu, -e [inatûdy] adj unexpected. inattentif, -ive [inatâtif, iv] adj: ~ à inattentive to. inattention [inatàsj5] nf inattention; faute d'~ careless mistake. inaudible [inodibl] adj -1. [impossible à entendre] inaudible. -2. [inécoutable] impossible to listen to. inaugural, -e, -aux [inogyral, o] adj inaugural (avant «), opening (avant n). inauguration [inogyrasjS] nf-1. [cérémonie] inauguration, opening (ceremony). -2. [début] dawn. inaugurer [inogyre] [3] vt -1. [monument] to unveil; [installation, route] to open; [procédé, édifice] to inaugurate. -2. [époque] to usher in. inavouable [inavwabl] adj unmentionable. inavoué, -e [inavwe] adj unconfessed. INC (abr de Institut national de la consommation) nm consumer research organization. inca [cka] adj Inca. ♦ Inca ««//"Inca. incalculable [êkalkylabl] adj incalculable. incandescence [êkâdesâs] nf incandescence. incandescent, -e [ëkâdesâ, ât] adj incandescent. incantation [êkâtasjS] nf incantation. incapable [êkapabl] O nmf-1. [raté] incompetent. -2. JUR incapable person. O adj: ~ de faire qqch [inapte à] incapable of doing

sthg; [dans l'impossibilité de] unable to do sthg. incapacité [êkapasite] nf-1. [impossibilité] : ~ à OU de faire qqch inability to do sthg; être dans I'~ de to be unable to. -2. [invalidité] disability; ~ de travail industrial disability. -3. ]UR incapacity. -4. [incompétence] incompetence. incarcération [êkarserasj5] «/"incarceration. incarcérer [êkarsere] [18] vt to incarcerate. incarnation [èkarnasjô] «/"incarnation. incarné, -e [ckarne] adj incarnate. incarner [ckarne] [3] vt -1. [personnifier] to be the incarnation of. -2. CIN & THÉÂTRE to play. ♦ s'incarner vp -1. RELIG to be ou become incarnate. -2. [se réaliser] to be incarnated. -3. MED [ongle] to become ingrown. incartade [êkartad] nf misdemeanor Am, misdemeanour Br. incassable [êkasabl] adj unbreakable. incendiaire [êsâdjer] o ««//"arsonist, o adj [bombe] incendiary; fig inflammatory. incendie [êsàdi] nm fire; fig flames (j?f); ~ de forêt forest fire. incendier [êsâdje] [9] vt -1. [mettre le feu à] to set alight, to set fire to. -2. fig [faire rougir] to make burn. -3. fam [réprimander] to tear a strip off. incertain, -e [ësertë, en] adj -1. [gén] uncertain; [temps] unsettled. -2. [vague - lumière] dim; [- contour] blurred. incertitude [csertityd] nf uncertainty; être dans I'~ to be uncertain. incessamment [ësesamô] adv at any moment, any moment now. incessant, -e [csesù, ât] adj incessant. incessible [êsesibl] adj inalienable. inceste [esest] nm incest. incestueux, -euse [êsestqo, oz] o adj -1. [liaison, parent] incestuous. -2. [enfant] born of incest, o nm, f incestuous person. inchangé, -e [êfâ3e] adj unchanged. incidemment [êsidamâ] adv -1. [accidentellement] accidentally. -2. [entre parenthèses] in passing. incidence [êsidâs] nf-1. [conséquence] effect, impact (U). -2. FIN & PHYS incidence. incident, -e [êsidâ, ât] adj [accessoire] incidental. ♦ incident nm -1. [gén] incident; [ennui] hitch; sans ~ without incident OU a hitch; ~ diplomatique diplomatic incident; ~ de

269 incompressible parcours (minor) setback. -2. JUR point of law. incinérateur [ësineratcer] nm incinerator. incinération [ësinerasjS] nf -1. [de corps] cremation. -2. [d'ordures] incineration. incinérer [èsinere] [18] vt -1. [corps] to cremate. -2. [ordures] to incinerate. incise [êsiz] nf LING interpolated clause. inciser [êsize] [3] vt to incise, to make an incision in. incisif, -ive [ësizif, iv] adj incisive. ♦ incisive nf incisor. incision [ësizjô] «/incision. incitation [êsitasj5] nf -t. [provocation]: ~ à qach/à faire qqch incitement to sthg/to do sthg. -2. [encouragement]: ~ à qqch/à faire qqch incentive to sthg/to do sthg. inciter [êsite] [3] vt -1. [provoquer]: ~ qqn à qqch/à faire qqch to incite sb to sthg/to do sthg. -2. [encourager]: ~ qqn à faire qqch to encourage sb to do sthg. inclassable [êkiasabl] adj un classifiable. inclinable [eklinabl] adj reclinable, reclining. ^ inclinaison [ëklinezS] nf-t. [pente] incline. -2. [de tête, chapeau] angle, tilt. inclination [ëklinasjS] nf-1. [salut - de tête] nod; [- du corps entier] bow. -2. [tendance] inclination; avoir une ~ à to have an inclination OU a tendency to; avoir une ~ pour [aimer] to have a liking for. -3. littéraire [amour] (romantic) attachment. incliner [êkline] [3] O vt -1. [pencher] to tilt, to lean. -2. [pousser]: ~ qqn à qqch/à faire qqch to incline sb to sthg/to do sthg. O vi: ~ à qqch/à taire qqch to be inclined to sthg/to do sthg. ♦ s'incliner vp -1. [se pencher] to tilt, to lean. -2. [céder]: s'~ (devant) to give in (to), to yield (to). -3. [respecter]: s'~ devant to bow down before. inclure [êklyr] [96] vt [mettre dedans]: ~ qqch dans qqch to include sthg in sthg; [joindre] to enclose sthg with sthg. inclus, -e [êkly, yz] O pp —*■ inclure. O adj -1. [compris - taxe, frais] included; [joint lettre] enclosed; [y compris]: jusqu'à la page 10 ~e up to and including page 10. -2. [dent] impacted. -3. MATHS: être ~ dans to be a subset of. inclusion [ëklyzjS] ///inclusion. inclusivement [ëklyzivmâ] adv inclusive. incoercible [ëkoersibl] adj sout uncontrollable. incognito [ekojiito] o adv incognito, o nm: garder l'~ to remain incognito. incohérence [ëkoerâs] nf [de paroles]

incoherence; [d'actes] inconsistency. incohérent, -e [êk^erâ, ât] adj [paroles] incoherent; [actes] inconsistent. incollable [ëkolabl] adj -1. [riz] nonstick. -2. fam [imbattable] unbeatable. incolore [ëksbr] adj colorless Am, colourless Br. incomber [ëk5be] [3] vi: ~ à qqn to be sb's responsibility; il incombe à qqn de faire qqch (emploi impersonnel) it falls to sb OU it is incumbent on sb to do sthg. incombustible [êk5bystibl] adj incombustible. incommensurable [ëkomâsyrabl] adj -1. [immense] immeasurable. -2. MATHS: ~ avec incommensurable with. incommodant, -e [ck^modû, ât] adj unpleasant. incommode [ëkomod] adj -1. [heure, lieu] inconvenient. -2. [position, chaise] uncomfortable. incommoder [ëkomode] [3] vt to trouble. incommodité [ëkomodite] nf -1. [d'installation] impracticality. -2. [malaise] indisposition. -3. [de situation] awkwardness. incommunicable [ekomynikabl] adj -1. [indicible] inexpressible. -2. JUR nontransferable. incomparable [ëk5parabl] adj -1. [différent] not comparable. -2. [sans pareil] incomparable. incomparablement [ëk5parabbmû] adv incomparably. incompatibilité [êkSpatibilite] ///'incompatibility; ~ d'humeur (mutual) incompatibility. incompatible [ëkSpatibl] adj incompatible. incompétence [ëk5petâs] nf -1. [incapacité] incompetence. -2. [ignorance]: ~ en qqch ignorance about sthg. incompétent, -e [ëkôpetâ, ât] adj -1. [incapable] incompetent. -2. [ignorant]: ~ en qqch ignorant about sthg. incomplet, -ète [ëkSple, et] adj incomplete. incomplètement [ëkSpletmâ] adv incompletely. incompréhensible [ëkSpreâsibl] adj incomprehensible. incompréhensif, -ive [ëkSpreâsif, iv] adj unsympathetic. incompréhension [ëk5preôsj5] nf lack of understanding. incompressible [ëkSpresibl] adj -1. TECHNOL incompressible. -2. fig [dépenses] impossible to reduce. -3. JUR —► peine.

incompris 270 incompris, -e [êk5pri, iz] o adj misunderstood, not appreciated. O nm, f misunderstood person. inconcevable [êk5svabl] adj unimaginable. inconciliable [êk5siljabl] adj irreconcilable. inconditionnel, -elle [ck5dispnel] O adj -1. [total] unconditional. -2. [fervent] ardent. O nm, fardent supporter OU admirer. inconditionnellement [êk5dispnelmâ] adv unconditionally. inconduite [êkSdqit] nf littéraire scandalous behavior Am OU behaviour Br. inconfort [êk5for] nm discomfort. inconfortable [êk5brtabl] adj uncomfortable. incongru, -e [êk5gry] adj -1. [malséant] unseemly, inappropriate. -2. [bizarre] incongruous. incongruité [êkSgrqite] nf -1. [qualité bizarre] incongruity (U). -2. [parole malséante] unseemly remark. inconnu, -e [ëksny] O adj unknown, o nm, f stranger; la personne qui a eu le prix Goncourt cette année est un illustre ~ hum no one has ever heard of the renowned winner of the prix Goncourt this year. ♦ inconnue nf -1. MATHS unknown. -2. [variable] unknown (factor). inconsciemment [ëk5sjamô] adv -1. [sans en avoir conscience] unconsciously, unwittingly. -2. [à la légère] thoughtlessly. inconscience [êkSsjâs] nf -1. [évanouissem*nt] unconsciousness. -2. [légèreté] thoughtlessness. inconscient, -e [êkôsjâ, ât] adj -1. [évanoui, machinal] unconscious. -2. [irresponsable] thoughtless. ♦ inconscient nm: P~ the unconscious. inconséquence [êk5sekâs] nf inconsistency. inconséquent, -e [ëk5sekâ, ât] adj inconsistent. inconsidéré, -e [êk5sidere] adj illconsidered, thoughtless. inconsistant, -e [êk5sistâ, ât] adj -1. [aliment] thin, watery. -2. [caractère] frivolous. inconsolable [êkôsolabl] adj inconsolable. inconstance [êk5stâs] ///fickleness. inconstant, -e [êk5stâ, ât] o adj fickle, o nm, f vieilli fickle heart. incontestable [êk5testabl] adj unquestionable, indisputable. incontestablement [êk5testabbmâ] adv unquestionably, indisputably. incontesté, -e [èk5teste] adj uncontested, unchallenged. incontinence [êk5tinâs] nf -1. MÉD

incontinence. -2. [excès] lack of restraint. incontinent, -e [ck5tinâ, ât] adj -1. MÉD incontinent. -2. [sans retenue] unrestrained. ♦ incontinent adv littéraire forthwith. incontournable [êk5turnabl] adj unavoidable. inconvenance [êkôvnâs] «f impropriety. inconvenant, -e [ëk5vnâ, ât] adj improper, unseemly. inconvénient [êkSvenjâ] nm -1. [obstacle] problem; si vous n'y voyez pas d'~ if that is convenient (for you), if you have no objection. -2. [désavantage] disadvantage, drawback. -3. [risque] risk. incorporation [ekDrpDrasj5] nf -1. [intégration] incorporation; CUL1N mixing, blending. -2. [MIL] enlistment. incorporé, -e [êkorpore] adj [intégré] builtin. incorporel, -elle [ckoroDrel] adj -1. [immatériel] incorporeal. -2. ]UR intangible. incorporer [êkorpore] [3] vt -1. [gén] to incorporate; ~ qqch dans to incorporate sthg into; ~ qqch à CULIN to mix OU blend sthg into. -2. MIL to enlist. ♦ s'incorporer vy\ s'~ à qqch to become part of sthg. incorrect, -e [eksrekt] adj -1. [faux] incorrect. -2. [inconvenant] inappropriate; [impoli] rude. -3. [déloyal] unfair; être ~ avec qqn to treat sb unfairly. incorrection [êkoreksj5] nf -1. [impolitesse] impropriety. -2. [de langage] grammatical mistake. -3. [malhonnêteté] dishonesty. incorrigible [êkon^ibl] adj incorrigible. incorruptible [êkoryptibl] adj incorruptible. incrédule [êkredyl] O nmf -1. [sceptique] skeptic Am, sceptic Br. -2. RELIG unbeliever. O adj -1. [sceptique] incredulous, skeptical Am, sceptical Br. -2. RELIG unbelieving. incrédulité [êkredylite] nf -1. [scepticisme] incredulity, skepticism Am, scepticism Br. -2. RELIG unbelief, lack of belief. increvable [ëkravabl] adj -1. [ballon, pneu] [juncture-proof. -2. fam fig [personne] tireess; [machine] that will withstand rough treatment. incriminer [êkrimine] [3] vt -1. [personne] to incriminate. -2. [conduite] to condemn. incroyable [êkrwajabl] adj incredible, unbelievable. incroyablement [êkrwajabbmâ] adv incredibly, unbelievably. incroyant, -e [êkrwajâ, ât] O adj unbelieving. O nm, f unbeliever.

271 indésirable incrustation [êkrystasj'5] nf -1. [ornement] inlay. -2. [dépôt] deposit, fur (U). incruster [êkryste] [3] vt -1. [insérer]: ~ qqch dans qqch to inlay sthg into sthg. -2. [décorer]: ~ qqch de qqch to inlay sthg with sthg. -3. [couvrir d'un dépôt] to fur up. ♦ s'incruster vp -1. [s'insérer]: s'~ dans qqch to become embedded in sthg. -2. [chaudière] to fur up. -3. fam fig [personne] to take root. incubateur, -trice [êkybatœr, tris] adj incubating. ♦ incubateur nm incubator. incubation [êkybasj5] nf [d'oeuf, de maladie] incubation; fig hatching. inculpation [êkylpasjS] nf charge; sous P~ de on a charge of. inculpé, -e [êkylpe] nm, f. P~ the accused. inculper [êkylpe] [3] vt to charge; ~ qqn de to charge sb with. inculquer [êkylke] [3] vt: ~ qqch à qqn to instill Am OU instil Br sthg in sb. inculte [êkylt] adj -1. [terre] uncultivated. -2. [barbe] unkempt. -3. péj [personne] uneducated. inculture [êkyltyr] nf-1. [intellectuelle] lack of education. -2. [de terre] lack of cultivation. incurable [êkyrabl] O nmf incurably ill person, o adj incurable. incurie [êkyri] «/"negligence. incursion [ëkyrsj'5] «/"incursion, foray. incurver [êkyrve] [3] vt to curve. ♦ s'incurver vp to curve, to bend. Inde [êd] nf. l'~ India. indéboulonnable [êdebybnabl] adj: il est ~ hum they'll never be able to sack him. indécence [êdesâs] nf -1. [impudeur, immoralité] indecency. -2. [propos] indecent remark; [action] indecent act. indécent, -e [êdesâ, ât] adj -1. [impudique] indecent. -2. [immoral] scandalous. indéchiffrable [êdejifrabl] adj -1. [texte, écriture] indecipherable. -2. [énigme] inexplicable. -3. fig [regard] inscrutable, impenetrable. indéchirable [êdejirabl] adj tear-proof. indécis, -e [êdesi, iz] O adj -1. [personne sur le moment] undecided; [- de nature] indecisive. -2. [sourire] vague. -3. [résultat] uncertain. O nm, f indecisive person. ♦ indécis nmpl [dans sondage] don't knows. indécision [êdesizjS] nf indecision; [perpétuelle] indecisiveness. indécrottable [êdekrotabl] adj fam -1. [borné] incredibly dumb. -2. [incorrigible]

hopeless. indéfectible [êdefektibl] adj indestructible. indéfendable [êdefâdabl] adj indefensible. indéfini, -e [êdefini] adj -1. [quantité, pronom] indefinite. -2. [sentiment] vague. ♦ indéfini nm GRAM indefinite. indéfiniment [êdefinimâ] adv indefinitely. indéfinissable [ëdefinisabl] adj indefinable. indéformable [ëdeformabl] adj that retains its shape. indélébile [êdelebil] adj indelible. indélicat, -e [êdelika, at] adj -1. [mufle] indelicate. -2. [malhonnête] dishonest. indémaillable [êdemajabl] O nm runresistant material, o adj run-resistant. indemne [êdemn] adj unscathed, unharmed; sortir ~ de qqch to come out of sthg unscathed OU unharmed. indemnisation [ëdemnizasjS] «/"compensation. indemniser [ëdemnize] [3] vt: ~ qqn de qqch [perte, préjudice] to compensate sb for sthg; [frais] to reimburse sb for sthg. indemnité [êdemnite] nf-1. [de perte, préjudice] compensation; ~ de licenciement redundancy payment. -2. [de frais] allowance; ~ journalière daily allowance; ~ de logement housing Am OU accommodation Br allowance. -3. [allocation]: ~ parlementaire Congressman's Am OU MP's Br salary. indémodable [ëdemodabl] adj: ce style est ~ this style doesn't date. indéniable [êdenjabl] adj undeniable. indéniablement [ëdenjablamâ] adv undeniably. indépendamment [êdepôdamâ] adv: ~ de [abstraction faite de] regardless OU irrespective of; [outre] apart from; [sans rapport avec] independently of. indépendance [êdepûdâs] nf independence; accéder à l'~ to gain independence. indépendant, -e [êdepâdâ, ât] adj -1. [gén] independent; [entrée] separate; ~ de independent of; ~ de ma volonté beyond my control. -2. [travailleur] self-employed. indépendantiste [êdepâdâtist] o nmf advocate of political independence, o adj independence {avant «). indéracinable [êderasinabl] adj [arbre] impossible to uproot; fig ineradicable. indescriptible [ëdeskriptibl] adj indescribable. indésirable [ëdezirabl] nmf & adj undesirable.

indestructible 272 indestructible [êdestryktibl] adj indestructible. indéterminé, -e [êdetcrmine] adj -1. [indéfini] indeterminate, indefinite. -2. [vague] vague. -3. [personne] undecided. indétrônable [êdetronabl] adj inoustable. index [êdeks] nm -1. [doigt] index finger. -2. [aiguille] pointer, needle. -3. [registre] index; mettre à l'~ fig to blacklist. indexation [êdeksasjô] nf indexing. indexer [êdekse] [4] vt -1. ÉCON: ~ qqch sur qqch to index sthg to sthg. -2. [livre] to index. indicateur, -trice [êdikatœr, tris] adj: poteau ~ signpost; panneau ~ road sign. ♦ indicateur nm -1. [guide] directory, guide; ~ des chemins de fer railroad Am OU railway Br timetable. -2. TECHNOL gauge; ~ d'altitude altimeter; ~ de vitesse speedometer. -3. ÉCON indicator. -4. [de police] informer. indicatif, -ive [êdikatif, iv] adj indicative. ♦ indicatif nm -1. RADIO & TÉLÉ signature tune. -2. [code]: ~ (téléphonique) dial code Am, dialling code Br. -3. GRAM: l'~ the indicative. indication [êdikasjS] nf-1. [mention] indication. -2. [renseignement] information (I/). -3. [directive] instruction; sauf ~ contraire unless otherwise instructed. indice [êdis] nm -1. [signe] sign. -2. [dans une enquête] clue. -3. [taux] rating; ~ du coût de la vie ÉCON cost-of-living index; ~ des prix ÉCON price index; ~ de refroidissem*nt Can windchill factor. -4. MATHS index. indicible [êdisibl] adj inexpressible. indien, -ienne [êdjc, jen] adj -1. [d'Inde] Indian. -2. [d'Amérique] American Indian, Native American. ♦ Indien, -ienne nm, f -1. [d'Inde] Indian. -2. [d'Amérique] American Indian, Native American. indifféremment [èdiferamâ] adv indifferently. indifférence [êdiferâs] «f indifference. indifférencié, -e [êdiferâsje].adj^undifferentiated. indifférent, -e [êdiferâ, ât] o adj -1. [gén]: ~ à indifferent to. -2. sout [égal] immaterial. o nm, f unconcerned person. indifférer [èdifere] [18] vt to be a matter of indifference to. indigence [êdi3âs] «/"poverty. indigène [êdi3en] O nmf native. O adj [peuple] native; [faune, flore] indigenous. indigent, -e [êdi3â, ât] O adj [pauvre] destitute, poverty-stricken; fig [intellectuellement] impoverished. O nm, (poor: person; les ~s

the poor, the destitute. indigeste [èdisest] adj indigestible. indigestion [êdî3estj5] nf-1. [alimentaire] indigestion; avoir une ~ to have indigestion. -2. fig [saturation] surfeit; avoir une -~ de to have had one's fill of. indignation [ëdijiasp] nf indignation. indigne [êdiji] adj: ~ (de) unworthy (of). indigné, -e [êdijie] adj indignant. indigner [êdijie] [3] vt to make indignant. ♦ s'indigner vp: s'~ de OU contre qqch to get indignant about sthg; s'~ que (+ subjonctif) to be indignant that. indigo [êdigo] O nm indigo, o adj inv indigo (blue). indiqué, -e [êdike] adj -1. [convenable] appropriate. -2. [recommandé] advisable; ce n'est pas très ~ it's not very advisable. -3. [fixé] appointed. indiquer [êdike] [3] vt -1. [désigner] to indicate, to point out; ~ qqn/qqch du doigt to point at sb/sthg, to point sb/sthg out; ~ qqn/qqch du regard to glance toward sb/ sthg Am, to glance towards sb/sthg Br. -2. [afficher, montrer - suj: carte, pendule, aiguille] to show, to indicate. -3. [recommander]: ~ qqn/qqch à qqn to tell sb of sb/sthg, to suggest sb/sthg to sb. -4. [dire, renseigner sur] to tell; ~ à qqn comment faire qqch to tell sb how to do sthg; pourriez-vous m'~ l'heure^ could you tell me the time£ -5. [fixer - heure, date, lieu] to name, to indicate. -6. [dénoter] to indicate, to point to. indirect, -e [êdirekt] adj [gén] indirect; [itinéraire] roundabout. indirectement [êdirektamâ] adv indirectly. indiscipline [êdisiplin] f//lack of discipline. indiscipliné, -e [êdisipline] adj -1. [écolier, esprit] undisciplined, unruly. -2. fig [mèches de cheveux] unmanageable. indiscret, -ète [êdiskre, et] o adj indiscreet; [curieux] inquisitive. O nm, f indiscreet person. indiscrètement [êdiskrctmâ] adv indiscreetly; [avec curiosité] inquisitively. indiscrétion [êdiskresj5] nf indiscretion; [curiosité] curiosity; sans ~ ... without wishing to be indiscreet .... indiscutable [êdiskytabl] adj unquestionable, indisputable. indiscutablement [êdiskytabtemâ] adv unquestionably, indisputably. indiscuté, -e [êdiskyte] adj undisputed, unquestioned.

273 inégal indispensable [êdispâsabl] O adj indispensable, essential; ~ à indispensable to, essential to; il est ~ que (+ subjonctif) it is essential OU vital that; il est ~ de faire qqch it is essential OU vital to do sthg. O nm: P~ the essentials (pî). indisponibilité [êdisponibilite] nf unavailability. indisponible [êdisponibl] adj unavailable. indisposé, -e [êdispoze] adj [malade] unwell; être ~e [femme] to be indisposed. indisposer [êdispoze] [3] vt -1. sout [rendre malade] to indispose. -2. littéraire [fâcher] to vex. indisposition [êdispozisj'5] nf -1. [malaise] indisposition. -2. [règles] period. indissociable [êdisosjabl] adj indissociable. indissoluble [êdisolybl] adj indissoluble. indistinct, -e [êdistê(kt), êkt] adj indistinct; [souvenir] hazy. indistinctement [êdistêktamû] adv -1. [confusément] indistinctly. -2. [indifféremment] equally well. individu [êdividy] nm individual. individualiste [êdividqalist] o nmf individualist. O adj individualistic. individualité [êdividqalite] nf-1. [personne] individual. -2. [unicité, originalité] individuality. # # individuel, -elle [êdividqel] adj individual. individuellement [êdividqelmâ] adv individually. indivis, -e [êdivi, iz] adj -1. [propriété] undivided. -2. [héritier] joint; par ~ jointly. indivisible [ëdivizibl] adj indivisible. Indochine [ëcbjin] nf l'~ Indochina; la guerre d'~ the Indochinese War. indo-européen, -enne [êdoceropeê, en] (mpl indo-européens, fpl indo-européennes) adj Indo-European. indolence [êdolâs] »/"-l. [de personne] indolence, lethargy. -2. [d'organisation] apathy. -3. [de geste, regard] languidness. indolent, -e [êdslâ, ât] adj -1. [personne] indolent, lethargic. -2. [geste, regard] languid. indolore [ccbbr] adj painless. indomptable [êd5tabl] adj -1. [animal] untamable. -2. [personne] indomitable. -3. [sentiment] uncontrollable. Indonésie [êdonezi] ///Indonesia. indonésien, -ienne [êdanezjê, jen] adj Indonesian. ♦ indonésien nm [langue] Indonesian. ♦ Indonésien, -ienne nm, /Indonesian. indu, -e [êdy] adj -1. [heure] ungodly, unearthly. -2. [dépenses, remarque] unwarranted.

indubitable [êdybitabl] adj indubitable, undoubted; il est ~ que it is indisputable OU beyond doubt that. indubitablement [êdybitablamâ] adv undoubtedly, indubitably. induction [ëdyksjS] «f induction; par ~ by induction. induire [êdqir] [98] vt to induce; ~ qqn à faire qqch to induce sb to do sthg; ~ qqn en erreur to mislead sb; en ~ que to infer OU gather that. induit, -e [êdqi, qit] O pp —► induire. O adj -1. [consécutif] resulting. -2. ÉLECTR induced. indulgence [êdyl3âs] nf [de juge] leniency; [de parent] indulgence; avec ~ leniently/ indulgently. indulgent, -e [êdyl3â, ât] adj [juge] lenient; [parent] indulgent. indûment [êdymû] adv unduly. industrialisation [êdystrijalizasjS] nf industrialization. industrialiser [êdystrijalize] [3] vt to industrialize. ♦ s'industrialiser vp to become industrialized. industrie [êdystri] nf industry; ~ alimentaire food industry; ~ automobile car industry; ~ chimique chemical industry; ~ lourde heavy industry. industriel, -ielle [êdystrijcl] adj industrial. ♦ industriel nm industrialist. industrieux, -ieuse [êdystrijo, j0z] adj littéraire industrious. inébranlable [inebrôlabl] adj -1. [roc] solid, immovable. -2. fig [conviction] unshakeable. INED, Ined [ined] (abr de Institut national d'études démographiques) nm national institute for demographic research. inédit, -e [inedi, it] adj -1. [texte] unpublished. -2. [trouvaille] novel, original. ♦ inédit nm unpublished work. ineffable [inefabl] adj ineffable. ineffaçable [inefasabl] adj indelible. inefficace [inefikas] adj -1. [personne, machine] inefficient. -2. [solution, remède, mesure] ineffective. inefficacité [inefikasite] nf-1. [de personne, machine] inefficiency. -2. [de solution, remède, mesure] ineffectiveness. inégal, -e, -aux [inégal, o] adj -1. [différent, disproportionné] unequal. -2. [irrégulier] uneven. -3. [changeant] changeable; [artiste, travail] erratic.

inégalable 274 inégalable [inegalabi] adj matchless. inégalé, -e [inégale] adj unequaled Am, unequalled Br. inégalement [inegalmâ] adv [gén] unequally; [irrégulièrement] unevenly. inégalité [inégalité] nf -1. [injustice, disproportion] inequality; —s sociales social inequalities. -2. [différence] difference, disparity. -3. [irrégularité] unevenness. -4. [d'humeur] changeability. inélégant, -e [inelegâ, ât] adj -1. [dans l'habillement] inelegant. -2. fig [indélicat] discourteous. inéligible [ineli3ibl] adj ineligible. inéluctable [inelyktabl] adj inescapable. inéluctablement [inelyktabbmù] adv inescapably. inénarrable [inenarabl] adj very funny. inepte [inept] adj inept. ineptie [inepsi] nf -\. [bêtise] ineptitude. -2. [chose idiote] nonsense (U); dire des —s to talk nonsense. inépuisable [inepqizabi] adj inexhaustible. inerte [inert] adj -1. [corps, membre] lifeless. -2. [personne] passive, inert. -3. PHYS inert. inertie [inersi] nf -1. [manque de réaction] apathy, inertia. -2. PHYS inertia. inespéré, -e [inespéré] adj unexpected, unhoped-for. inesthétique [inestetik] adj unaesthetic. inestimable [inestimablj adj: d'une valeur ~ priceless; fig invaluable. inévitable [inevitabl] adj [obstacle] unavoidable; [conséquence] inevitable. inévitablement [inevitablamâ] adv inevitably. inexact, -e [inegza(kt), akt] adj -1. [faux, incomplet] inaccurate, inexact. -2. [en retard] unpunctual. inexactitude [inegzaktityd] nf -1. [erreur, imprécision] inaccuracy. -2. [retard] unpunctuality. inexcusable [inekskyzabl] adj unforgivable, inexcusable. inexistant, -e [inegzistâ, ât] adj nonexistent. inexistence [inegzistâs] «f nonexistence. inexorable [inegzDrabl] adj inexorable. inexorablement [încgzorabbmû] adv inexorably. inexpérience [ineksperjâs] nf lack of experience, inexperience. inexpérimenté, -e [ineksperimâte] adj -1. [personne] inexperienced. -2. [gestes] inexpert. -3. [produit] untested. inexplicable [incksplikabl] adj inexplicable, unexplainable.

inexpliqué, -e [incksplike] adj unexplained. inexploré, -e [inekspbre] adj litt & fig unexplored; [mers] uncharted. inexpressif, -ive [inekspresif, iv] adj inexpressive. inexprimable [incksprimabl] adj inexpressible. inexprimé, -e [ineksprime] adj unexpressed. inexpugnable [inekspygnabl] adj impregnable. inextensible [inekstâsibl] adj -1. [matériau] unstretchable. -2. [étoffe] non-stretch. inextinguible [inckstêgibl] adj [passion] inextinguishable; [soif] unquenchable; [rire] uncontrollable. in extremis [inekstremis] adv at the last minute. inextricable [inekstrikabl] adj -1. [fouillis] inextricable. -2. fig [affaire, mystère] that cannot be unravelled. inextricablement [inekstrikabtamâ] adv inextricably. infaillible [êfajibl] adj [personne, méthode] infallible; [instinct] unerring. infaisable [êfazabl] adj unfeasible. infamant, -e [êfamâ, ât] adj [marché] dishonorable Am, dishonourable Br; [propos] defamatory. infâme [ëfam] adj -1. [ignoble] despicable. -2. hum & littéraire [dégoûtant] vile. infamie [êfami] nf infamy. infanterie [êfâtri] nf infantry. infanticide [êfâtisid] o nmf infanticide, child-killer. O adj infanticidal. infantile [ëfatil] adj -1. [maladie] childhood (avant n). -2. [médecine] for children. -3. [comportement] infantile. infantiliser [èfâtilize] [3] vt to treat like a child. infarctus [êfarktys] nm infarction, infarct; ~ du myocarde coronary thrombosis, myocardial infarction. infatigable [êfatigabl] adj -1. [personne] tireless. -2. [attitude] untiring. infatué, -e [êfatqe] adj: ~ de conceited about; ~ de soi-même self-important. infect, -e [êfekt] adj -1. [dégoûtant] vile. -2. littéraire [marais] foui. infecter [êfekte] [4] vt -1. [eau] to contaminate. -2. [plaie] to infect. -3. [empoisonner] to poison.

275 informatisation ♦ s'infecter vp to become infected, to turn septic. infectieux, -ieuse [êfeksjo, jez] adj infectious. infection [êfeksjô] nf -1. MÉD infection. -2. fig & péj [puanteur] stench. inféoder [efeode] [3] ♦ s'inféoder vp: s'~ à to pledge one's allegiance to. inférer [êfere] [18] vt littéraire: ~ qqch de qqch to infer sthg from sthg. inférieur, -e [êferjoer] o adj -1. [qui est en bas] lower. -2. [dans une hiérarchie] inferior; ~ à [qualité] inferior to; [quantité] less than; ~ ou égal à 8 MATHS less than or equal to 8. O nm, /"inferior. infériorité [êferjorite] «/"inferiority. infernal, -e, -aux [êfernal, o] adj -1. [personne] fiendish. -2. fig [bruit, chaleur, rythme] infernal; [vision] diabolical. infester [êfeste] [3] vt to infest; être infesté de [rats, moustiques] to be infested with; [touristes] to be overrun by. infidèle [êfidel] O adj -1. [mari, femme, ami]: ~ (à) unfaithful (to). -2. [traducteur, historien] inaccurate. -3. RJELIG & vieilli infidel. O ««//"RELIG & vieilli infidel. infidélité [êfidelite] nf -1. [trahison] infidelity; faire des ~s à to be unfaithful to. -2. [de traduction] inaccuracy. -3. [de mémoire] unreliability. infiltration [êfiltrasjô] «/"infiltration. infiltrer [êfiltre] [3] vt to infiltrate. ♦ s'infiltrer vp -1. [pluie, lumière]: s'~ par/dans to filter through/into. -2. [hommes, idées]: s'~ dans to infiltrate. infime [êfim] adj minute, infinitesimal. infini, -e [êfini] adj -1. [sans bornes] infinite, boundless. -2. MATHS, PHILO & RELIC infinite. -3. fig [interminable] endless, interminable. ♦ infini nm infinity. ♦ à l'infini loc adv -1. maths to infinity. -2. [discourir] ad infinitum, endlessly. infiniment [êfinimâ] adv extremely, immensely. infinité [êfinite] «/^infinity, infinite number. infinitésimal, -e, -aux [êfinitezimal, o] adj infinitesimal. infinitif, -ive [êfinitif, iv] adj infinitive. ♦ infinitif nm infinitive. infirme [êfirm] O adj [handicapé] disabled; [avec l'âge] infirm. O nmf disabled person; ~ de guerre disabled ex-serviceman (f exservice woman). infirmer [êfirme] [3] vt -1. [démentir] to invalidate. -2. )UR to annul. infirmerie [êfirmari] «/"infirmary.

infirmier, -ière [êfirmje, jer] nm, /"nurse; ~ diplômé = state-registered nurse. infirniité [êfirmite] nf [handicap] disability; [de vieillesse] infirmity. inflammable [êflamabl] adj inflammable, flammable. inflammation [êflamasjS] «f inflammation. inflation [êflasj5] nf ÉCON inflation; fig increase. inflationniste [eflasjonist] adj & nmf inflationist. infléchir [êflejir] [32] vt fig [politique] to modify. ♦ s'infléchir vp -1. [route] to bend. -2. fig [politique] to shift. inflexible [êfleksibl] adj inflexible. inflexion [êflcksjô] nf-1. [de tête] nod. -2. [de voix] inflection. -3. [de route] bend. -4. fig [de politique] shift. infliger [êfli3e] [17] vt: ~ qqch à qqn to inflict sthg on sb; [amende] to impose sthg on sb. influençable [êflyôsabl] adj easily influenced. influence [êflyâs] nf influence; [de médicament] effect; avoir de l'~ sur qqn to have an influence on sb; avoir une bonne/ mauvaise ~ sur [suj: personne] to have a good/bad influence on, to be a good/bad influence on; [suj: chose] to have a good/ bad effect on; agir sous l'~ de qqch to act under the influence of sthg. influencer [êflyâse] [16] vt to influence. influent, -e [ëflyâ, ât] adj influential. influer [êflye] [3] vi: ~ sur qqch to influence sthg, to have an effect on sthg. infographie [efsgrafi] nf computer graphics (U). informateur, -trice [êformatoer, tris] nm, f -1. [qui renseigne] informant. -2. [de police] informer. informaticien, -ienne [èbrmatisjè, jen] nm, f computer scientist. information [êfDrmasj5] nf -1. [renseignement] piece of information. -2. [renseignements & INFORM] information (I/). -3. [nouvelle] piece of news. -4. JUR inquiry. ♦ informations nfpl MÉDIA news (sg). informatique [êformatik] O nf -1. [technique] computers; ~ de gestion business applications (pf). -2. [science] computer science, o adj data-processing (avant «), computer (avant «). informatisation [êfDrmatizasjS] nf computerization.

informatiser 276 informatiser [êformatize] [3] vt to computerize. ♦ s'informatiser vp to become computerized. informe [êform] adj -1. [masse, vêtement, silhouette] shapeless. -2. fig [projet] sketchy, rough. informé, -e [ëforme] adj informed; bien/ mal ~ well/badly informed. ♦ informé nm: jusqu'à plus ample ~ pending further information. informel, -elle [êformel] adj informai. informer [ëforme] [3] O vt to inform; ~ qqn sur OU de qqch to inform sb about sthg. O v» JUR: ~ contre qqn sur qqch to investigate sb/sthg. ♦ s'informer vp to inform O.S.; s'~ de qqch to ask about sthg; s'~ sur qqch to find out about sthg. infortune [ëbrtyn] «f misfortune. infortuné, -e [ëbrtyne] littéraire & vieilli O adj wretched. O nm, figén pî) unfortunate. infos [ëfo] (abr de informations) nfpl fam: les ~ the news (sg). infraction [èfraksjS] nf: — à infringement OU breach of; être en ~ to be in breach of the law. infranchissable [êfrâjïsabl] adj insurmountable. infrarouge [ëfraru3] nm & adj infrared. infrastructure [êfrastryktyr] nf infrastructure; ~ hôtelière hotel facilities (j?t). infréquentable [êfrekâtabl] adj -1. [personne]: il est ~ you shouldn't mix with him. -2. [lieu]: ce café est ~ it's not the kind of café you should go to. infroissable [cfrwasabl] adj creaseresistant. infructueux, -euse [êfryktqo, 0z] adj fruitless. infuse [cfyz] —» science. infuser [ëfyze] [3] o vt -1. [tisane] to infuse; [thé] to brew; laisser ~ to leave to infuse OU brew. -2. fig & littéraire: ~ qqch à qqn/ qqch to infuse sb/sthg with sthg. o vi [tisane] to infuse; [thé] to brew. infusion [ëfyzj5] «/"infusion. ingambe [ëgâb] adj spry. ingénier [ë3enje] [9] ♦ s'ingénier vp: s'~ à faire qqch to try hard to do sthg. ingénierie [ë3eniri] «f engineering. ingénieur [ë3enjœr] nm engineer; ~ agronome/chimiste/électronicien agricultural/chemical/electronics engineer; ~ des mines mining engineer; ~ des ponts et chaussées civil engineer; ~ du son sound

engineer; ~ des travaux publics civil engineer. ingénieux, -ieuse [ê3enj0, joz] adj ingenious. ingéniosité [ë3enjozite] «/"ingenuity. ingénu, -e [ë3eny] O adj littéraire [candide] artless; hum & péj [trop candide] naïve. O nm, f littéraire [candide] naïve person; THÉÂTRE ingénue; jouer les ~s THÉÂTRE to play ingénue roles; [dans la vie] to act the sweet young thing. ingénuité [ë3enqite] «/"naivety. ingénument [ë3enymâ] adv naively. ingérable [ë3erabl] adj unmanageable. ingérence [ë3erâs] nf: ~ dans interference in. ingérer [ë3ere] [18] vt to ingest. ♦ s'ingérer vp: s'~ dans to interfere in. ingrat, -e [ëgra, at] o adj -1. [personne] ungrateful. -2. [métier] thankless, unrewarding. -3. [sol] barren. -4. [physique] unattractive. O nm, f ungrateful wretch. ingratitude [ëgratityd] nf ingratitude. ingrédient [ëgredjâ] nm ingredient. inguérissable [êgerisabl] adj incurable. ingurgiter [ëgyr3ite] [3] vt -1. [avaler] to swallow. -2. fig [connaissances] to absorb. inhabitable [inabitabl] adj uninhabitable. inhabité, -e [inabite] adj uninhabited. inhabituel, -elle [inabitqel] adj unusual. inhalateur, -trice [inalatcer, tris] adj: appareil ~ inhaler. ♦ inhalateur nm inhaler. inhalation [inalasjô] a;/ inhalation. inhaler [inale] [3] vt to inhale, to breathe in. inhérent, -e [inerâ, ât] adj: ~ à inherent in. inhiber [inibe] [3] vt to inhibit. inhibition [mibisp] «f inhibition. inhospitalier, -ière [insspitalje, jer] adj inhospitable. inhumain, -e [inymë, en] adj inhuman. inhumation [mymasp] «/"burial. inhumer [inyme] [3] vt to bury. inimaginable [inima3inabl] adj incredible, unimaginable. inimitable [inimitabl] adj inimitable. inimitié [inimitje] nf: ~ (contre OU à l'égard de) enmity (toward Am OU towards Br). ininflammable [inêflamabl] adj nonflammable. inintelligible [inëteli3ibl] adj unintelligible. inintéressant, -e [inêteresâ, ât] adj uninteresting.

277 inquiet ininterrompu, -e [inêtcrSpy] adj [file, vacarme] uninterrupted; [ligne, suite] unbroken; [travail, effort] continuous. inique [inik] adj iniquitous. iniquité [inikite] «/"iniquity. initial, -e, -iaux [inisjal, jo] adj [lettre] initial. ♦ initiale a;/ initial. initialement [inisjalmâ] adv initially. initialiser [inisjalize] [3] vt INFORM to initialize. initiateur, -trice [inisjatcer, tris] O adj innovative. O nm, f-1. [maître] initiator. -2. [précurseur] innovator. initiation [inisjasjS] nf ~ (à) [discipline] introduction (to); [rituel] initiation (into). initiatique [inisjatik] adj [rite] initiation (avant n). initiative [inisjativ] nf initiative; avoir de l'~ to have initiative; prendre l'~ de qqch/de faire qqch to take the initiative for sthg/in doing sthg; de sa propre ~ on one's own initiative. initié, -e [inisje] O adj initiated. O nm, f initiate. initier [inisje] [9] vt: ~ qqn à to initiate sb into. ♦ s'initier vp: s'~ à to familiarize o.s. with. injecté, -e [ë3ekte] adj: yeux ~s de sang bloodshot eyes. injecter [ê3ekte] [4] vt to inject. ♦ s'injecter vp [yeux]: s'~ (de sang) to become bloodshot. injection [ë3cksj5] wf injection. injoignable [êjwajiabl] adj: j'ai essayé de lui téléphoner mais il est ~ I tried to phone him but I couldn't get through to him OR reach him OR get hold of him. injonction [ê35ksj5] «f injunction. injure [ê3yr] nf insult; abreuver qqn d'~s to hurl insults at sb. injurier [ê3yrje] [9] vt to insult. injurieux, -ieuse [ë3yrj0, \az] adj abusive, insulting. injuste [ê3yst] adj unjust, unfair. injustement [ê3yst9mâ] adv unjustly, unfairly. injustice [c3ystis] wf injustice. injustifiable [c3ystifjabl] adj unjustifiable. injustifié, -e [ê3ystifje] adj unjustified. inlassable [êlasabl] adj tireless. inlassablement [êlasablamâ] adv tirelessly. inné, -e [ine] adj innate. innocemment [înosamû] adv innocently. innocence [inosâs] nf innocence. innocent, -e [inosâ, ât] O adj innocent, o

nm, f-1. JUR innocent person. -2. [inoffensif, candide] innocent; faire l'~ fig to play the innocent. -3. vieilli [idiot] simpleton. innocenter [inosâte] [3] vt -1. JUR to clear. -2. fig [excuser] to justify. innocuité [inokqite] nf harmlessness, innocuousness. innombrable [inSbrabl] adj innumerable; [foule] vast. innovateur, -trice [inovatcer, tris] O adj innovatory. O nm, f innovator. innovation [inDvasj5] «f innovation. innover [inove] [3] vi to innovate. inobservation [inDpservasjô] nf inobservance. inoccupé, -e [mokype] adj -1. [lieu] empty, unoccupied. -2. [personne, vie] idle. inoculation [inskylasjD] nf [volontaire] inoculation; [accidentelle] infection. inoculer [inokyle] [3] vt MÉD: ~ qqch à qqn [volontairement] to inoculate sb with sthg; [accidentellement] to infect sb with sthg. inodore [inodor] adj odorless Am, odourless Br. inoffensif, -ive [insfâsif, iv] adj harmless. inondation [in5dasj5] nf -1. [action] flooding. -2. [résultat] flood. inonder [in5de] [3] vt to flood; ~ de fig to flood with. inopérable [insperabl] adj inoperable. inopérant, -e [insperâ, ât] adj ineffective. inopiné, -e [inopiné] adj unexpected. inopinément [inspinemâ] adv unexpectedly. inopportun, -e [inopDitdb, yn] adj inopportune. inorganisé, -e [insrganize] o adj -1. [sans organisation] disorganized. -2. [politiquement] independent; [syndicalement] non-union (avant n). o nm, f [politiquement] independent; [syndicalement] non-union member. inoubliable [inublijabl] adj unforgettable. inouï, -e [inwi] adj incredible, extraordinary. Inox® [insks] nm inv ai adj inv stainless steel. inoxydable [insksidabl] O adj stainless; [casserole] stainless steel (avant n). o nm stainless steel. inqualifiable [ckalifjabl] adj unspeakable. inquiet, -iète [êkje, jet] O adj -1. [gén] anxious. -2. [tourmenté] feverish. O nm, f worrier.

inquiétant 278 inquiétant, -e [ëkjetâ, ât] adj disturbing, worrying. inquiéter [êkjete] [18] vt -1. [donner du souci à] to worry. -2. [déranger] to disturb. ♦ s'inquiéter vp -1. [s'alarmer] to be worried. -2. [se préoccuper]: s'~ de [s'enquérir de] to enquire about; [se soucier de] to worry about. inquiétude [ckjetyd] «/"anxiety, worry. inquisiteur, -trice [êkizitœr, tris] adj prying. INR (abr de Institut national de radiodiffusion) nm Belgian broadcasting company. INRA, Inra [inra] [abr de Institut national de la recherche agronomique) nm national institute for agronomic research. insaisissable [êsezisabl] adj -1. [personne] elusive. -2. fig [nuance] imperceptible. insalubre [êsalybr] adj unhealthy. insalubrité [êsalybrite] nf unhealthiness. insanité [êsanite] nf -1. [déraison] insanity, madness. -2. [propos]: dire des —s to say insane things. -3. [acte] insane act. insatiable [êsasjabl] adj insatiable. insatisfait, -e [ësatisfc, et] o adj -1. [personne] dissatisfied. -2. [sentiment] unsatisfied, o nm, f malcontent. inscription [êskripsj5] nf -1. [action, écrit] inscription. -2. [enregistrement] enrollment Am, enrolment Br, registration. -3. JUR registration. inscrire [êskrir] [99] vt -1. [écrire] to write down; [- sur la pierre, le métal] to inscribe. -2. [personne]: ~ qqn à qqch to register sb for sthg, to enroll Am OU enrol Br sb for sthg; ~ qqn sur qqch to put sb's name down on sthg. -3. SPORT [but] to score. ♦ s'inscrire vp -1. [personne]: s'~ à qqch to register for sthg, to enroll Am OU enrol Br for sthg; s'~ sur qqch to put one's name down on sthg. -2. [s'insérer]: s'~ dans to come within the scope of. -3. loc. s'~ en faux contre qqch to deny sthg vigorously. inscrit, -e [êskri, it] o pp —> inscrire, o adj [sur liste] registered; être ~ sur une liste to have one's name on a list, o nm, f registered person. inscrivais, inscrivions etc —► inscrire. INSEAD [insead] (abr de Institut européen d'administration) nm European business school in Fontainebleau. insecte [êsekt] nm insect. insecticide [èsektisid] nm 62 adj insecticide. insectivore [êsektivor] O adj insectivorous. O nm insectivore. insécurité [êsekyrite] nf insecurity. INSEE, Insee [inse] (abr de Institut national

de la statistique et des études économiques) nm national institute of statistics and information about the economy. insémination [ëseminasp] nf insemination; ~ artificielle artificial insemination. insensé, -e [êsâse] adj -1. [déraisonnable] insane. -2. [incroyable, excentrique] extraordinary. insensibiliser [êsâsibilize] [3] vt to anesthetize Am, to anaesthetize Br; ~ qqn (à) fig to make sb insensitive (to). insensibilité [êsâsibilite] nf. ~ (à) insensitivity (to). insensible [êsâsibl] adj -1. [gén]: ~ (à) insensitive (to). -2. [imperceptible] imperceptible. insensiblement [êsâsiblamâ] adv imperceptibly. inséparable [êseparabl] adj: ~ (de) inseparable (from). ♦ inséparables nmpl [perruches] lovebirds. insérer [êsere] [18] vt to insert; ~ une annonce dans un journal to put an advertisem*nt in a newspaper. ♦ s'insérer vp -1. [s'intégrer]: s'~ dans to fit into. -2. [s'attacher] to be attached. INSERM, Inserm [inserm] (abr de Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale) nm national institute for medical research. insertion [êsersjS] nf -1. [d'objet, de texte] insertion. -2. [de personne] integration. insidieux, -ieuse [èsid)o, )oz] adj insidious. insigne [êsiji] o nm badge. O adj -1. littéraire [honneur] distinguished. -2. hum [maladresse] remarkable. insignifiant, -e [ësijiifjâ, ât] adj insignificant. insinuant, -e [êsinqâ, ât] adj ingratiating. insinuation [êsinqasjô] nf insinuation, innuendo. insinuer [êsinqe] [7] vt to insinuate, to imply♦ s'insinuer vp: s'~ dans [eau, humidité, odeur] to seep into; fig [personne] to insinuate o.s. into. insipide [êsipid] adj [aliment] insipid, tasteless; fig insipid. insistance [êsistâs] «f insistence; avec ~ insistently. insistant, -e [èsistû, ât] adj insistent. insister [êsiste] [3] vi to insist; ~ sur to insist on; ~ pour faire qqch to insist on doing sthg.

279 instar insolation [êsolasjS] nf -1. [malaise] sunstroke (U). -2. [ensoleillement] sunshine. insolence [csdIôs] «/"insolence (U). insolent, -e [ês:>lâ, ât] o adj -1. [personne, acte] insolent. -2. [joie, succès] unashamed, blatant. O nm, f insolent person. insolite [êsolit] adj unusual. insoluble [êsolybl] adj insolvable Am, insoluble Br. insolvable [êsolvabl] O adj insolvent. O nmf bankrupt. insomniaque [êsomnjak] nmf & adj insomniac. insomnie [êsomni] nf insomnia (U); avoir des —s to suffer from insomnia. insondable [ês5dabl] adj [gouffre, mystère] unfathomable; [bêtise] abysmal. insonore [êsonor] adj soundproof. insonorisation [csDnonzasp] nf soundproofing. insonoriser [êsanorize] [3] vt to soundproof. insouciance [èsusjâs] nf -1. [inconscience]: ~ (de) lack of concern (about). -2. [légèreté] carefree attitude. insouciant, -e [èsusjâ, ât] adj -1. [sanssouci] carefree. -2. [inconscient]: ~ (de) unconcerned (about). insoumis, -e [ësumi, iz] adj -1. [caractère] rebellious. -2. [peuple] unsubjugated. -3. [soldat] deserting. ♦ insoumis nm deserter. insoumission [ësumisj5] nf-1. [caractère rebelle] rebelliousness. -2. MIL desertion. insoupçonné, -e [êsupsone] adj unsuspected. insoutenable [êsutnabl] adj -1. [rythme] unsustainable. -2. [scène, violence] unbearable. -3. [théorie] untenable. inspecter [êspekte] [4] vt to inspect. inspecteur, -trice [êspektœr, tris] nm, /"inspector; ~ des finances — Internal Revenue Service agent Am, ^ tax inspector Br; ~ de police police inspector. inspection [êspeksj5] nf -1. [contrôle] inspection; faire l'~ de qqch to inspect sthg. -2. [fonction] inspectorate; ~ générale des Finances = Internal Revenue Service Am, — Inland Revenue Br. inspiration [êspirasj5] nf -1. [gén] inspiration; [idée] bright idea, brainwave; avoir de l'~ to be inspired; avoir une bonne/ mauvaise ~ to have a good/bad idea. -2. [d'air] breathing in. inspiré, -e [êspire] adj inspired; être bien ~ de faire qqch be well-advised to do sthg. inspirer [êspire] [3] vt -1. [gén] to inspire; ~

qqch à qqn to inspire sb with sthg. -2. [air] to breathe in, to inhale. ♦ s'inspirer vp [prendre modèle sur]: s'~ de qqn qqch to be inspired by sb/sthg. instabilité [êstabilite] nf-1. [gén] instability. -2. [du temps] unsettled nature. instable [êstabl] o adj -1. [gén] unstable. -2. [vie, temps] unsettled. O nmf unstable person. installateur, -trice [êstalatœr, tris] nm, f fitter. installation [êstalasj5] nf -1. [de gaz, eau, électricité] installation. -2. [de personne comme médecin, artisan] setting up; [- dans appartement] settling in. -3. [d'appartement] fitting out. -4. [de rideaux, étagères] putting up; [de meubles] putting in. -5. (gén vt) [équipement] installations (pt), fittings (pi); [industrielle] plant (U); [de loisirs] facilities (pt); — électrique wiring; ~s sanitaires plumbing (U). installer [êstale] [3] vt -1. [gaz, eau, électricité] to instal Am, to install Br, to put in. -2. [appartement] to fit out. -3. [rideaux, étagères] to put up; [meubles] to put in. -4. [personne]: ~ qqn to get sb settled, to instal Am OU install Br sb. ♦ s'installer vp -1. [comme médecin, artisan etc] to set (o.s.) up. -2. [emménager] to settle in; s'~ chez qqn to move in with sb. -3. [dans fauteuil] to settle down. -4. fig [maladie, routine] to set in. instamment [ëstamâ] adv insistently. instance [estas] nf-1. [autorité] authority. -2. JUR proceedings (pf). -3. [insistance] entreaties (pt); sur les —s de on the insistence of. ♦ en instance loc adj pending. ♦ en instance de loc adv on the point of; en ~ de divorce waiting for a divorce. instant [esta] nm instant; à l'~ [il y a peu de temps] a moment ago; [immédiatement] this minute; à l'~ où (just) as; à tout ~ [en permanence] at all times; [d'un moment à l'autre] at any moment; pour l'~ for the moment; dans un ~ in a moment OU minute; dès l'~ où from the moment (when); un ~! one moment!; en un ~ in a flash OU an instant; ne pas avoir un ~ de répit not to have a moment's respite. instantané, -e [êstâtane] adj -1. [immédiat] instantaneous. -2. [soluble] instant. ♦ instantané nm snapshot. instantanément [êstâtanemâ] adv instantaneously, at once. instar [êstar]

instaurer 280 ♦ à l'instar de loc prép following the example of. instaurer [êstore] [3] vt [instituer] to establish; fig [peur, confiance] to instill Am, to instil Br. instigateur, -trice [êsugatoer, tris] nm, /"instigator. instigation [êstigasj5] «/instigation. ♦ à l'instigation de, sur l'instigation de loc prép at the instigation of. instiller [êstile] [3] vt -1. [substance] to drip. -2. [sentiment] to instill Am, to instil Br. instinct [este] nm instinct; d'~ instinctively; ~ de conservation instinct for selfpreservation; ~ grégaire herd instinct; ~ maternel maternal instinct. instinctif, -ive [êstêktif, iv] o ad] instinctive. O nm, f instinctive person. instinctivement [ëstëktivmâ] adv instinctively. instituer [êstitqe] [7] vt -1. [pratique] to institute. -2. JUR [personne] to appoint. ♦ s'instituer vp to be set up OU established. institut [êstity] nm -1. [gén] institute; l'Institut (de France) the Institut de France; ~ médico-légal mortuary; l'~ Pasteur the Institut Pasteur. -2. [de soins]: ~ de beauté beauty salon; ~ dentaire — dental hospital. L'INSTITUT DE FRANCE: 'L'Institut', as it is commonly known, is the learned society which includes the five 'Académies' (the 'Académie française' being one of them). Its headquarters are in the building of the same name on the banks of the Seine in Paris L'INSTITUT PASTEUR: This is a major research and teaching establishment specializing in microbiology and bacteriology. Its headquarters are in Paris but it has branches all over the world instituteur, -trice [êstitytoer, tris] nm, f grade Am OU primary Br school teacher. institution [êstitysjS] nf -1. [gén] institution. -2. [école privée] private school. -3. JUR nomination. ♦ institutions nfpl POLIT institutions. institutionnaliser [ësntyspnalize] [3] vt to institutionalize. ♦ s'institutionnaliser vp to become institutionalized. instructeur [èstryktcer] o nm instructor, o ad] MIL: sergent ~ drill sergeant. instructif, -ive [êstryktif, iv] ad] instructive, educational. instruction [êstryksjS] nf-1. [enseignement, savoir] education; avoir de l'~ to be

educated; ~ civique civics (U); ~ publique state education; ~ religieuse religious education. -2. [formation] training. -3. [directive] order. -4. JUR (pre-trial) investigation. ♦ instructions nfpl instructions. instruire [êstrqir] [98] vt -1. [éduquer] to teach, to instruct. -2. sout [informer] to inform. -3. JUR [affaire] to investigate; ~ contre qqn to investigate sb. ♦ s'instruire vp -1. [se former] to learn. -2. sout [s'informer]: s'~ de qqch auprès de qqn to find out about sthg from sb. instruisais, instruisions etc —> instruire. instruit, -e [êstrqi, qit] O pp —► instruire. o ad] educated. instrument [êstrymâ] nm instrument; ~ à cordes/percussion/vent stringed/percussion/wind instrument; ~ de musique musical instrument; ~ de travail tool. instrumental, -e, -aux [êstrymâtal, o] ad] instrumental. ♦ instrumental nm instrumental. instrumentation [êstrymâtasj5] nf instrumentation. instrumentiste [êstrymâtist] nmf instrumentalist. insu [êsy] ♦ à l'insu de loc prép: à l'~ de qqn without sb knowing; ils ont tout organisé à mon ~ they organized it all without my knowing. insubmersible [êsybmersibl] ad] unsinkable. insubordination [êsybordinasj5] nf insubordination. insubordonné, -e [esybordone] ad] insubordinate. insuccès [êsykse] nm failure. insuffisamment [êsyfizamâ] adv insufficiently, inadequately. insuffisance [êsyfizâs] nf -1. [manque] insufficiency. -2. MÉD deficiency; ~ cardiaque cardiac insufficiency. ♦ insuffisances nfpl [faiblesses] shortcomings. insuffisant, -e [êsyfizâ, ât] ad] -1. [en quantité] insufficient. -2. [en qualité] inadequate, unsatisfactory. insuffler [êsyfle] [3] vt -1. [air] to blow. -2. fig [sentiment]: ~ qqch à qqn to inspire sb with sthg. insulaire [êsyler] O nmf islander. O ad] -1. GEOGR island (avant n). -2. fig [attitude] insular.

281 interactif insularité [êsylarite] «/"insularity. insuline [êsylin] «/"insulin. insultant, -e [êsyltâ, ât] adj insulting. insulte [êsylt] «/"insult. insulter [êsylte] [3] vt to insult. ♦ s'insulter vp to insult each other. insupportable [êsypDrtabl] adj unbearable. insurgé, -e [êsyr3e] adj & nm, f insurgent, rebel. insurger [ësyrçe] [17] ♦ s'insurger vp to rebel, to revolt; s'~ contre qqn to rebel OU rise up against sb; s'~ contre qqch to protest against sthg. insurmontable [êsyrmStabl] adj [difficulté] insurmountable; [dégoût] uncontrollable. insurrection [êsyreksj5] «/"insurrection. insurrectionnel, -elle [êsyreksjDnel] adj insurrectionary. intact, -e [ètakt] adj intact. intangible [êtâ3ibl] adj -1. littéraire [impalpable] intangible. -2. [sacré] inviolable. intarissable [êtansabl] adj inexhaustible; il est ~ he could go on talking for ever. intégral, -e, -aux [êtegral, o] adj -1. [paiement] in full; [texte] unabridged, complete; bronzage ~ all-over tan. -2. MATHS: calcul ~ integral calculus. ♦ intégrale «/" -1. MUS complete works (pf). -2. MATHS integral. intégralement [êtegralmâ] adv fully, in full. intégralité [êtegralite] «/" whole; dans son ~ in full. intégrant, -e [êtegrâ, ât] —» parti. intégration [êtegrasjS] «/"integration. intègre [êtxgr] adj honest, of integrity. intégré, -e [ètegre] adj -1. [logiciel] integrated. -2. [élément] built-in. intégrer [ètegre] [18] vt [assimiler]: ~ (à OU dans) to integrate (into). ♦ s'intégrer vp -1. [s'incorporer]: s'~ dans OU à to fit into. -2. [s'adapter] to integrate. intégrisme [ëtegrism] nm fundamentalism. intégriste [êtegrist] nmf intervenir. intervertir [ëtervertir] [32] vt to reverse, to invert. interviendrai, interviendras etc —> intervenir. intervienne, interviennes etc — intervenir. interviens, intervient etc —> intervenir. interview [ëtxrvju] nf interview; accorder une ~ à qqn to give OU grant an interview to sb. interviewer1 [ëtErvjuve] [3] vt to interview. interviewer2 [ëtxrvjuvœr] nm interviewer. intestat [ëtesta] JUR O nmf person who dies intestate. O adj intestate. intestin, -e [etc s te, in] adj sout internai. ♦ intestin nm intestine; ~ grêle small intestine; gros ~ large intestine. intestinal, -e, -aux [ëtcstinal, o] adj intestinal. intime [ëtim] O nmf close friend. O adj [gén] intimate; [vie, journal] private. intimement [ëtimmâ] adv -1. [persuadé] firmly. -2. [lié] intimately. intimer [ëtime] [3] vt -1. [enjoindre]: ~ qqch

à qqn to notify sb of sthg. -2. JUR to summon. intimidant, -e [ëtimidâ, ât] adj intimidating. intimidation [ëtimidasj5] tf/ intimidation. intimider [ëtimide] [3] vt to intimidate. intimiste [ëtimist] adj ART & LUT intimist. intimité [ëtimite] nf -1. [secret] depths (pf). -2. [familiarité, confort] intimacy. -3. [vie privée] privacy; dans l'~ amongst friends, in private; dans la plus stricte ~ in complete privacy, in private. intitulé [ëtityle] nm [titre] title; [de paragraphe] heading. intituler [ëtityle] [3] vt to call, to entitle. ♦ s'intituler vp -1. [ouvrage] to be called OU entitled. -2. [personne] to call o.s. intolérable [ëtolerabl] adj intolerable. intolérance [ëtolerâs] nf -\. [religieuse, politique] intolerance. -2. [de l'organisme]: ~ à qqch inability to tolerate sthg. intolérant, -e [ëtolerâ, ât] adj intolerant. intonation [ctonasp] «/intonation. intouchable [ëtu/abl] nmf & adj untouchable. intoxication [ëtsksikasjS] nf -1. [empoisonnement] poisoning; ~ alimentaire food poisoning. -2. fig [propagande] brainwashing. intoxiqué, -e [ëtsksike] O adj: ~ (de) addicted (to), o nm, /"addict. intoxiquer [ëtsksike] [3] vt: ~ qqn par [empoisonner] to poison sb with; fig to indoctrinate sb with. ♦ s'intoxiquer vp to poison o.s. intraduisible [ëtradqizibl] adj -1. [texte] untranslatable. -2. [sentiment] inexpressible. intraitable [ëtretabl] adj: — (sur) inflexible (about). intransigeance [ëtrâzi3âs] nf intransigence. intransigeant, -e [ëtrâzi3â, ât] adj intransigent. intransitif, -ive [ëtrâzitif, iv] adj intransitive. intransportable [ëtrâsportabl] adj: il est — he/it cannot be moved. intraveineux, -euse [ëtraveno, ez] adj intravenous. intrépide [ëtrepid] adj bold, intrepid. intrépidité [ëtrepidite] «/"boldness. intrigant, -e [ëtrigâ, ât] O adj scheming, o nm, f schemer. intrigue [ëtrig] nf -1. [liaison amoureuse] intrigue, affair. -2. [manoeuvre] intrigue. -3. CIN, LITTÉRATURE & THEATRE plot.

285 invincible intriguer [êtrige] [3] o vt to intrigue. O vi to scheme, to intrigue. intrinsèque [êtrêsek] adj intrinsic. introductif, -ive [êtrodyktif, iv] adj JUR introductory. introduction [êtrodyksjS] nf -\. [gén]: ~ (à) introduction (to). -2. [insertion] insertion. introduire [êtrodqir] [98] vt -1. [gén] to introduce. -2. [faire entrer] to show in. -3. [insérer] to insert. -4. INFORM to input, to enter. ♦ s'introduire vp -1. [pénétrer] to enter; s'~ dans une maison [cambrioleur] to get into OU enter a house. -2. [s'implanter] to be introduced. introduisais, introduisions etc —> introduire. introduit, -e [etrodqi, it] pp —> introduire. intronisation [ctn>nizasj5] nf RELIC enthronement; fig establishment. introspection [êtrDspeksj5] nf introspection. introuvable [êtruvabl] adj no-place Am OU nowhere Br to be found. introverti, -e [êtrovcrti] o adj introverted. O nm, f introvert. intrus, -e [êtry, yz] nm, /"intruder. intrusion [êtryzjô] nf-1. [gén & GÉOL] intrusion. -2. [ingérence] interference. intuitif, -ive [êtqitif, iv] adj intuitive. intuition [êtqisj5] nf intuition; avoir de l'~ to be intuitive, to have intuition; avoir P~ de qqch to have an intuition about sthg. intuitivement [ëtqitivmâ] adv intuitively. inuit [inqit] adj inv Inuit. ♦ Inuit nmf Inuit. inusable [inyzabl] adj hardwearing. inusité, -e [inyzite] adj unusual, uncommon. inutile [inytil] adj [objet, personne] useless; [effort, démarche] pointless; ~ d'insister it's pointless insisting. inutilement [inytilmâ] adv needlessly, unnecessarily. inutilisable [inytilizabl] adj unusable. inutilisé, -e [inytilize] adj unused. inutilité [inytilite] nf [de personne, d'objet] uselessness; [de démarche, d'effort] pointlessness. inv. {ahr de invariable) inv. invaincu, -e [êvêky] adj -1. SPORT unbeaten. -2. [peuple] unconquered. invalide [êvalid] o nmf disabled person; ~ de guerre disabled soldier; ~ du travail industrially disabled person, o adj disabled. invalider [êvalide] [3] vt to invalidate. invalidité [êvalidité] nf -1. JUR invalidity.

-2. MÉD disability. invariable [êvarjabl] adj -1. [immuable] unchanging. -2. GRAM invariable. invariablement [êvarjablamâ] adv invariably. invasion [êvazj5] «/"invasion. invective [êvektiv] «/"invective, abuse. invectiver [êvektive] [3] vt to abuse. ♦ s'invectiver vp to hurl abuse at each other. invendable [êvâdabl] adj unsaleable, unsellable. invendu, -e [êvâdy] adj unsold. ♦ invendu nm (gén pt) remainder. inventaire [êvâter] nm -1. [gén] inventory; faire l'~ de qqch to make an inventory of sthg. -2. [COMM - activité] inventory Am, stocktaking Br, [- liste] list. inventer [êvâte] [3] vt to invent. inventeur [êvâtœr] nm -1. [de machine] inventor. -2. JUR [de trésor] finder. inventif, -ive [êvâtif, iv] adj inventive. invention [êvâsj5] nf -1. [découverte, mensonge] invention. -2. [imagination] inventiveness. inventorier [êvâtone] [9] vt to make an inventory of. invérifiable [ëverifjabl] adj unverifiable. inverse [êvers] o nm opposite, reverse; à l'~ de contrary to. O adj -1. [sens] opposite; [ordre] reverse; en sens ~ (de) in the opposite direction (to). -2. [rapport] inverse. inversem*nt [êversamâ] adv -1. MATHS inversely; ~ proportionnel à in inverse proportion to. -2. [au contraire] on the other hand. -3. [vice versa] vice versa. inverser [êverse] [3] vt to reverse. inversion [êversj5] «/"reversal. invertébré, -e [êvertebre] adj invertebrate. ♦ invertébré nm invertebrate. investigation [cvestigasj5] «/"investigation. investir [êvestir] [32] vt to invest; ~ qqn d'une fonction to invest OU vest sb with an office. investissem*nt [êvestismâ] nm investment. investisseur, -euse [êvestisœr, oz] nm, f investor; ~ institutionnel institutional investor. investiture [êvestityr] nf investiture. invétéré, -e [êvetere] adj péj inveterate. invincible [êvêsibl] adj [gén] invincible; [difficulté] insurmountable; [charme] irresistible.

inviolabilité 286 inviolabilité [ëvplabilite] nf -1. JUR inviolability. -2. [de parlementaire] immunity. -3. [de coffre] impregnability. inviolable [êvjolabl] adj -1. JUR inviolable. -2. [parlementaire] immune. -3. [coffre] impregnable. invisible [êvizibl] adj invisible; rester ~ [personne] to stay out of sight. invitation [êvitasjS] nf: ~ (à) invitation (to); à OU sur P~ de qqn at sb's invitation; sur ~ by invitation; décliner une ~ to turn down an invitation. invite [êvit] «f invitation. invité, -e [évite] O adj [hôte] invited; [professeur, conférencier] guest {avant n). o nm, f guest. inviter [évite] [3] vt to invite; ~ qqn à faire qqch to invite sb to do sthg; fig [suj: chose] to be an invitation to sb to do sthg; le beau temps invite à la promenade this fine weather puts one in the mood for a walk. in vitro [invitro] —> fécondation. invivable [êvivabl] adj unbearable. invocation [êvokasjS] nf invocation; ~ à call for. involontaire [êvolôtcr] adj -1. [acte] involuntary. -2. [personne] unwilling. involontairement [êvoBtermâ] adv involuntarily, unintentionally. invoquer [evoke] [3] vt -1. [alléguer] to put forward. -2. [citer, appeler à l'aide] to invoke; [paix] to call for. invraisemblable [êvresûblabl] adj -1. [incroyable] unlikely, improbable. -2. [extrava gant] incredible. invraisemblance [êvresâblâs] nf improbability. invulnérable [êvylnerabl] adj invulnerable. iode [pd] nm iodine. iodé, -e [pde] adj containing iodine. ion [j5] nm ion. IPC (abr de indice des prix à la consommation) nm CPI. Ipsos [ipsos] n French market research institute. IR {abr de infra-rouge) adj IR. IRA [ira] {abr de Irish Republican Army) nf IRA. irai, iras etc —► aller. Irak, Iraq [irak] nm: l'~ Iraq. irakien, -ienne, iraquien, -ienne [irakjc, jen] adj Iraqi. ♦ Irakien, -ienne, Iraquien, -ienne nm, /"Iraqi. Iran [ira] nm: P~ Iran. iranien, -ienne [iranjê, jcn] adj Iranian.

♦ iranien nm [langue] Iranian. ♦ Iranien, -ienne nm, /"Iranian. Iraq = Irak. iraqien = irakien. irascible [irasibl] adj irascible. iris [iris] nm ANAT & BOT iris. irisé, -e [irize] adj iridescent. irlandais, -e [irlâde, ez] adj Irish. ♦ irlandais nm [langue] Irish. ♦ Irlandais, -e nm, f Irishman (/" Irishwoman). Irlande [irlâd] nf l'~ Ireland; l'~ du Nord/ Sud Northern/Southern Ireland. ironie [ironi] nf irony, ~ du sort twist of fate. ironique [ironik] adj ironic. ironiquement [irDnikmâ] adv ironically. ironiser [ironize] [3] vi to speak ironically. IRPP {abr de impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques) nm income tax. irradiation [iradjasj5] nf [rayons] radiation; [action] irradiation. irradier [iradje] [9] O vi to radiate, o vt to irradiate. irraisonné, -e [irezone] adj irrational. irrationnel, -elle [iraspnel] adj irrational. irréalisable [irealizabl] adj unrealizable. irréaliste [irealist] adj unrealistic. irréalité [irealite] «/"unreality. irrecevable [irasavabl] adj inadmissible. irréconciliable [irekSsiljabl] adj irreconcilable. irrécupérable [irekyperabl] adj -1. [irrécouvrable] irretrievable. -2. [irréparable] beyond repair. -3. fam [personne] beyond hope. irrécusable [irekyzabl] adj unimpeachable. irréductible [iredyktibl] O nmf diehard. O adj -1. CHIM, MATHS & MÉD irreducible. -2. fig [volonté] indomitable; [personne] implacable; [communiste] diehard {avant n). irréel, -elle [ireel] adj unreal. irréfléchi, -e [irefleji] adj unthinking. irréfutable [irefytabl] adj irrefutable. irrégularité [iregylarite] nf -1. [gén] irregularity. -2. [de terrain, performance] unevenness. irrégulier, -ière [iregylje, jer] adj -1. [gén] irregular. -2. [terrain, surface] uneven, irregular. -3. [employé, athlète] erratic. irrégulièrement [iregyljermâ] adv irregularly. irrémédiable [iremedjabl] adj -1. [irréparable] irreparable. -2. [incurable] incurable.

287 IUFM irrémédiablement [iremedjablamâ] adv irreparably. irremplaçable [irâplasabl] adj irreplaceable. irréparable [ireparabl] O nm: commettre l'~ to do the unforgivable. O adj -1. [objet] beyond repair. -2. fig [perte, erreur] irreparable. irrépressible [irepresibl] adj irrepressible. irréprochable [ireprsjabl] adj irreproachable. irrésistible [irezistibl] adj -1. [tentation, femme] irresistible. -2. [amusant] entertaining- ^ irrésistiblement [irezistiblamâ] adv irresistibly. irrésolu, -e [irezoly] adj -1. [indécis] irresolute. -2. [sans solution] unresolved. irrespirable [irespirabl] adj -1. [air] unbreatnable. -2. fig [oppressant] oppressive. irresponsable [irespSsabl] O nmf irresponsible person, o adj irresponsible. irrévérencieux, -ieuse [ireverâsjo, joz] adj irreverent. irréversible [ireversibl] adj irreversible. irrévocable [irevokabl] adj irrevocable. irrévocablement [irevskablamâ] adv irrevocably. irrigation [irigasj5] «f irrigation. irriguer [irige] [3] vr to irrigate. irritabilité [iritabilite] «/"irritability. irritable [iritabl] adj irritable. irritant, -e [irità, ât] adj -1. [agaçant] irritating, annoying. -2. MED irritant. irritation [iritasjô] «/"irritation. irriter [irite] [3] vr -1. [exaspérer] to irritate, to annoy. -2. MÉD to irritate. ♦ s'irriter vp> to get irritated; s'~ contre qqn/de qqch to get irritated with sb/at sthg. irruption [irypsj5] nf-1. [invasion] invasion. -2. [entrée brusque] irruption; faire ~ dans to burst into. ISBN (abr de International standard book number) nm ISBN. ISF (abr de impôt de solidarité sur la fortune) nm wealth tax. islam [islam] nm Islam. islamique [islamik] adj Islamic. islamisation [islamizasjô] «/"Islamization. islamiser [islamize] [3] vr to Islamize. islandais, -e [îslàde, cz] adj Icelandic. ♦ islandais nm [langue] Icelandic. ♦ Islandais, -e nm, /"Icelander. Islande [islâd] nf: P~ Iceland. isocèle [izDsel] adj isocèles. isolant, -e [izolâ, ât] adj insulating. ♦ isolant nm insulator, insulating

material. isolateur, -trice [izolatoer, tris] adj insulating. ♦ isolateur nm insulator. isolation [izslasj5] nf insulation; ~ phonique soundproofing; ~ thermique thermal insulation. isolationnisme [îznlaspnism] nm isolationism. isolé, -e [izDle] adj isolated. isolement [izDlmô] nm -1. [gén] isolation. -2. CONSTR & ÉLECTR insulation. isolément [izolemâ] adv individually. isoler [izale] [3] vr -1. [séparer] to isolate; ~ qqch de qqch to isolate sthg from sthg. -2. CONSTR & ELECTR to insulate; ~ qqch du froid to insulate sthg (against the cold); ~ qqch du bruit to soundproof sthg. ♦ s'isoler vp>: s'~ (de) to isolate o.s. (from). isoloir [iznlwar] nm polling booth. isotherme [izDterm] o nf isotherm, o adj isothermal. Israël [izrael] « Israel. israélien, -ienne [israeljc, jcn] adj Israeli. ♦ Israélien, -ienne nm, /Israeli Israélite [israelit] adj Jewish. ♦ Israélite nmf Jew. issu, -e [isy] adj: être ~ de [résulter de] to emerge OU stem from; [personne] to come from. ♦ issue nf-1. [sortie] exit; ~e de secours emergency exit. -2. fig [solution] way out, solution; sans ~e hopeless. -3. [terme] outcome; à l'~e de at the end OU close of. Istanbul [istaôbul] « Istanbul. isthme [ism] nm isthmus. Italie [itali] nf. l'~ Italy. italien, -ienne [italjê, jcn] adj Italian. ♦ italien nm [langue] Italian. ♦ Italien, -ienne nm, f Italian. italique [italik] O nm -1. HIST & LING Italic. -2. TYPO italics (yf); en ~ in italics. O adj -1. HIST E< LING Italic. -2. TYPO italic. itinéraire [itinerer] nm itinerary, route. itinérant, -e [itinera, ât] adj -1. [spectacle, troupe] itinerant. -2. [ambassadeur] roving (avant n). itou [itu] adv fam as well. FTP (abr de ingénieur des travaux publics) nm civil engineer. IUFM (abr de institut universitaire de formation des maîtres) nm — teachers college Am, — teacher training college Br.

IUP 288 IUP (abr de institut universitaire professionnel) nm business school. IUT (abr de institut universitaire de technologie) nm — technical college. IVG (abr de interruption volontaire de grossesse) «f abortion. ivoire [ivwar] nm ivory. ivoirien, -ienne [ivwarjê, jen] adj of/from the Ivory Coast. ♦ Ivoirien, -ienne nm, f native OU inhabitant of the Ivory Coast. ivre [ivr] adj drunk; ~ de colère wild with anger; ~ de joie drunk OU mad with joy; ~ mort dead drunk. ivresse [ivres] «f drunkenness; [extase] rapture. ivrogne [ivroji] nmf drunkard. ivrognerie [ivrDjiri] «f drunkenness. j j, J [31] nm inv j, J. ♦ J -1. (abr de joule) J. -2. abr de jour. •» • l' -* Je jabot [3abo] nm -1. [d'oiseau] crop. -2. [de chemise] frill. jacassem*nt [3akasmâ] nm péj chattering, jabbering. jacasser [3akase] [3] vi péj to chatter, to jabber. jachère fôajer] nf. en ~ fallow. jacinthe [3asët] nf hyacinth. jacobin, -e ^akabê, in] adj Jacobin. ♦ Jacobin nm HIST Jacobin. Jacuzzi® foakuzi] nm Jacuzzi®. jade bad] nm jade. jadis [3adis] adv formerly, in former times. jaguar fôagwar] nm jaguar. jaillir fôajir] [32] vi -1. [liquide] to gush; [flammes] to leap. -2. [cri] to ring out. -3. [personne] to spring out. jais [3e] nm jet; noir comme le ~, noir de ~ jet-black. Jakarta = Djakarta. jalon [3al5] nm marker pole; poser les (premiers) ~s de fig to pave the way for. jalonner fôatane] [3] vt to mark (out); jalonné de [bordé de] lined with; fig punctuated with. jalousem*nt foaluzma] adv jealously. jalouser foaluze] [3] vt to be jealous of. jalousie fôaluzi] nf-1. [envie] jealousy; être malade OU crever de ~ fig to be green with envy. -2. [store] blind. jaloux, -ouse [3alu, uz] adj: ~ (de) jealous (of). jamaïquain, -e, jamaïcain, -e foamaikê, en] adj Jamaican.

♦ Jamaïquain, -e, Jamaïcain, -e nm, f Jamaican. Jamaïque [3amaik] nf. la ~ Jamaica. jamais [3ame] adv -1. [sens négatif] never; ne ... ~, ~ ne never; je ne reviendrai ~, ~ je ne reviendrai I'll never come back; (ne) ... ~ plus, plus ~ (ne) never again; je ne viendrai ~ plus, plus ~ je ne viendrai I'll never come here again; plus ~! never again! -2. [sens positif]: plus que ~ more than ever; elle l'aimait plus que ~ she loved him more than ever; il est plus triste que ~ he's sadder than ever; si ~ tu le vois if you should happen to see him, should you happen to see him. ♦ à jamais loc adv for ever. ♦ pour jamais loc adv for ever. jambage [3âba3] nm [de lettre] downstroke. jambe [jàb] nf leg; courir à toutes ~s to run flat out; il s'enfuit à toutes ~s he ran away as fast as his legs would carry him; prendre ses ~s à son cou to take to one's heels; tenir la ~ à qqn fam fig to keep sb talking; ça me fait une belle ~! fam fig that's no good to me! jambières [3âbjer] nfpl [de football] shin pads; [de cricket] pads. jambon [3âb5] nm ham; ~ blanc ham; ~ fumé smoked ham. jambonneau, -x fôâbono] nm knuckle of ham. jante [3m] nf (wheel) rim. Janvier [3âvje] nm January; voir aussi septembre. Japon [3ap5] nm: le ~ Japan; au ~ in Japan. japonais, -e foapone, cz] adj Japanese. ♦ japonais nm [langue] Japanese. ♦ Japonais, -e nm, f Japanese (person); les Japonais the Japanese. jappement [3apmâ] nm yap, yapping (I/). japper [3ape] [3] vi to yap. jaquette foaket] nf-1. [vêtement] jacket. -2. [de livre] (dust) jacket.

289 jeu jardin bardé] nm garden; — d'enfants nursery school, kindergarten; ~ public park; ~ zoologique zoo. jardinage [3ardina3] nm gardening. jardiner jardine] [3] vi to garden. jardinet jardine] nm small garden. jardinier, -ière fôardinje, jer] nm, f gardener. ♦ jardinière nf -1. [bac à fleurs] window box. -2. CUUN: jardinière de légumes mixed vegetables {pt). jargon [3arg5] nm -1. [langage spécialisé] jargon. -2. fam [charabia] gibberish. jarret [3are] nm -1. ANAT back of the knee. -2. CUUN knuckle of veal. jarretelle Cartel] nf garter Am, suspender Br. jarretière teartjer] nf garter. jars [3ar] nm gander. jaser fôaze] [3] vi [bavarder] to gossip. jasmin fôasmë] nm jasmine. jatte [3at] «/"bowl. ja**gc [303] nf [instrument] gauge; ~ de niveau d'huile dipstick. jauger [303e] [17] vt to gauge. jaunâtre [3onatr] adj yellowish. jaune [3on] o nm [couleur] yellow, o adj yellow. O adv. rire ~ fig to force o.s. to laugh. ♦ jaune d'oeuf nm (egg) yolk. jaunir [3onir] [32] vt & vi to turn yellow. jaunisse [30ms] nf MED jaundice; en faire une ~ fam fig [de jalousie] to be green with envy; [de déception] to take it badly. jaunissem*nt fôonismâ] nm yellowing. Java [3ava] nf type of popular dance) faire la ~ fam fig to live it up. Java [3ava] n Java; à ~ in Java. javanais, -e [3a va ne, ez] adj Javanese. ♦ javanais nm [langue] Javanese. ♦ Javanais, -e nm, /"Javanese (person); les Javanais the Javanese. Javel [3avel] nf eau de ~ bleach. javelliser [3avelize] [3] vt to chlorinate. javelot [3avlo] nm javelin. jazz [d3az] nm jazz. J.-C. (ahr de Jésus-Christ) J.C. j« [33]; f (devant voyelle et h muet) pron pers I. jean [d3in], jeans [d3ins] nm jeans (/'/), pair of jeans. Jeep® [d3ip] «/"Jeep®. je-m'en-foutisme fômâfutism] nm couldn't-give-a-damn attitude. jérémiades [3eremjad] nfpl moaning (U), whining (U).

jerrycan, jerricane [3erikan] nm jerry can. jersey fôerzc] nm jersey; point de ~ stocking stitch. Jersey fôerze] n Jersey; à ~ on Jersey. Jérusalem [3eryzalem] n Jerusalem. jésuite [3ezu.it] o nm Jesuit, o adj Jesuit; péj Jesuitical. Jésus-Christ [3ezykri] nm Jésus Christ. jet1 [3e] nm -1. [action de jeter] throw; d'un seul ~ fig in one go. -2. [de liquide] jet; ~ d'eau fountain. -3. [esquisse]: premier ~ rough outline OU draft. jet2 [d3et] nm [avion] jet. jetable [39tabl] adj disposable. jetais, jetions etc —> jeter. jeté, -e [39te] pp —* jeter. jetée [39te] «f jetty. jeter [39te] [27] vt to throw; [se débarrasser de] to throw away; ~ qqch à qqn [lancer] to throw sthg to sb, to throw sb sthg; [pour faire mal] to throw sthg at sb; — qqn dehors to throw sb out; ~ un coup d'oeil (à) to take a look (at). ♦ se jeter vp: se ~ sur to pounce on; se ~ dans [suj: rivière] to flow into; se ~ dans les bras de qqn to throw o.s. into sb's arms; se ~ à l'eau fig to take the plunge. jeton [33t5] nm -1. [de jeu] counter; [de téléphone] token. -2. loc. avoir les —s fam to have the jitters. ♦ faux-jeton nm hypocrite. ♦ jeton de présence nm fees paid to nonexecutive directors of a company. jette, jettes etc —> jeter. jetterai, jetteras etc —► jeter. jeu, -x [30] nm -1. [divertissem*nt] play (U), playing (U); par ~ for fun; ~ de mots play on words, pun. -2. [régi par des règles] game; en ~ in (play); hors ~ out (of play); mettre un joueur hors ~ to put a player offside; ~ de l'oie — snakes and ladders; ~ de société parlor Am OU parlour Br game; ~ télévisé game show. -3. [d'argent]: le ~ gambling; ~ de hasard game of chance. -4. [d'échecs, de clés] set; ~ de cartes pack of cards. -5. [manière de jouer - MUS] playing; [- THÉÂTRE] acting; [- SPORT] game. -6. [TECHNOL] play; il y a du — there's a bit of play, it's rather loose. -7. loc: cacher son ~ to play one's cards close to one's chest; être en ~ to be at stake; entrer en ~ to come into play; entrer dans le ~ de qqn to play sb's game.

jeudi 290 ♦ Jeux Olympiques nmpl: les Jeux Olympiques the Olympic Games. jeudi [30di] nm Thursday; ~ saint Maundy Thursday; voir aussi samedi jeun [30e] ♦ à jeun loc adv on an empty stomach. jeune [3œn] O adj young; [style, apparence] youthful; ~ homme femme young man/ woman; ~ fille girl; —s gens [gén] young people; [garçons] young men. O adv. faire ~ to look young. O nm young person; les ~s young people. jeûne foon] nm fast. jeûner [30ne] [3] vi to fast. jeunesse Scenes] nf -1. [âge] youth; [de style, apparence] youthfulness. -2. [jeunes gens] young people {pi). JF, jf abr de jeune fille. JH abr de jeune homme jingle [d3ingdl] nm jingle. JO O nm (abr de Journal officiel) bulletin giving details of laws and official announcements. O nmpl (abr de Jeux Olympiques) Olympic Games. joaillerie [3Dajri] nf-1. [métier] jewel trade. -2. [magasin] jeweler's Am ou jeweller's Br (shop). joaillier, -ière fôoaje, jer] nm, f jeweler Am, jeweller Br. job [d3ob] nm fam job. jobard -e foobar, ard] adj fam gullible. jockey fôoke] nm jockey. jogging [d30gio] nm -1. [activité] jogging; faire du ~ to go jogging, to go for a jog. -2. [vêtement] tracksuit, jogging suit. joie fôwa] nf joy; avec ~ with pleasure; ~ de vivre joie de vivre, joy of living. joignable fôwajiabl] adj contactable. joignais, joignions etc —► joindre. joindre [jwëdr] [82] vt -1. [rapprocher] to join; [mains] to put together; (ne pas) arriver à ~ les deux bouts fam fig (to be unable) to make ends meet. -2. [ajouter]: ~ qqch (à) to attach sthg (to); [adjoindre] to enclose sthg (with). -3. [par téléphone] to contact, to reach. ♦ se joindre vp: se ~ à qqn to join sb; se ~ à qqch to join in sthg. joint, -e [3wê, et] pp —► joindre. ♦ joint nm -1. [d'étanchéité] seal. -2. fam [drogue] joint. ♦ joint de culasse nm cylinder head gasket. jointure fowêtyr] «/"ANAT joint. joker f*cker] nm joker. joli, -e [3Dli] adj -1. [femme, chose] pretty, attractive. -2. [somme, situation] nice. -3. Joe: c'est bien ~, mais ... that's all very well,

but ...; c'est du ~ travail! iron well done! joliment fôDlimâ] adv -1. [bien] prettily, attractively; iron nicely. -2. fam [beaucoup] really. jonc [35] nm rush, bulrush. joncher [35J*e] [3] vt to strew; être jonché de to be strewn with. jonction [35ksj5] «/"[de routes] junction. jongler [35gle] [3] vi to juggle. jongleur, -euse [35glcer, oz] nm, /"juggler. jonquille fôôkij] «/"daffodil. Jordanie foordani] nf. la ~ Jordan. jordanien, -ienne fôDrdanjê, jen] adj Jordanian. ♦ Jordanien, -ienne nm, /"Jordanian. jouable [3wabl] adj -1. SPORT playable. -2. [situation] feasible. joual [3wal] nm Can French-Canadian dialect. joue [3u] nf cheek; tenir OU mettre qqn en ~ fig to take aim at sb. jouer [3we] [6] o vi -1. [gén] to play; ~ avec qqn qqch to play with sb/sthg; ~ à qqch [jeu, sport] to play sthg; ~ de MUS to play; à toi de ~! (it's) your turn!; fig your move! -2. CIN & THÉÂTRE to act. -3. [parier] to gamble. -4. [s'appliquer] to apply. -5. loc: ~ des coudes to use one's elbows; ~ de malchance to be dogged by bad luck; ~ sur les mots to play with words. O vt -1. [carte, partie] to play. -2. [somme d'argent] to bet, to wager; fig to gamble with. -3. [THÉÂTRE - personnage, rôle] to play; [- pièce] to put on, to perform. -4. [avoir à l'affiche] to show. -5. MUS to perform, to play. -6. loc: ~ la comédie to put on an act; ~ le jeu to play the game, ~ un tour à qqn to play a trick on sb. ♦ se jouer vp: se ~ de qqch to make light of sthg; se ~ de qqn to deceive sb. jouet [3we] nm toy; être le ~ de fig to be the victim of. joueur, -euse [3wœr, oz] nm, f -1. SPORT player; ~ de football footballer, football player; être beau/mauvais ~ to be a good/ bad loser. -2. [au casino] gambler. joufflu, -e [3ufly] adj [personne] chubbycheeked. joug [3U] nm yoke. jouir [3wir] [32] vi -1. [profiter]: ~ de to enjoy. -2. [sexuellement] to have an org*sm. jouissance [3wisâs] nf -1. JUR [d'un bien] use. -2. [sexuelle] org*sm. joujou, -x [3U3U] nm toy. jour [3ur] nm -1. [unité de temps] day; huit —sa week; quinze ~s two weeks, a fort-

291 juillet night Br, tous les ~s every day; l'autre ~ the other day; de ~ en — day by day; ~ après ~ day after day; au ~ le ~ from day to day; ~ et nuit night and day; du ~ au lendemain overnight; ~ pour ~ to the day; le ~ de Tan New Year's Day; ~ de congé day off; ~ férié public holiday; ~ de fête holiday; le ~ J D-Day; ~ ouvrable working day. -2. [lumière] daylight; de ~ in the daytime, by day; il fait ~ it's light; au petit ~ at the crack of dawn; au grand ~ in broad daylight. -3. [époque] day; le ~ où the day (that); un beau ~ one fine day; un de ces ~s one of these days. -4. be: être à ~ to be up-to-date; mettre qqch à ~ to update sthg, to bring sthg up to date; de nos —s these days, nowadays; se faire ~ to become clear; sous un ~ nouveau in a new light. journal, -aux fôurnal, o] nm -1. [publication] newspaper, paper; le ~ officiel de la République française official publication in which public notices appear. -2. TÉLÉ: ~ televise television news. -3. [écrit]: ~ (intime) diary, journal; ~ de bord NAV1G ship's log; INFORM log. LE JOURNAL OFFICIEL: This bulletin prints information about new laws and summaries of parliamentary debates, and informs the public of any important government business. New companies are obliged by law to publish an announcement in the 'journal officiel' journalier, -ière [3umalje, jer] adj daily. journalisme fôumalism] nm journalism. journaliste [3urnalist] nmf journalist, reporter. journalistique fôumalistik] adj journalistic. journée fôurne] nf day; faire la — continue to work through lunch. journellement kurnelmâ] adv daily. joute [3ut] nf joust; fig duel. jouxter fôukste] [3] vt to adjoin. jovial, -e, -iaux foavjal, jo] adj jovial, jolly. jovialité foavjalite] «/"joviality, jolliness. joyau, -x fowajo] nm jewel. joyeusem*nt [3waj0zmâ] adv joyfully. joyeux, -euse [3waj0, 0z] adj joyful, happy; ~ Noël! Merry Christmas! JT (abr de journal televise) nm television news. jubilation fôybilasjS] «f jubilation. jubilé [3ybile] nm jubilee. jubiler fôybile] [3] vi fam to be jubilant. jucher [3yje] [3] vt: ~ qqn sur qqch to perch sb on sthg. ♦ se jucher vp: se ~ sur qqch to perch on

sthg. judaïque [3ydaik] adj [loi] Judaic; [tradition, religion] Jewish. judaïsme [3ydaism] nm Judaism. judas [3yda] nm [ouverture] peephole. Judée [3yde] nf. la ~ Judaea, Judea. judéo-chrétien, -ienne foydeDkretjê, jen] (mpl judéo-chrétiens, fpl judéo-chrétiennes) adj Judaeo-Christian. judiciaire [3ydisjcr] adj judicial. judicieusem*nt [3ydisj0zmâ] adv judiciously. judicieux, -ieuse [3ydisj0, j0z] adj judicious. judo [3ydo] nm judo. juge [3y3] nm judge; ~ d'instruction exarnining magistrate; ~ de ligne TENNIS line judge; ~ de paix justice of the peace; ~ de touche FOOTBALL linesman; RUGBY touch judge. jugé [3y3e]^ ♦ au jugé loc adv by guesswork; tirer au ~ to fire blind. jugement [3y3mâ] nm judgment; prononcer un ~ to pass sentence; ~ de valeur value judgment. ♦ Jugement nm: le Jugement dernier the Last Judgment. jugeote [3y3Dt] nf fam common sense; manquer de ~ to have no common sense. juger [3y3e] [17] o vt to judge; [accusé] to try; ~ que to judge (that), to consider (that); ~ qqn/qqch inutile to consider sb/ sthg useless; ~ bon de faire qqch to consider it appropriate to do sthg. o vi to judge; ~ de qqch to judge sthg; si j'en juge d'après mon expérience judging from my experience; jugez de ma surprise! imagine my surprise! juguler foygyle] [3] vt [maladie] to halt; [révolte] to put down; [inflation] to curb. juif, juive foqif, 3qiv] adj Jewish. ♦ Juif, Juive nm, f Jew. juillet bqije] nm July; le 14-Juillet the fourteenth of July celebrations; voir aussi septembre. LE 14-JUILLET: The celebrations to mark the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille begin on the 13th July with outdoor public dances ('les bals du 14 juillet') in the streets, and continue on the 14th with a military parade in

juin 292 the morning and a firework display in the evening juin [3qê] nm June; voir aussi septembre. juke-box [d3ukboks] nm inv jukebox. julienne [3yljen] nf. ~ de légumes (clear soup with) very thin strips of vegetable. jumeau, -elle, -x teymo, el, o] o adj twin {avant n). O nm, f twin; vrais/faux ~x identical/fraternal twins. ♦ jumelles nfpl OPTIQUE binoculars. jumelage [3ymla3] nm twinning. jumelé, -e bymle] adj [villes] twinned; [maisons] semidetached; roues ~es double wheels. jumeler bymle] [24] vt to twin. jumelle —► jumeau. jument [3ymâ] nf mare. jungle bœgl] nf jungle. junior fôynpr] adj & nm, /"SPORT junior. junte foœt] «f junta. jupe [3yp] «/"skirt. jupe-culotte [3ypkybt] (pi jupes-culottes) «/"culottes (j?t). jupon [3yp5] nm petticoat, slip. Jura [3yra] nm: le ~ the Jura (Mountains). juré, -e [3yre] adj: ennemi ~ sworn enemy. ♦ juré nm JUR juror. jurer [3yre] [3] O vt: ~ qqch à qqn to swear OU pledge sthg to sb; — (à qqn) que ...to swear (to sb) that ...; ~ de faire qqch to swear OU vow to do sthg; je le jure I swear; je vous jure! fam honestly!; ne plus ~ que par to swear by. O vi -1. [blasphemer] to swear, to curse. -2. [ne pas aller ensemble]: ~ (avec) to clash (with). ♦ se jurer vp: se ~ de faire qqch to swear OU vow to do sthg. juridiction [3yridiksj5] «/"jurisdiction. juridictionnel, -elle fôyridiksjDnel] adj jurisdictional. juridique [3yridik] adj legal. jurisprudence [3yrisprydâs] nf jurisprudence; faire ~ to set a precedent. juriste [3yrist] «w/" lawyer. juron [3yr5] nm swearword, oath. jury [3yri] nm -1. JUR jury. -2. [SCOL d'examen] examining board; [- de concours] admissions board. jus [3y] nm -1. [de fruits, légumes] juice; ~ d'orange de pomme orange/apple juice. -2. [de viande] gravy. jusqu'au-boutiste [3yskobutist] nmf hardliner. jusque, jusqu' [3ysk(o)] ♦ jusqu'à loc prép -1. [sens temporel] until, till; jusqu'à nouvel ordre until further

notice; jusqu'à présent up until now, so far. -2. [sens spatial] as far as; jusqu'au bout to the end. -3. [même] even; aller jusqu'à faire qqch fig to go as far as to do sthg. ♦ jusqu'à ce que loc conj until, till. ♦ jusqu'en loc prép up until. ♦ jusqu'ici loc adv [lieu] up to here; [temps] up until now, so far. ♦ jusque-la loc adv [lieu] up to there; [temps] up until then. justaucorps foystokor] nm [maillot] leotard. juste [3yst] o adj -1. [équitable] fair. -2. [exact] right, correct. -3. [trop petit] tight. O adv -1. [bien] correctly, right. -2. [exactement, seulement] just. ♦ au juste loc adv exactly. ♦ tout juste loc adv only just. justement [3yst3mâ] adv -1. [avec raison] rightly. -2. [précisément] exactly, precisely. justesse kystes] nf [de remarque] aptness; [de raisonnement] soundness. ♦ de justesse loc adv only just. justice [3ystis] «/"-l. JUR justice; se faire ~ [se suicider] to take one's life; passer en ~ to stand trial; rendre la ~ to dispense justice; rendre ~ à qqn qqch to do justice to sb/sthg. -2. [équité] fairness. justiciable [3ystisjabl] adj: être ~ de JUR to be answerable to. justicier, -ière [3ystisje, jer] nm, /"righter of wrongs. justifiable [3ystifjabl] adj justifiable. justificatif, -ive [3ystifikatif, iv] adj supporting. ♦ justificatif nm written proof (I/). justification [3ystifikasj5] «/"justification. justifier [3ystifje] [9] vt -1. [gén] to justify. -2. TYPO: ~ à gauche/à droite to lefWrightjustify. ♦ se justifier vp to justify o.s. jute [3yt] nm jute. juter [3yte] [3] vi [fruit] to be juicy. juteux, -euse [y/ta, oz] adj juicy; une affaire juteuse fam a nice little earner. juvénile [3yvenil] adj youthful. juxtaposé, -e [3ykstapoze] adj juxtaposed. juxtaposer [3ykstapoze] [3] vt to juxtapose, juxtaposition [3ykstapozisj5] nf juxtaposition.

293 koala K k, K [ka] nm inv k, K. K7 [kaset] (abr de cassette) nf cassette; radio— radiocassette. Kaboul [kabul] n Kabul. kabyle [kabil] O adj Kabyle. O nm [langue] Kabyle. ♦ Kabyle nmf Kabyle. Kabylie [kabili] nf: la ~ Kabylia. kaki [kaki] O nm -1. [couleur] khaki. -2. [fruit] persimmon. O adj inv khaki. kaléidoscope [kaleidoskop] nm kaleidoscope. kamikaze [kamikaz] nm kamikaze pilot. Kampuchea [kâpyjea] nm: le ~ Kampuchea. kanak = canaque, kangourou [kâguru] nm kangaroo. kapok [kapok] nm kapok. karaoké [karaoke] nm karaoke. karaté [karate] nm karate. karité [karite] nm shea. kart [kart] nm go-kart. karting [kartio] nm go-karting. kas(c)her, cascher [kajer] adj inv kosher; manger ~ to eat kosher food. Katar = Qatar. Katmand(o)u [katmôdu] n Katmandu. kayak [kajak] nm kayak. KCS {abr de couronne tchécoslovaque) Kcs. Kenya [kenja] nm: le ~ Kenya; au ~ in Kenya. kenyan, -e [kenjâ, an] adj Kenyan. ♦ Kenyan, -e nm, f Kenyan. képi [kepi] nm kepi. kératine [keratin] nf keratin. kermesse [kermès] nf -1. [foire] fair. -2. [fête de bienfaisance] fête. kérosène [kerozen] nm kerosene. ketchup [ketfœp] nm ketchup. KF -1. abr de kilofranc. -2. abr de café. kg (abr de kilogramme) kg. KGB (abr de Komitet Gossoudarstvennoï Bezopasnosti) nm KGB. khâgne [kaji] nf second year of a two-year arts course taken prior to the competitive examination for entry to the Ecole normale supérieure. Khartoum [kartum] n Khartoum. khmer, -ère [kmer] adj Khmer. ♦ khmer nm [langue] Khmer. ♦ Khmer, -ère nm, f Khmer. khôl [kol], kohol [kool] nm kohl. kibboutz [kibuts] nm inv kibbutz. kidnapper [kidnape] [3] vt to kidnap. kidnapping [kidnapirj] nm kidnap. kif-kif [kifkifj adj inv fam: c'est ~ it's all the same, it makes no odds Br.

kilo [kilo] nm kilo. kilofranc [kilofrâ] nm one thousand francs. kilogramme [kibgram] nm kilogram. kilométrage [kibmetra3J nm -1. [de voiture] — mileage; ~ illimité — unlimited mileage. -2. [distance] distance. kilomètre [kibmetr] nm kilometer Am, kilometre Br. kilométrique [kibmetrik] adj kilometric. kilo-octet [kiloDkte] nm INFORM kilobyte. kilowatt [kibwat] nm kilowatt. kilowatt-heure [kilowatoer] (pi kilowattsheures) nm kilowatt-hour. kilt [kilt] nm kilt. kimono [kimono] nm kimono. kinésithérapeute [kineziterapot] nmf physiotherapist. Kinshasa [kinfasa] n Kinshasa. kiosque [kpsk] njn -1. [de vente] kiosk; ~ à journaux newspaper kiosk. -2. [pavilion] pavilion. -3. [de navire] pilot house, wheelhouse. kir [kir] nm mixture of white wine and blackcurrant liqueur. kirsch [kirf] nm cherry brandy. kit [kit] nm kit; en ~ in kit form. kitchenette [kitfanet] «f kitchenette. kitsch [kitj] adj inv kitsch. kiwi [kiwi] nm -1. [oiseau] kiwi. -2. [fruit] kiwi, kiwi fruit (17). Klaxon® [klaks5] nm hom. klaxonner [klaksone] [3] vi to hoot. kleptomane, cleptomane [kleptoman] nmf kleptomaniac. kleptomanie [klcptomani] ///kleptomania. km (abr de kilomètre) km. km/h (abr de kilomètre par heure) kph. Ko (abr de kilo-octet) K. K.-O. [kao] nm: mettre qqn ~ to knock sb out. koala [koala] nm koala (bear).

kohol 294 kohol = khôl. Kosovo [Icdsdvd] nm: le ~ KosovoMetohija; au ~ in Kosovo-Metohija. kouglof, kugelhof [kugbf] nm cake made with dried fruit and almonds. Koweït [kDwet] nm: le ~ Kuwait; au ~ in Kuwait. Koweït City [kowetsiti] n Kuwait. koweïtien, -ienne [kowetjê, jen] adj Kuwaiti. ♦ Koweïtien, -ienne nm, f Kuwaiti. krach [krak] nm crash; ~ boursier stock market crash. kraft [kraft] nm kraft; papier ~ brown paper. KRD (abr de couronne danoise) Kr, DKr. KRN (abr de couronne norvégienne) Kr, NKr. KRS (abr de couronne suédoise) Kr, Skr. Kuala Lumpur [kyalalympyr] n Kuala Lumpur. kugelhof = kouglof. kumquat [kumkwat] nm kumquat. kung-fu [kuofu] nm kung fu. kurde [kyrd] o adj Kurdish. O nm [langue] Kurdish. ♦ Kurde nmf Kurd. Kurdistan [kyrdistâ] nm: le ~ Kurdistan; au ~ in Kurdistan. kWh (abr de kilowatt-heure) kW/hr. Kyoto [kiDtD] n Kyoto. kyrielle [kirjel] nf fam stream; [d'enfants] horde. kyste [kist] nm cyst. L 1, L [el] O nm inv 1, L. O (abr de litre) 1. la1 [la] art dif & pron déf—* le. la2 [la] nm inv MUS A; [dans la gamme] la. là [la] adv -1. [lieu] there; à 3 kilomètres de ~ 3 kilometres from there; passe par ~ go that way; c'est ~ que je travaille that's where I work; je suis ~ I'm here; les faits sont ~ those are the facts. -2. [temps] then; à quelques jours de ~ a few days later, a few days after that. -3. [dans cela]: la santé, tout est ~ (good) health is everything; ~ est le vrai problème that's the real problem. -4. [avec une proposition relative]: ~ où [lieu] where; [temps] when. -5. be. de ~ à dire qu'elle est sympathique, il y a loin! there's a big difference between saying that and saying that she's a nice person; nous en sommes ~ that's the stage we've reached; s'en tenir ~ to call a halt (there); voir aussi ce, là-bas, là-dedans etc. là-bas [laba] adv (over) there. label [label] nm -1. [étiquette]: ~ de qualité label guaranteeing quality. -2. [commerce]

label, brand name. labeur [laboer] nm sout labor Am, labour Br. labial, -e, -iaux [labjal, jo] adj labial. labo [labo] (abr de laboratoire) nm fam lab. laborantin, -e [laborâtê, in] nm, f laboratory assistant. laboratoire [laboratwar] nm laboratory; ~ d'analyses test laboratory; ~ de langues language laboratory. laborieusem*nt [laborjezmâ] adv laboriously. laborieux, -ieuse [laborje, J0z] adj -1. [difficile] laborious. -2. [travailleur] industrious; les classes laborieuses the working class (sg). labour [labur] nm -1. [labourage] ploughing. -2. (gén pt) [terres] ploughed field. labourage [labura3] nm ploughing. labourer [labure] [3] vt -1. AGRJC to plow Am, to plough Br. -2. //g [creuser] to make a gash in. laboureur [laburcer] nm ploughman. labrador [labrador] nm labrador.

295 lait labyrinthe [labirêt] nm labyrinth. lac [lak] nm lake; les Grands Lacs the Great Lakes; le ~ Léman Lake Geneva; le ~ Majeur Lake Maggiore. lacer [lase] [16] vt to tie. lacérer [lasere] [18] vt -1. [déchirer] to shred. -2. [blesser, griffer] to slash. lacet [lase] nm -1. [cordon] lace. -2. [de route] bend. -3. [piège] snare. lâche [laj] o nmf coward, o adj -1. [nœud] loose. -2. [personne, comportement] cowardly. lâchement [la/mâ] adv like a coward/ cowards. lâcher [laJe] [3] O vt -1. [libérer - bras, objet] to let go of; [- animal] to let go, to release; fig [- mot] to let slip. -2. [laisser tomber]: ~ qqch to drop sthg. -3. fam [plaquer - ami] ~ qqn to drop sb. O vi to give way. O nm: un ~ de a release of. lâcheté [lajte] nf-1. [couardise] cowardice. -2. [acte] cowardly act. lâcheur, -euse [la Jeer, az) nm, f fam unreliable person. lacis [lasi] nm [labyrinthe] maze. laconique [lakonik] adj laconic. laconiquement [lakonikma] adv laconically. lacrymal, -e, -aux [lakrimal, o] adj lacrimal lacrymogène [lakrimD3en] adj tear (avant n). lactation [laktasj5] nf lactation. lacté, -e [lakte] adj [régime] milk (avant n). lactique [laktik] adj lactic. lacunaire [lakyner] adj [insuffisant] incomplete. lacune [lakyn] nf [manque] gap. lacustre [lakystr] adj [faune, plante] lake (avant n); [cité, village] on stilts. lad [lad] nm stable lad. là-dedans [ladadâ] adv inside, in there; il y a quelque chose qui m'intrigue — there's something in that which intrigues me. là-dessous [ladsu] adv underneath, under there; fig behind that. là-dessus [ladsy] adv on that; ~, il partit at that point OU with that, he left; je suis d'accord ~ I agree about that. ladite —► ledit. lagon [lag5] nm, lagune [lagyn] nf lagoon. Lagos [lagos] nm: le ~ Lagos. là-haut [lao] adv up there. laïc (f laïque), laïque [laik] o adj lay (avant n); [juridiction] civil (avant n); [école] state (avant n). o nm, f layman (f laywoman). laïcisation [laisizasj5] ^/secularization.

laid, -e [le, led] adj -1. [esthétiquement] ugly. -2. [moralement] wicked. laideron [ledr5] nm ugly woman. laideur [ledcer] nf -1. [physique] ugliness. -2. [morale] wickedness. laie [le] nfzooi wild sow. lainage [lena3] nm [étoffe] woolen Am OU woollen Br material; [vêtement] woolly, woolen Am OU woollen Br garment. laine [len] nf wool; ~ de verre glass wool; pure ~ vierge pure new wool. laineux, -euse [leno, e>z) adj woolly. lainier, -ière [lenje, jer] o adj wool (avant n). O nm, f [marchand] wool merchant; [ouvrier] wool worker. laïque —► laïc. laisse [les] nf [corde] lead, leash; tenir en ~ [chien] to keep on a lead OU leash; tenir qqn en ~ fig to keep sb on a short lead. laissé-pour-compte, laissée-pourcompte [lesepurk5t] (mpl laissés-pourcompte, fpl laissées-pour-compte) adj -1. [article] unsold. -2. fig [personne] rejected. ♦ laissé-pour-compte nm -1. [article] unsold item. -2. [personne] reject. laisser [lèse] [4] O v aux (+infinitif): ~ qqn faire qqch to let sb do sthg; laisse-le faire leave him alone, don't interfere; ~ tomber qqch litt & fig to drop sthg; ~ tomber qqn fam to drop sb; laisse tomber! fam drop it! O vt -1. [gén] to leave; ~ qqch à qqn [léguer] to leave sthg to sb, to leave sb sthg; ~ qqn/qqch à qqn [confier] to leave sb/sthg with sb. -2. [céder]: ~ qqch à qqn to let sb have sthg. -3. loc: ~ qqn tranquille to leave sb in peace OU alone; ~ à désirer to leave something to be desired. ♦ se laisser vp: se ~ faire to let o.s. be persuaded; se ~ aller to relax; [dans son apparence] to let o.s. go; se ~ aller dans un fauteuil to collapse into an armchair; se ~ aller à qqch to indulge in sthg; se ~ tenter par to be tempted by. laisser-aller [leseale] nm inv carelessness. laissez-passer [lesepase] nm inv pass. lait [le] nm -1. [gén] milk; ~ de chèvre/ vache goat's/cow's milk; ~ entier/écrémé whole/skimmed milk; ~ concentré OU condensé [sucré] condensed milk; [non sucré] evaporated milk; ~ maternel mother's milk; ~ en poudre powdered milk; ~ de poule egg flip. -2. [cosmétique]: ~ démaquillant cleansing milk OU lotion.

laitage 296 laitage [leta3] nm dairy product. laiterie [letri] «/"dairy. laiteux, -euse [leto, 0z] adj milky. laitier, -ière [letje, jer] o adj dairy {avant n). O nm, f milkman (/"milkwoman). ♦ laitier nm TECHNOL slag. laiton [let5] nm brass. laitue [lety] «/"lettuce. laïus [lajys] nm long speech. lama [lama] nm -1. ZOOL llama. -2. R£LIC lama. lambeau, -x [lâbo] nm -1. [morceau] shred; mettre qqch en ~x to tear sthg to pieces OU shreds. -2. fig [fragment] fragment. lambiner [lâbine] [3] vi fam to dawdle. lambris [lâbri] nm paneling Am, panelling Br. lambswool [lâbswul] nm lambswool. lame [lam] nf -1. [fer] blade; ~ de rasoir razor blade. -2. [lamelle] strip. -3. [vague] wave; ~ de fond groundswell. lamé, -e [lame] adj lamé; ~ or/argent gold/silver lamé. ♦ lamé nm lamé; de OU en ~ lamé. lamelle [lamel] nf -1. [de champignon] gill. -2. [tranche] thin slice. -3. [de verre] slide. lamentable [lamâtabl] adj -1. [résultats, sort] appalling. -2. [ton] plaintive. lamentablement [lamûtabbmâ] adv miserably. lamentation [lamâtasj5] nf -1. [plainte] lamentation. -2. {gén j?î) [jérémiade] moaning (V). lamenter [lamâte] [3] ♦ se lamenter vp> to complain; se ~ sur qqch to bemoan sthg; se ~ d'avoir fait qqch to complain about having done sthg. laminage [lamina3] nm lamination. laminer [lamine] [3] vt IND to laminate; fig [personne, revenus] to eat away at. laminoir [laminwar] nm rolling mill. lampadaire [lâpader] nm [dans maison] floor lamp Am, standard lamp Br; [de rue] street lamp OU light. lampe [lap] nf lamp, light; ~ à bronzer sunlamp; ~ de chevet bedside lamp; ~ halogène halogen light; ~ à pétrole oil lamp; ~ de poche flashlight Am, torch Br; ~ à souder blowtorch; ~ témoin pilot light; s'en mettre plein la ~ fam fig to stuff o.s. lampée [lape] nf fam swig. lampion [lâpj5] nm Chinese lantern. lampiste [lâpist] nm [employé, subalterne] underling, dogsbody Br. lance [lâs] «/"-l. [arme] spear. -2. [de tuyau] nozzle; ~ d'incendie fire hose. lancée [lose] nf continuer sur sa ~ to keep

going. lance-flammes [lùsflam] nm inv flamethrower. lancement [lâsmâ] nm -1. [d'entreprise, produit, navire] launching. -2. [de javelot, projectile] throwing. lance-pierres [lâspjcr] nm inv catapult. lancer [lâse] [16] O vt -1. [pierre, javelot] to throw; ~ qqch sur qqn to throw sthg at sb. -2. [fusée, produit, style] to launch. -3. [émettre] to give off; [cri] to let out; [injures] to hurl; [ultimatum] to issue. -4. [moteur] to start up. -5. [INFORM - programme] to start; [- système] to boot (up). -6. fig [sur un sujet]: ~ qqn sur qqch to get sb started on sthg. o nm -1. PÊCHE casting. -2. SPORT throwing; ~ du poids shotput. ♦ se lancer vp -1. [débuter] to make a name for o.s. -2. [s'engager]: se ~ dans [dépenses, explication, lecture] to embark on. lanceur, -euse [lâsœr, az] nm, f SPORT thrower. ♦ lanceur nm AÉRON launcher. lancinant, -e [lâsinâ, ât] adj -1. [douleur] shooting. -2. fig [obsédant] haunting. -3. [monotone] insistent. lanciner [lâsine] [3] o vi to throb. O vt fig to haunt. landau [lâdo] nm -1. [d'enfant] pram. -2. [carrosse] landau. lande [lâd] «/"moor. langage [lâga3] nm language; — machine INFORM machine language. lange [lâ3] nm diaper Am, nappy Br. langer [lâ3e] [17] vt to change. langoureusem*nt [lûgurazmâ] adv languorously. langoureux, -euse [lâgure, 0z] adj languorous. langouste [lâgust] nf crayfish. langoustine [lâgustin] nf langoustine. langue [lag] nf -1. AN AT & fig tongue; tirer la ~ à qqn to stick out one's tongue at sb; ~ de bœuf CULIN ox tongue; mauvaise ~ fig gossip; avoir la ~ bien pendue to be a chatterbox; donner sa ~ au chat to give up; ne pas avoir sa ~ dans sa poche never to be at a loss for words; tenir sa ~ fig to hold one's tongue. -2. LING language; de ~ française [livre] French; [personne] Frenchspeaking; les politiciens qui parlent la ~ de bois politicians who mouth clichés; ~ ma-

297 larve ternelle mother tongue; ~ morte/vivante dead/modern language. langue-de-chat [lùgdoja] (pi langues-dechat) nf light finger-biscuit. languette [lâget] a;/ tongue. langueur [lâgoer] nf -1. [dépérissem*nt, mélancolie] languor. -2. [apathie] apathy. languir [lâgir] [32] vi -1. [dépérir]: ~ (de) to languish (with). -2. sout [attendre] to wait; Éaire ~ qqn to keep sb waiting. -3. littéraire [désirer]: ~ après to pine for. lanière [lanjer] «/"strip. lanoline [lanolin] nf lanolin. lanterne [lâtcm] nf -1. [éclairage] lantern. -2. [phare] light. -3. loc: éclairer la ~ de qqn fig to put sb in the know; être la ~ rouge fam fig to bring up the rear. lanterner [lâtcrne] [3] vi fam to dawdle; faire ~ qqn to keep sb hanging around. Laos [lass] nm: le ~ Laos; au ~ in Laos. laotien, -ienne [laosjê, jcn] adj Laotian. ♦ laotien nm [langue] Laotian. ♦ Laotien, -ienne nm, /Laotian. lapalissade [lapalisad] nf statement of the obvious. La Paz [lapaz] n La Paz. laper [lape] [3] vt & vi to lap. lapereau, -x [lapro] nm baby rabbit. lapidaire [lapider] o nm lapidary, o adj lapidary; fig [style] terse. lapider [lapide] [3] vt [tuer] to stone. lapin, -e [lapé, in] nm, f -1. CULIN & ZOOL rabbit; ~ de garenne wild rabbit. -2. fam [personne]: mon ~ my darling; chaud ~ stud. -3. loc: poser un ~ à qqn fam to stand sb up. ♦ lapin nm [fourrure] rabbit fur. lapon, -onne OU -one [lap5, on] adj Lapp. ♦ lapon nm [langue] Lapp. ♦ Lapon, -onne OU -one nm, f Lapp, Laplander. Laponie [lapnni] nf. la ~ Lapland. laps [laps] nm: (dans) un ~ de temps (in) a while. lapsus [lapsys] nm slip (of the tongue/pen); Éaire un ~ to make a slip (of the tongue/ pen). ^ laquais [lake] nm lackey. laque [lak] nf -1. [vernis, peinture] lacquer. -2. [pour cheveux] hair spray, lacquer. laqué, -e [lake] adj lacquered. laquelle —> lequel. laquer [lake] [3] vt to lacquer. larbin [larbê] nm -1. [domestique] servant. -2. [personne servile] yes-man. larcin [larsê] «m -1. [vol] larceny, theft. -2. [butin] spoils (pi).

lard [lar] nm -1. [graisse de porc] lard. -2. [viande] bacon. -3. fam [graisse d'homme] blubber. larder [larde] [3] vt -1. CULIN to lard. -2. fig [piquer]: ~ qqn de coups/d'injures to rain blows/insults on sb. -3. fig [truffer]: ~ qqch de to cram sthg with. lardon [lard5] nm -1. CULIN cube or strip of bacon. -2. fam [enfant] kid. large [lar3] O adj -1. [étendu, grand] wide; ~ de 5 mètres 5 metres wide; être ~ de hanches/d'épaules to have broad hips/ shoulders. -2. [important, considérable] large, big. -3. [esprit, sourire] broad. -4. [généreux personne] generous. O adv amply; voir ~ to think big; ne pas en mener ~ fig to be afraid. O nm -1. [largeur]: 5 mètres de ~ 5 metres wide. -2. [mer]: le ~ the open sea; au ~ de la côte française off the French coast; prendre le ~ [navire] to put to sea; fig to be off. largement [larçamâ] adv -1. [diffuser, répandre] widely; la porte était ~ ouverte the door was wide open. -2. [donner, payer] generously; [dépasser] considerably; [récompenser] amply; avoir ~ le temps to have plenty of time. -3. [au moins] easily. largesse [la^es] nf-1. [générosité] generosity. -2. (gén pi) [don] gift. largeur [lancer] nf -1. [d'avenue, de cercle] width. -2. fig [d'idées, d'esprit] breadth. largué, -e [large] adj: être ~ to be all at sea. larguer [large] [3] vt -1. [voile] to unfurl. -2. [bombe, parachutiste] to drop. -3. fam fig [abandonner] to chuck; se faire ~ to be chucked. larme [larm] «/"-l. [pleur] tear; être en ~s to be in tears; fondre en ~s to burst into tears; pleurer à chaudes ~s to cry bitterly; ravaler ses ~s to hold back one's tears; rire aux —s to laugh until one cries; —s de crocodile fig crocodile tears. -2. fam [goutte]: une ~ de a drop of. larmoyant, -e [larmwajâ, ât] adj -1. [yeux, personne] tearful. -2. péj [histoire] tearjerking. larmoyer [larmwaje] [13] vi -1. [pleurer personne] to weep; [- yeux] to water. -2. péj [se lamenter] to moan. larron [lar5] nm vieilli [voleur] thief. larve [larv] nf -1. ZOOL larva. -2. péj [personne] wimp.

larvé 298 larvé, -e [larve] adj -1. MÉD larvate. -2. [latent] latent. laryngite [larê3it] «/"laryngitis (U). larynx [larêks] nm larynx. las, lasse [la, las] adj littéraire -1. [fatigué] weary. -2. [dégoûté, ennuyé] tired; ~ de faire qqch tired of doing sthg; — de qqn/ qqch tired of sb/sthg. ♦ las interj alas! lascar [laskar] nm -1. [homme louche] shady character; [homme rusé] rogue. -2. fam [enfant] rascal. lascif, -îve [lasif, iv] adj lascivious. laser [lazer] o nm laser, o adj inv laser (avant n). lassant, -e [lasâ, ât] adj tiresome. lasser [lase] [3] vt sout [personne] to weary; [patience] to try. ♦ se lasser vp to weary; ne pas se ~ de qqch/de faire qqch not to weary of sthg/of doing sthg. lassitude [lasityd] a;/ lassitude. lasso [laso] nm lasso. lat. (abr de latitude) lat. latent, -e [lata, ât] adj latent. latéral, -e, -aux [lateral, o] adj lateral. latex [lat£ks] nm inv latex. latin, -e [latê, in] adj Latin. ♦ latin nm [langue] Latin; y perdre son — fig to be at a loss. latiniste [latinist] nmf [spécialiste] Latinist; [étudiant] Latin student. latino-américain, -e [latinoamerikë, en] (mpl latino-américains, fpl latino-américaines) adj La tin-American, Hispanic. latitude [latityd] nf litt & fig latitude. latrines [latrin] nfpl latrines. latte [lat] «/"lath, slat. lattis [lati] nm lathwork. laudatif, -ive [lodatif, iv] adj laudatory. lauréat, -e [brea, at] O adj prize winning, winning, o nm, f prizewinner, winner. laurier [brje] nm BOT laurel. ♦ lauriers nmpl [gloire] laurels; s'endormir OU se reposer sur ses ~s to rest on one's laurels. laurier-rose [brjeroz] {pi lauriers-roses) nm oleander. laurier-sauce [brjesos] (pi lauriers-sauce) nm bay (tree). Lausanne [lozan] n Lausanne. lavable [lavabl] adj washable. lavabo [lavabo] nm -1. [cuvette] basin. -2. (gén pt) [local] toilet. lavage [lava3J nm washing; ~ à la main/en machine hand/machine washing; ~ de cerveau fig brainwashing; subir un ~ d'estomac MED to have one's stomach pumped.

lavande [lavâd] O nf -1. BOT lavender. -2. [eau] lavender water, o adj inv lavender (avant n). lavasse [lavas] nf fam dishwater (U). lave [lav] «/"lava. lave-glace [lavglas] (pi lave-glaces) nm windshield washer Am, windscreen washer Br. lave-linge [lavlê3] nm inv washing machine. lavement [lavmâ] nm enema. laver [lave] [3] vt -1. [nettoyer] to wash. -2. fig [disculper]: ~ qqn de qqch to clear sb of sthg. ♦ se laver vp -1. [se nettoyer] to wash o.s., to have a wash; se ~ les mains/les cheveux to wash one's hands/hair. -2. [se disculper]: se ~ (de) to clear o.s. (of). laverie [lavri] nf [commerce] laundry; ~ automatique launderette. lavette [lavet] nf -1. [brosse] washing-up brush; [en tissu] dishcloth. -2. fam [homme] drip. laveur, -euse [lavoer, az] nm, f washer; ~ de carreaux window cleaner (person). lave-vaisselle [lavvesel] nm inv dishwasher. lavis [lavi] nm [procédé] washing; [dessin] wash (painting). lavoir [lavwar] nm -1. [lieu] laundry. -2. [bac] washtub. laxatif, -ive [laksatif, iv] adj laxative. ♦ laxatif nm laxative. laxisme [laksism] nm laxity. laxiste [laksist] O nmf person who is lax. O adj lax. layette [lejet] «/"layette. le [la], 1' (devant voyelle ou h muet) (fia [la], pi les [le]) O art déf -1. [gén] the; ~ lac the lake; la fenêtre the window; l'homme the man; les enfants the children. -2. [devant les noms abstraits]: l'amour love; la liberté freedom; la vieillesse old age. -3. [devant les noms géographiques]: la France France; les Etats-Unis America, the United States (of America); la Seine the Seine; les Alpes the Alps. -4. [temps]: ~ 15 janvier 1993 15th January 1993; je suis arrivé ~ 15 janvier 1993 I arrived on the 15th of January 1993; ~ lundi [habituellement] on Mondays; [jour précis] on (the) Monday. -5. [possession]: se laver les mains to wash one's hands; secouer la tête to shake one's head;

299 légume avoir les cheveux blonds to have fair hair. -6. [distributif] per, a; 10 francs ~ mètre 10 francs per meter Am OU metre Br, 10 francs a meter Am OU metre Br. O pron pers -1. [personne] him (f her), pi them; [chose] it, pi them; [animal] it, him (f her), pi them; je ~/la/les connais bien I know him/her/them well; tu dois avoir la dé, donne-la moi you must have the key, give it to me. -2. [représente une proposition]: je ~ sais bien I know, I'm well aware (of it); je te l'avais bien dit! I told you so! LEA (abr de langues étrangères appliquées) nfpl applied modem languages. leader [lidcer] O nm [de parti, course] leader. o ad/ leading. leadership [lidcerfip] nm leadership. lèche [lej] nf tfam bootlicking; faire de la ~ à qqn to lick sb's boots. léché, -e [leje] adj fam [fignolé] polished. lèchefrite [le/frit] «/"dripping-pan. lécher [leje] [18] vt -1. [passer la langue sur, effleurer] to lick; [suj: vague] to wash against. -2. fam [fignoler] to polish (up). ♦ se lécher vp: se ~ les doigts fam to lick one's fingers. lèche-vitrines [lcJVitrin] nm inv windowshopping; faire du ~ to go windowshopping. leçon [bs5] nf -1. [gén] lesson; —s de conduite driving lessons; ~s particulières private lessons OU classes. -2. [conseil] advice (17); faire la ~ à qqn to lecture sb. lecteur, -trice [lektoer, tris] nm, f -\. [de livres] reader. -2. UNrv foreign language assistant. ♦ lecteur nm -1. [gén] head; ~ de cassettes/CD cassette/CD player; ~ laser universel audio-video CD player. -2. IN FORM reader; ~ de disques disk drive. lecture [lektyr] «/"reading. LED (abr de light emitting diode) a;/ LED. ledit, ladite [ladi, ladit] (mpl lesdits [ledi], fpl lesdites [ledit]) adj the said, the aforementioned. légal, -e, -aux [legal, o] adj legal. légalement [legalmâ] adv legally. légalisation [legalizasj5] nf-1. [légitimation] legalization. -2. [authentication] authentication. légaliser [legalize] [3] vt -1. [rendre légal] to legalize. -2. [certifier authentique] to authenticate. légalisme [legalism] nm legalism. légalité [légalité] nf-1. [de contrat, d'acte] legality, lawfulness. -2. [loi] law. légataire [legator] nmf legatee; ~ universel sole legatee.

légation [legasp] nf legation. légendaire [le3âder] adj legendary. légende [le3âd] nf-1. [fable] legend. -2. péj [invention] story. -3. [de carte, de schéma] key; [de photo] caption. léger, -ère [le3e, er] adj -1. [objet, étoffe, repas] light. -2. [bruit, différence, odeur] slight. -3. [alcool, tabac] low-strength. -4. [femme] flighty. -5. [insouciant - ton] light-hearted; [- conduite] thoughdess. ♦ à la légère loc adv lightly, thoughdessly. légèrement [le3ermâ] adv -1. [s'habiller, poser] lighdy. -2. [agir] thoughdessly. -3. [blesser, remuer] slightly. légèreté [le3crte] nf ~\. [d'objet, de repas, de punition] lightness. -2. [de style] gracefulness. -3. [de conduite] thoughdessness. -4. [de personne] flightiness. légiférer [le3ifere] [18] vi to legislate. légion [Ie3j5] nf-1. MIL legion; la Légion étrangère the Foreign Legion. -2. [grand nombre]: une ~ de a host of; être ~ fig to be legion. ♦ Legion nf. la Légion d'honneur the Legion of Honour. légionnaire [le3JDncr] nm legionary. législateur, -trice [le3islatœr, tris] nm, f legislator. législatif, -ive [le3islatif, iv] adj legislative. ♦ législatif nm legislature. ♦ législatives nfpl: les législatives the legislative elections. législation [lesislasp] «f legislation. législature [le3islatyr] nf -1. [période] term of office. -2. [corps] legislature. légiste [le3ist] adj -1. [juriste] jurist. -2. —► médecin. légitimation [Ie3itimasj5] nf [d'enfant] legitimization. légitime [le3itim] adj legitimate. légitimement [le3itimmâ] adv -1. [légalement] legitimately. -2. [justement] fairly. légitimer [le3itime] [3] vt -1. [reconnaître] to recognize; [enfant] to legitimize. -2. [justifier] to justify. légitimité [le3itimite] nf -1. [de pouvoir, d'enfant] legitimacy. -2. [de récompense] fairness. legs [leg] nm legacy. léguer [lege] [18] vt: ~ qqch à qqn JUR to bequeath sthg to sb; fig to pass sthg on to sb. légume [legym] o nm vegetable. O nf fam: une grosse ~ a bigwig.

leitmotiv 300 leitmotiv [lajtmotif, letmDtif] nm leitmotif. Léman [lemâ] —» lac. lendemain [lâdmê] nm -1. [jour] day after; le ~ matin the next morning; au ~ de after, in the days following. -2. [avenir] tomorrow; sans ~ short-lived. lénifiant, -e [lenifjâ, ât] adj litt & fig soothing. léniniste [leninist] nmf & adj Leninist. lent, -e [là, lât] adj slow; ~ à faire qqch slow to do sthg. lente [lât] nfmt. lentement [làtmà] adv slowly. lenteur [lâtoer] «/"slowness ((7). lentille [lâtij] nf -1. BOT & CULIN lentil. -2. [d'optique] lens; ~s de contact contact lenses. léonin, -e [leonc, in] adj -1. [du lion] leonine. -2. [injuste] one-sided. léopard [leopar] nm leopard. LEP, Lep (abr de lycée d'enseignement professionnel) nm former secondary school for vocational training. lèpre [lepr] nf -1. MÉD leprosy. -2. fig [mal] disease. lépreux, -euse [lepro, oz] o adj -1. MÉD leprous. -2. fig [mur, maison] peeling, o nm, f leper. lequel [takcl] (/laquelle [lakel], mpl lesquels [lekel], fpl lesquelles [lekel]) {contraction de à + lequel = auquel, de + lequel = duquel, à + lesquels/lesquelles = auxquels/auxquelles, de + lesquels/lesquelles = desquels/ desquelles) O pron relatif -1. [complément personne] whom; [- chose] which. -2. [sujet personne] who; [- chose] which. O pron intern. ~S which (one)£ les —► le. lesbienne [lesbjen] «/"lesbian. lesdits, lesdites —► ledit. lèse-majesté [lezma3este] nf inv lesemajesty. léser [leze] [18] vt -1. [frustrer] to wrong. -2. MÉD to injure, to damage. lésiner [lezine] [3] vi to skimp; ne pas ~ sur not to skimp on. lésion [lezj5] «/lesion. Lesotho [lesDto] nm: le ~ Lesotho. lesquels, lesquelles —► lequel. lessive [lesiv] nf-1. [nettoyage, linge] washing. -2. [produit] washing powder. lessiver [lesive] [3] vt -1. [nettoyer] to wash. -2. CHIM to leach. -3. fam [épuiser] to wipe out. lest [lest] nm ballast; lâcher du ~ to jettison ballast; fig to make concessions. leste [lest] adj -1. [agile] nimble, agile. -2.

[licencieux] crude. lestement [lestamâ] adv -1. [agilement] nimbly, agilely. -2. [grivoisem*nt] crudely. lester [leste] [3] vt -1. [garnir de lest] to ballast. -2. fam [charger] to fill, to cram. letchi = litchi. léthargie [letar3i] nf litt & fig lethargy; tomber en ~ to become lethargic. léthargique [letarçik] adj lethargic. letton, -onne [let5, an] adj Latvian. ♦ letton nm [langue] Latvian. ♦ Letton, -onne nm, f Latvian. Lettonie [letoni] nf la ~ Latvia. lettre [letr] nf -1. [gén] letter; en toutes —s in words, in full; ~ d'amour love letter; ~ de couverture cover note; ~ ouverte open letter; ~ piégée letter bomb; ~ de rappel reminder; ~ de recommandation (letter of) recommendation; passer comme une — à la poste fam [entretien, examen] to go smoothly; [personne] to get through easily. -2. [sens des mots]: à la — to the letter. ♦ lettres nfpl -1. [culture littéraire] letters. -2. UNIV arts; —s classiques classics; —s modernes French language and literature. -3. [titre]: —s de noblesse letters patent of nobility. ♦ lettre de change «f bill of exchange. leucémie [losemi] «/"leukemia. leucocyte [lokosit] nm leucocyte. leucorrhée [loknre] nf leucorrhoea. leur [leer] pron pers inv (to) them; je voudrais ~ parler I'd like to speak to them; je ~ ai donné la lettre I gave them the letter, I gave the letter to them. ♦ leur {pi leurs) adj poss their; c'est ~ tour it's their turn; —s enfants their children. ♦ le leur (f la leur, pi les leurs) pron poss theirs, il faudra qu'ils y mettent du ~ they've got to pull their weight. leurre [leer] nm -1. [appât] lure. -2. fig [illusion] illusion. -3. fig [tromperie] deception, trap. leurrer [loere] [5] vt to deceive. ♦ se leurrer vp to deceive o.s. levain [lave] nm -1. CULIN: pain au —/sans ~ leavened/unleavened bread. -2. fig [germe] seeds {pi), germ. levant [lava] o nm east, o adj —► soleil. levé, -e [lave] adj [debout] up. ♦ levée nf-1. [de scellés, difficulté] removal; [de blocus, de siège, d'interdiction] lifting. -2. [de séance] close, closing. -3. [d'impôts, du

301 libertin courrier] collection. -4. [d'armée] raising. -5. [remblai] dyke. -6. CARTES trick. ♦ levée de boucliers nf (general) outcry. lever [lave] [19] O vt -1. [objet, blocus, interdiction] to lift. -2. [main, tête, armée] to raise. -3. [scellés, difficulté] to remove. -4. [séance] to close, to end. -5. [impôts, courrier] to collect. -6. [plan, carte] to draw (up). -7. [enfant, malade]: ~ qqn to get sb up. O vi -1. [plante] to come up. -2. [pâte] to rise. O nm -1. [d'astre] rising, rise; ~ du jour daybreak; ~ du soleil sunrise. -2. [de personne]: il est toujours de mauvaise humeur au ~ he's always in a bad mood when he gets up. -3. THÉÂTRE: ~ de rideau curtain, curtain-up; fig curtain-raiser. ♦ se lever vp -1. [personne] to get up, to rise; [vent] to get up. -2. [soleil, lune] to rise; [jour] to break. -3. [temps] to clear. lève-tard [levtar] ntnfinv late riser. lève-tôt [levto] nmf inv early riser. levier [tavje] nm Htt & fig lever; ~ de vitesses gear shift Am, gear lever Br. lévitation [levitasj5] nf lévitation. lèvre [levr] nf-\. ANATlip; [de vulve] labium; être suspendu aux —s de qqn fig to hang on sb's every word; se mordre les —s fig to bite one's lip. -2. [bord] edge. lévrier, levrette [levrije, lavrct] nm, f^ greyhound. levure [tevyr] nf yeast; ~ chimique baking powder. lexical, -e, -aux [leksikal, -o] adj lexical. lexicographie [leksiksgrafi] nf lexicography. lexique [leksik] nm -1. [dictionnaire] glossary. -2. [vocabulaire] vocabulary. lézard [lezar] nm -1. [animal] lizard; faire le ~ fam fig to bask in the sun. -2. [peau] lizard (skin). lézarde [lézard] «/"crack. lézarder [lézarde] [3] O vt to crack. O vi fam [paresser] to bask. ♦ se lézarder vp to crack. Lhassa [lasa; n Lhasa. liaison [ljezô] «/"-l. [jonction, enchaînement] connection. -2. CULIN & LING liaison. -3. [contact, relation] contact; avoir une ~ to have an affair; être/entrer en ~ avec to be in/establish contact with; par — radio by radio link. -4. TRANSPORT link. liane [ljan] «/"creeper. liant, -e [ljâ, ât] adj sociable. ♦ liant nm -1. [substance] binder. -2. [élasticité] elasticity. liasse [ljas] nf bundle; [de billets de banque]

wad. Liban [libâ] nm: le ~ Lebanon; au ~ in Lebanon. libanais, -e [libane, cz] adj Lebanese. ♦ Libanais, -e nm, f Lebanese (person); les Libanais the Lebanese. Libé [libe] (abr de Libération) nm French leftof-centre newspaper. libelle [libel] nm lampoon. libellé [libele] nm wording. libeller [libele] [4] vt -1. [chèque] to make out. -2. [lettre] to word. libellule [libelyl] «/"dragonfly. libéral, -e, -aux [liberal, o] O adj [attitude, idée, parti] liberal. O nm, f PO LIT liberal. libéralement [liberalmâ] adv liberally. libéralisation [liberalizasj5] nf liberalization. libéraliser [liberalize] [3] vt to liberalize. libéralisme [liberalism] nm liberalism. libéralité [libéralité] «/"-l. [générosité] generosity. -2. (gén pt) [don] generous gift. libérateur, -trice [liberatœr, tris] O adj [rire] liberating; guerre libératrice war of liberation. O nm, f liberator. libération [liberasj5] nf-1. [de prisonnier] release, freeing. -2. [de pays, de la femme] liberation; la Libération HIST the Liberation. -3. [d'énergie] release. libéré, -e [libère] nm, f freed prisoner. libérer [libère] [18] vt -1. [prisonnier, fonds] to release, to free. -2. [pays, la femme] to liberate; ~ qqn de qqch to free sb from sthg. -3. [passage] to clear. -4. [énergie] to release. -5. [instincts, passions] to give free rein to. ♦ se libérer vp -1. [se rendre disponible] to get away. -2. [se dégager]: se ~ de [lien] to free o.s. from; [engagement] to get out of. Liberia [liberja] nm: le ~ Liberia; au ~ in Liberia. libérien, -ienne [liberjë, jen] adj Liberian. ♦ Libérien, -ienne nm, /"Liberian. libertaire [libertcr] nmf & adj libertarian. liberté [liberté] nf-1. [gén] freedom; en ~ free; Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity; parler en toute ~ to speak freely; vivre en ~ to live in freedom; ~ d'expression freedom of expression; ~ d'opinion freedom of thought. -2. JUR release; ~ conditionnelle parole; ~ provisoire bail; ~ surveillée probation. -3. [loisir] free time. libertin, -e [liberté, in] o adj [dissolu] dissolute; [propos, livre] lewd. O nm, /"libertine.

libertinage 302 libertinage [libertina3] nm [débauche] dissoluteness; [de propos, livre] lewdness. libidineux, -euse [libidino, oz] adj lecherous. libido [libido] nf libido. libraire [librer] nmf bookseller. librairie [libreri] nf-1. [magasin] bookstore Am, bookshop Br. -2. [commerce, activité] book trade. librairie-papeterie [libreri-papetri] (pi librairies-papeteries) nf bookseller's and stationer's. libre [libr] adj -1. [gén] free; ~ de qqch free from sthg; être ~ de faire qqch to be free to do sthg. -2. [école, secteur] private. -3. [passage] clear. libre-échange [libreJÔ3] (pi libres-échanges) nm tree trade (U). librement [libramâ] adv freely. libre-penseur, -euse [librapâscer, az] (mpl libres-penseurs, fpl libres-penseuses) nm, f free-thinker. libre-service [libraservis] (pi libres-services) nm -1. [système]: le ~ self-service. -2. [magasin] self-service store OU shop; [restaurant] self-service restaurant. librettiste [libretist] nmf librettist. Libreville [libravil] n Libreville. Libye [libi] nf: la ~ Libya. libyen, -yenne [libjc, jen] adj Libyan. ♦ Libyen, -yenne nm, f Libyan. lice [lis] nf. en ~ fig in the fray; entrer en ~ fig to join the fray. licence [lisâs] nf-1. [permis] permit; COMM licence. -2. UNIV (first) degree; ~ es lettres/ en droit = Bachelor of Arts/Law degree. -3. littéraire [liberté] licence; ~ poétique poetic licence. licencié, -e [lisâsje] o adj -1. UNiv graduate (avant n). -2. [autorisé] permit-holding (avant n); COMM licensed, o nm, f -1. UNIV graduate. -2. [titulaire d'un permis] permit-holder; COMM licence-holder. licenciement [lisâsimâ] nm dismissal; [économique] layoff, redundancy Br. licencier [lisâsje] [9] vt to dismiss; [pour cause économique] to lay off, to make redundant Br. licencieux, -ieuse [lisâsje, jez] adj licentious. lichen [liken] nm lichen. licite [lisit] adj lawful, legal. licol [likol], licou [liku] nm halter. licorne [lilorn] «/"unicorn. licou = licol. lie [li] nf [dépôt] dregs (pi), sediment; la ~ de la société fig & littéraire the dregs (pi) of

society. lie-de-vin [lidavê] adj inv burgundy, winecolored Am, wine-coloured Br. lié, -e [lje] adj -1. [mains] bound. -2. [amis]: être très ~ avec to be great friends with. Liechtenstein [lijtan/tajn] nm: le ~ Liechtenstein; au ~ in Liechtenstein. liechtensteinois, -e [lijtanftajnwa, az] adj from Liechtenstein. ♦ Liechtensteinois, -e nm, f Liechtensteiner. liège [IJC3] nm cork; en OU de ~ cork (avant n). liégeois, -e [lje3wa, az] adj -1. GÉOGR of/ from Liège. -2. CULIN: café/chocolat ~ coffee or chocolate ice cream topped with whipped cream. lien [ljê] nm -1. [sangle] bond. -2. [relation, affinité] bond, tie; avoir des —s de parenté avec to be related to. -3. fig [enchaînement] connection, link. lier [lje] [9] vt -1. [attacher] to tie (up); ~ qqn/qqch à to tie sb/sthg to. -2. [suj: contrat, promesse] to bind; ~ qqn/qqch par to bind sb/sthg by. -3. [relier par la logique] to link, to connect; ~ qqch à to link sthg to, to connect sthg with. -4. [commencer]: ~ connaissance/conversation avec to strike up an acquaintance/a conversation with. -5. [suj: sentiment, intérêt] to unite. -6. CULIN to thicken. ♦ se lier vp -1. [s'attacher]: se ~ (d'amitié) avec qqn to make friends with sb. -2. [s'astreindre]: se ~ par une promesse to be bound by a promise. lierre [ljer] nm ivy. liesse [ljes] «/"jubilation. lieu, -x [lje] nm -1. [endroit] place; en ~ sûr in a safe place; ~ de naissance birthplace; ~ de perdition den of vice; ~ saint holy place; haut ~ de qqch fig center Am OU centre Br of sthg; en haut ~ fig in high places. -2. be: avoir ~ to take place; avoir ~ de faire qqch to have grounds for doing sthg; dormer ~ à to give rise to; tenir ~ de to take the place of. ♦ lieux nmpl -1. [scène] scene (sg), spot (sg); sur les ~x (d'un crime dun accident) at the scene (of a crime/an accident). -2. [domicile] premises. ♦ lieu commun nm commonplace. ♦ au lieu de loc prép: au ~ de qqch/de faire qqch instead of sthg/of doing sthg. ♦ en dernier lieu loc adv lastly.

303 linge ♦ en premier lieu loc adv in the first place. ♦ en second lieu loc adv in the second place. lieu-dit [lj0di] nm locality, place. lieue [1)0] nf league; j'étais à cent —s de penser cela fig I never thought that for a moment. lieutenant [lj0tnâ] nm lieutenant. lieutenant-colonel [ljotnâkobnel] (pi lieutenants-colonels) nm lieutenant-colonel. lièvre [ljevr] nm hare; courir deux ~s à la fois fig to do more than one thing at a time; lever un ~ fig to ask an awkward question. lifter [lifte] [3] vt TENNIS to spin, to put a spin on. lifting [liftio] nm face-lift. ligament [ligamû] nm ligament. ligature [ligatyr] nf [MED - lien] ligature; [- opération] ligation, ligature; ~ des trompes MÉD tubal ligation. ligaturer [ligatyre] [3] vt -1. MED to ligature, to ligate. -2. AGRIC to bind. lige [H3] adj: homme ~ liege man. ligne [liji] nf -1. [gén] line; à la ~ new line OU paragraph; en ~ [personnes] in a line; INFORM on line; en ~ droite as the crow flies; lire entre les —s fig to read between the lines; dans sa ~ de mire in one's line of sight; ~ de départ d'arrivée starting/ finishing line; ~ aérienne airline; ~ de commande INFORM command line; ~ de conduite line of conduct; ~ de demarcation demarcation line; ~ directrice guideline; ~ de flottaison water line; ~s de la main lines of the hand. -2. [forme - de voiture, meuble] lines (pt). -3. [silhouette]: avoir la ~ to have a good figure; garder la ~ to keep one's figure; surveiller sa ~ to watch one's waistline. -4. [de pêche] fishing line; pêcher à la ~ to go angling. -5. loc: dans les grandes ~s in outline; entrer en ~ de compte to be taken into account. lignée [lijie] nf [famille] descendants (j?f); dans la ~ de fig [d'écrivains, d'artistes] in the tradition of. lignite [lijiit] nm lignite. ligoter [ligote] [3] vt -1. [attacher] to tie up; ~ qqn à qqch to tie sb to sthg. -2. fig [entraver] to bind. ligue [lig] «/"league. liguer [lige] [3] ♦ se liguer vp to form a league; se ~ contre to conspire against. Was [lila] nm & adj inv lilac. limace [limas] nf -1. ZOOL slug. -2. fig [personne] slowpoke Am, slowcoach Br.

limaille [limaj] nf filings (pi). limande [limûd] nf dab. limbes [lêb] nmpl RE LIG limbo (sg); être dans les ~ fig to be in limbo. lime [lim] nf -\. [outil] file; ~ à ongles nail file. -2. BOT lime. limer [lime] [3] vt [ongles] to file; [aspérités] to file down; [barreau] to file through. limier [limje] nm -1. [chien] bloodhound. -2. [détective] sleuth; fin ~ first-rate detective. liminaire [liminer] adj introductory. limitatif, -ive [limitatif, iv] adj restrictive. limitation [limitasj5] nf limitation; [de naissances] control; ~ de vitesse speed limit. limite [limit] o nf -\. [gén] limit; à la ~ [au pire] at worst; à la ~, j'accepterais de le voir if pushed, I'd agree to see him. -2. [terme, échéance] deadline; ~ d'âge age limit. O adj [extrême] maximum {avant «); cas ~ borderline case; date ~ deadline; date ~ de vente/consommation sell-by/ use-by date. ♦ limites nfph sans ~s limitless. limité, -e [limite] adj [peu important] limited. limiter [limite] [3] vt -1. [borner] to border, to bound. -2. [restreindre] to limit. ♦ se limiter vp -1. [se restreindre]: se ~ à qqch/à faire qqch to limit o.s. to sthg/to doing sthg. -2. [se borner]: se ~ à to be limited to. limitrophe [limitrof] adj -1. [frontalier] border (avant n); être ~ de to border on. -2. [voisin] adjacent. limogeage [lim:>3a3] nm dismissal. limoger [lim^e] [17] vt to dismiss. limon [lim5] nm -1. GÉOL alluvium, silt. -2. CONSTR stringboard. limonade [limDnad] wf lemonade. limpide [lêpid] adj -1. [eau] limpid. -2. [ciel, regard] clear. -3. [explication, style] clear, lucid. limpidité [lëpidite] nf -1. [d'eau] limpidity. -2. [du ciel, de regard] clearness. -3. [d'explication, de style] clarity, lucidity. lin [le] nm -1. BOT flax. -2. [tissu] linen. linceul [lësœi] nm shroud. linéaire [lineer] adj -1. [mesure, perspective] linear. -2. fig [récit] one-dimensional. linge [IC3] nm -1. [lessive] washing. -2. [de lit, de table] linen. -3. [sous-vêtements] underwear; ~ sale dirty washing; laver son ~ sale en famille not to wash one's dirty linen in public. -4. [morceau de tissu] cloth.

lingerie 304 -5. be: blanc OU pâle comme un ~ as white as a sheet. lingerie [lê3ri] «/"-l. [local] linen room. -2. [sous-vêtements] lingerie. lingot [lêgo] nm ingot; ~ d'or gold ingot. linguiste [lêgqist] nmf linguist. linguistique [lêgqistik] O «/"linguistics (L/). O adj linguistic. linoléum [linoleom] nm lino, linoleum. linotte [linDt] nf ZOOL linnet; tête de ~ fig featherbrain. linteau, -x [lcto] nm lintel. lion, lionne [lj5, ljon] nm, /"lion (/"lioness). ♦ Lion nm ASTROL Leo; être Lion to be (a) Leo. lionceau, -x [Ipso] nm lion cub. lipide [lipid] nm lipid. lippu, -e [lipy] adj thick-lipped. liquéfier [likefje] [9] vt to liquefy. ♦ se liquéfier vy -1. [matière] to liquefy. -2. fig [personne] to turn to jelly. liqueur [likoer] «/liqueur. liquidation [likidasp] nf -1. [de compte & BOURSE] settlement. -2. [de société, stock] liquidation. -3. arg crime [de témoin] liquidation, elimination. -4. fam fig [de problème] elimination. liquide [likid] o nm -1. [substance] liquid. -2. [argent] cash; en ~ in cash. O nf LING liquid. O adj -1. [corps & LING] liquid. -2. [en argent] cash {avant n). liquider [Ukide] [3] w -1. [compte & BOURSE] to settle. -2. [société, stock] to liquidate. -3. fam [importun] to get rid of. -4. arg crime [témoin] to liquidate, to eliminate; fig [problème] to eliminate, to get rid of. liquidité [likidite] «/liquidity. ♦ liquidités nfpl liquid assets. liquoreux, -euse [likore, 0z] adj syrupy, sugary. lire1 [lir] [106] vt to read; lu et approuvé read and approved. lire2 [lir] «/"lira. lis, lys [lis] nm lily. lisais, lisions etc —► lire. Lisbonne [Hzbon] « Lisbon. lise, lises etc —► lire. liseré [lizre], liséré [lizere] nm -1. [ruban] binding. -2. [bande] border, edging. liseron [lizr5] nm bindweed. liseuse [lizoz] nf -1. [couvre-livre] book cover. -2. [signet] paper knife (cum bookmark). -3. [vêtement] bedjacket. -4. [lampe] reading light. lisible [lizibl] adj -1. [écriture] legible. -2. [roman] readable. lisiblement [lizibbmà] adv legibly.

lisière [lizjer] nf -1. [limite] edge. -2. COUTURE selvage. lisse [lis] O nf ~1. [rambarde] handrail. -2. NAV1G rib. O adj -1. [surface, peau] smooth. -2. [cheveux] straight. lisser [lise] [3] vt -1. [papier, vêtements] to smooth (out). -2. [moustache, cheveux] to smooth (down). -3. [plumes] to preen. listage [lista3] nm listing. liste [list] nf list; ~ d'attente waiting list; ~ électorale electoral roll; ~ de manage wedding present list; ~ noire blacklist; être sur la ~ rouge to be ex-directory. lister [liste] [3] vt to list. listing [listirj] nm listing. lit [li] nm -1. [gén] bed; faire son ~ to make one's bed; garder le ~ to stay in bed; se mettre au ~ to go to bed; ~ à baldaquin four-poster bed; ~ de camp camp bed; ~ d'enfant crib Am, cot Br; ~ gigogne pullout bed; ~s jumeaux/superposés twin/ bunk beds. -2. JUR marriage; d'un premier ~ of a first marriage. LIT (abr de lire italienne) L, Lit. litanie [litani] nf litany. litchi [litji], letchi [letfi] nm lychee. literie [litri] «/"bedding. lithographie [litDgrah] nf -1. [procédé] lithography. -2. [image] lithograph. litière [litjer] «/"litter. litige [liti3] nm -1. JUR lawsuit. -2. [désaccord] dispute. litigieux, -ieuse [liti3J0, j0z] adj -1. JUR litigious. -2. [douteux] disputed. litote [litDt] «f understatement, litotes. litre [litr] nm -1. [mesure, quantité] liter Am, litre Br. -2. [récipient] liter Am OU litre Br bottle. litron [litr5] nm tfam liter Am OU litre Br of wine. littéraire [literer] adj literary. littéral, -e, -aux [literal, o] adj -1. [gén] literal. -2. [écrit] written. littéralement [literalmâ] adv literally. littérature [literatyr] nf -1. [gén] literature; ~ comparée comparative literature. -2. [profession] writing. littoral, -e, -aux [litoral, o] adj coastal. ♦ littoral nm coast, coastline. Lituanie [litqani] nf. la ~ Lithuania. lituanien, -ienne [litqanjc, jen] adj Lithuanian.

305 logiquement ♦ lituanien nm [langue] Lithuanian. ♦ Lituanien, -ienne nm, /Lithuanian. liturgie [lityrçi] «/"liturgy. liturgique [lityrçik] adj liturgical. livide [livid] adj [blême] pallid. livrable [livrabl] adj which can be delivered. livraison [livrez5] nf [de marchandise] delivery; ~ à domicile home delivery. livre [livr] O nm -1. [gén] book; ~ de bord log, logbook; ~ de cuisine cookery book; ~ d'images picture book; ~ de messe missal; ~ d'or visitors' book; ~ de poche paperback; à ~ ouvert fig at sight. -2. [industrie] book trade, o nf pound; ~ sterling pound sterling. livre-cassette [livrokaset] {pi livrescassettes) nm spoken word cassette. livrée [livre] «/"[uniforme] livery. livrer [livre] [3] w -1. COMM to deliver; ~ qqch à qqn [achat] to deliver sthg to sb; fig [secret] to reveal OU give away sthg to sb. -2. [coupable, complice]: ~ qqn à qqn to hand sb over to sb. -3. [abandonner]: ~ qqch à qqch to give sthg over to sthg; ~ qqn à lui-même to leave sb to his own devices; ~ passage à qqn fig to let sb pass. ♦ se livrer vp -1. [se rendre]: se ~ à [police, ennemi] to give o.s. up to; [amant] to give o.s. to. -2. [se confier]: se ~ à [ami] to open up to, to confide in. -3. [se consacrer]: se ~ à [occupation] to devote o.s. to; [excès] to indulge in. livresque [livresk] adj bookish. livret [livre] nm -1. [carnet] booklet; ~ de caisse d'épargne passbook, bankbook; ~ de famille official family record book, given by registrar to newlyweds; ~ scolaire — school report. -2. [catalogue] catalog Am, catalogue Br. -3. MUS book, libretto. livreur, -euse [livrcer, az] nm, f delivery man (f woman). Ljubljana [ljubljana] « Ljubljana. LO (abr de Lutte ouvrière) nf left-wing political party. lobby [bbi] (pi lobbies) nm lobby. lobe [bb] nm -1. ANAT & BOT lobe. -2. ARCHIT foil. lober [bbe] [3] vt to lob. local, -e, -aux [bkal, o] adj local; [douleur] localized. ♦ local nm room, premises {pi). ♦ locaux nmpl premises, offices. localement [bkalmâ] adv locally. localisation [bkalizasj5] nf -1. [d'avion, de bruit] location. -2. [d'épidémie, de conflit] localization.

localiser [bkalize] [3] vt -1. [avion, bruit] to locate. -2. [épidémie, conflit] to localize. ♦ se localiser vp to be confined. localité [bkalite] «/"(small) town. locataire [bkater] ««//"tenant. locatif, -ive [bkatif, iv] adj [relatif à la location] rental {avant «). ♦ locatif nm GRAM locative. location [bkasj5] nf -1. [de propriété - par propriétaire] renting Am, letting Br; [- par locataire] renting; [de machine] leasing; ~ de voitures/vélos car/bicycle rent Am, car/ bicycle hire Br. -2. [bail] lease. -3. [maison, appartement] rented property. location-vente [bkasjôvât] {pi locationsventes) nf = installment plan Am, — hire purchase Br. loc. cit. {abr de loco citato) loc. cit. lock-out [bkaut] nm inv lockout. locomoteur, -trice [bkomotcer, tris] adj locomotive {avant «). locomotion [bkDmosjS] «/"locomotion. locomotive [bkomotiv] nf -1. [machine] locomotive. -2. fig [leader] moving force. locuteur, -trice [bkytcer, tris] nm, /"speaker. locution [bkysjS] «/"expression, phrase. loden [bden] nm [étoffe] loden; [vêtement] loden overcoat. loft [bft] nm (converted) loft. logarithme [bgaritm] nm logarithm. loge [1d3] nf -1. [de concierge, de francsmaçons] lodge. -2. [d'acteur] dressing room. -3. [de spectacle] box; être aux premières ~s fig to have a ringside seat. -4. [d'écurie] loose box. -5. ARCHIT loggia. logement [b3mâ] nm -1. [hébergement] accommodations {pi) Am, accommodation Br. -2. [appartement] apartment Am, flat Br; ~ de fonction company apartment Am OU flat Br. loger [b3e] [17] O vi [habiter] to live. O vt -1. [amis, invités] to put up. -2. [dé] to put. -3. [suj: hôtel, maison] to accommodate, to take. ♦ se loger vp -1. [trouver un logement] to find accommodations Am OU accommodation Br. -2. [se placer - ballon, balle]: se ~ dans to lodge in, to stick in; se ~ dans fig [angoisse] to take hold of. loggia [bd3ja] «/"loggia. logiciel [b3isjel] nm software {U); ~ intégré integrated software. logique [b3ik] o «/"logic, o adj logical. logiquement [b3ikmâ] adv logically.

logis 306 logis [b3i] nm abode. logistique [ta3istik] O nf logistics {pi). O adj logistic. logo [logo] nm logo. logorrhée [togore] nf logorrhoea. loi [lwa] nf -1. [gén] law; faire la ~ to lay down the law, la ~ du plus fort might is right; ~ de l'offre et de la demande law of supply and demand; la ~ du talion an eye for an eye; la ~ de 1901 law concerning the setting up of non-profit-making organizations. -2. [convention] rule. loin [lwê] adv -1. [dans l'espace] far; plus ~ further. -2. [dans le temps - passé] a long time ago; [- futur] a long way off. ♦ au loin loc adv in the distance, far off. ♦ de loin loc adv -1. [depuis une grande distance] from a distance; de très ~ from a great distance; de plus ~ from further away. -2. [assez peu] from a distance, from afar. -3. [de beaucoup] by far. ♦ de loin en loin loc adv -1. [dans l'espace] here and there. -2. [dans le temps] every now and then, from time to time. ♦ loin de loc prép -1. [gén] far from; ~ de là! fig far from it! -2. [dans le temps]: il n'est pas ~ de 9 h it's nearly 9 o'clock, it's not far off 9 o'clock. lointain, -e [lwetc, en] adj -1. [pays, avenir, parent] distant. -2. [ressemblance] vague. ♦ lointain nm: au ou dans le — in the distance. loir [lwar] nm dormouse; dormir comme un ~ fig to sleep like a log. loisible [lwazibl] adj: il m'est — de participer I am at liberty to take part. loisir [lwazir] nm -1. [temps libre] leisure; avoir le ~ de faire qqch sout to have the time to do sthg; à ~ [à satiété] as much as one likes; [sans hâte] at leisure. -2. (gén pi) [distractions] leisure activities (pt). lombago = lumbago. lombaire [15ber] o nf lumbar vertebra, o adj lumbar. lombes [15b] nfpl loins. Lomé [lome] n Lomé. londonien, -ienne [lSdonje, jen] adj London (avant n). ♦ Londonien, -ienne nm, /Londoner. Londres [I5dr] n London. long, longue [15, 15g] adj -1. [gén] long. -2. [lent] slow; être ~ à Caire qqch to take a long time doing sthg. ♦ long O nm -1. [longueur]: 4 mètres de ~ 4 metres long OU in length; de ~ en large up and down, to and fro; en ~ et en large in great detail; (tout) le ~ de [espace] ail

along; tout le ~ du jour the whole day long; tout au ~ de [année, carrière] throughout; tomber de tout son ~ to go full length. -2. [vêtement]: le ~ long clothes (pi). O adv -1. [beaucoup]: en savoir ~ sur qqch to know a lot about sthg. -2. [s'habiller]: elle est habillée trop ~ her clothes are too lone. ♦ longue nf -1. ling long vowel. -2. mus long note. -3. CARTES long suit. ♦ à la longue loc adv in the end. long, (abr de longitude) long. long-courrier [15kurje] (pi long-courriers) O nm NAVIG ocean liner; AÉR0N long-haul aircraft, o adj NAVIG ocean-going; AÉR0N long-haul. longe [153] nf-\. [courroie] halter. -2. [viande] loin. longer [153e] [17] vt -1. [border] to go along OU alongside. -2. [marcher le long de] to walk along; [raser] to stay close to, to hug. longévité [153evite] nf longevity. longiligne [153iliji] adj long-limbed. longitude [153ityd] «/"longitude. longitudinal, -e, -aux [I53itydinal, o] adj longitudinal. longtemps [I5tâ] adv (for) a long time; avant — before long; il ne reviendra pas avant ~ he won't be back for some time; depuis ~ (for) a long time; il y a ~ que ... it's been a long time since ...; mettre ~ à faire qqch to take a long time to do sthg; je n'en ai pas pour ~ I won't be long. longue — long. longuement [I5gmâ] adv -1. [longtemps] for a long time. -2. [en détail] at length. longuet, -ette [15ge, et] adj fam longish, a bit long. longueur [Bgoer] «/"length; faire 5 mètres de ~ to be 5 metres long; disposer qqch en ~ to put sthg lengthways; à ~ de journée/temps the entire day/time; à ~ d'année all year long; être sur la même ~ d'onde fig to be on the same wavelength. ♦ longueurs nfpl [de film, de livre] boring parts. longue-vue [I5gvy] (pi longues-vues) nf telescope. look [luk] nm look; avoir un ~ to have a style. looping [lupin] nm loop the loop. lopin [bpê] nm: ~ (de terre) patch OU plot of land. loquace [bkas] adj loquacious. loquacité [bkasite] «/loquacity.

307 Louvre loque [bk] nf -1. [lambeau] rag; en —s in rags. -2. fig [personne] wreck. loquet [bke] nm latch. lorgner [brjie] [3] vt fam -1. [observer] to eye. -2. [guigner] to have one's eye on. lorgnette [brnet] nfopera glasses (j?f). lorgnon [brn5] nm lorgnette. lors [br] adv. depuis ~ since that time; ~ de at the time of. lorsque [brsk(a)] conj when. losange [bzâ3] nm lozenge. lot [lo] nm -1. [part] share; [de terre] plot. -2. [stock] batch. -3. [prix] prize; le gros ~ the jackpot. -4. fig [destin] fate, lot. loterie [btri] nf lottery; la Loterie nationale the National Lottery. loti, -e [bti] adj: être bien/mal ~ to be well/badly off. lotion [losj5] nf lotion; ~ après-rasage aftershave (lotion). lotir [btir] [32] vt to divide up; ~ qqn de qqch to allot sthg to sb. lotissem*nt [btismâ] nm -1. [terrain] plot. -2. [division - de terrain] parcelling out. loto [bto] nm -1. [jeu de société] lotto. -2. [loterie] lottery. LOTO: Loto is a popular game of chance with large cash prizes. Printed grids ('bulletins') are available at tobacconists or special kiosks. Players mark seven numbers on the grid and pay a fee. The twice-weekly prize draw is broadcast on television. 'Loto sportif is a version of Loto in which players bet on the football results lotte [bt] «/"monkfish. lotus [btys] nm lotus. louable [lwabl] adj -1. [méritoire] praiseworthy. -2. [location]: facilement/difficilement ~ easy/difficult to rent Am, easy/ difficult to let Br. louage [lwa3] nm rental Am, hire Br; voiture de ~ rental Am OU hire Br car. louange [lwâ3] «f praise; chanter les —s de qqn fig to sing sb's praises. loubar(d) [lubar] nm fam hooligan. louche1 [luj] «/"ladle. louche2 [luj] adj fam [personne, histoire] suspicious. loucher [luJe] [3] vi -1. [être atteint de strabisme] to squint. -2. fam fig [lorgner]: ~ sur to have one's eye on. louer [lwe] [6] vt -1. [glorifier] to praise; ~ qqn de qqch to praise sb for sthg. -2. [donner en location] to rent (out); à ~ for rent. -3. [prendre en location] to rent. -4. [réserver] to book.

♦ se louer vp -1. sout [se féliciter]: se ~ de qqch/de faire qqch to be very pleased about sthg/about doing sthg. -2. [appartement] to be for rent Am OU to let Br. -3. péj [se vanter] to sing one's own praises. loufoque [lufok] fam o nmf nutter, o adj nuts, crazy. loup [lu] nm -1. [carnassier] wolf. -2. [poisson] bass. -3. [masque] mask. -4. fig [personne]: (vieux) ~ de mer (old) sea dog. loupe [lup] nf -1. [optique] magnifying glass; regarder qqch à la ~ fig to put sthg under the microscope. -2. BOT burr. louper [lupe] [3] vt fam [travail] to make a mess of; [train] to miss. loup-garou [lugaru] (pi loups-garous) nm werewolf. loupiot, -iotte [lupjo, pt] nm, ffam kid. lourd, -e [lur, lurd] adj -1. [gén] heavy; ~ de fig full of. -2. [tâche] difficult; [faute] serious. -3. [maladroit] clumsy, heavyhanded. -4. METEOR close. -5. [esprit] slow. ♦ lourd adv. peser ~ to be heavy, to weigh a lot; il n'en fait pas ~ fam he doesn't do much. lourdaud, -e [lurdo, od] O adj clumsy. O nm, f oaf. lourdement [lurdamâ] adv -1. [pesamment] heavily. -2. [maladroitement] heavily, clumsily; [insister] strenuously. lourdeur [lurdcer] nf -1. [gén] heaviness. -2. MÉTÉOR closeness. -3. [d'esprit] slowness. loustic [lustik] nm fam -1. [enfant] kid. -2. [farceur] joker. -3. péj [type] guy. loutre [lutr] nf otter. louve [luv] nf she-wolf. louveteau, -x [luvto] nm -1. ZOOL wolf cub. -2. [scout] cub. louvoyer [luvwaje] [13] vi -1. NAVIG to tack. -2. fig [tergiverser] to beat about the bush. Louvre [luvr] n: le ~ the Louvre (museum); l'école du ~ art school in Paris. L'ÉCOLE DU LOUVRE: This prestigious art school in the Louvre teaches art history and archaeology, and trains specialist museum staff

lover 308 lover [bve] [3] ♦ se lover vp [serpent] to coil up. loyal, -e, -aux [Iwajal, o] adj -1. [fidèle] loyal. -2. [honnête] fair. loyalement [lwajalmâ] adv -1. [fidèlement] loyally. -2. [honnêtement] fairly. loyauté [lwajote] nf-1. [fidélité] loyalty. -2. [honnêteté] fairness. loyer [lwaje] nm rent. LP (abr de lycée professionnel) nm secondary school for vocational training. LSD (abr de Lysergic acid diethylamide) nm LSD. lu, -e [ly] pp —► lire. Luanda [lyâda] n Luanda. lubie [lybi] nffam whim. lubricité [lybrisite] «/"lechery. lubrifiant, -e [lybrifjâ, ât] adj lubricating. ♦ lubrifiant nm lubricant. lubrification [lybnfikasp] «f lubrication. lubrifier [lybrifje] [9] vt to lubricate. lubrique Pybrik] adj lewd. lucarne [lykarn] nf -\. [fenêtre] skylight. -2. FOOTBALL top corner of the net. lucide [lysid] adj lucid. lucidement [lysidmâ] adv lucidly. lucidité [lysidite] «/lucidity. luciole [lysjDl] «/"firefly. lucratif, -ive [lykratif, iv] adj lucrative. lucre [lykr] nm péj lucre. ludique [lydik] adj play (avant «). ludo-éducatif [lydoedykatif] nm edutainment. ludothèque [lydstck] nf toy library. luette [lqct] «/"uvula. lueur [lqœr] nf -1. [de bougie, d'étoile] light; à la ~ de by the light of. -2. fig [de colère] gleam; [de raison] spark; ~ d'espoir glimmer of hope. luge [ly3] nf toboggan. lugubre [lygybr] adj lugubrious. lui1 [Iqi] pp inv —*■ luire. lui2 [lqi] pron pers -1. [complément d'objet indirect - homme] (to) him; [- femme] (to) her; [- animal, chose] (to) it; je ~ ai parlé I've spoken to him/to her; il le ~ a présenté he introduced him to her; il ~ a serré la main he shook his/her hand. -2. [sujet, en renforcement de «il»] he; qui t'accompagnerai who will go with you£ - he will; il sait de quoi je parle, ~ HE knows what I'm talking about. -3. [objet, après préposition, comparatif - personne] him; [- animal, chose] it; je n'ai vu que ~ I saw no one else but him; si j'étais ~ ... if I were him ...; ~, tout le monde le connaît everyone knows HIM;

sans ~ without him; je vais chez ~ I'm going to his place; elle est plus jeune que ~ she's younger than him OU than he is. -4. [remplaçant soi en fonction de pronom réfléchi - personne] himself; [- animal, chose] itself; il est content de ~ he's pleased with himself. ♦ lui-même pron pers [personne] himself; [animal, chose] itself. luire [lqir] [97] vi [soleil, métal] to shine; fig [espoir] to glow, to glimmer. luisais, luisions etc —► luire. luisant, -e [lqizâ, ât] adj gleaming. ♦ luisant nm sheen. lumbago, lombago [lôbago] nm lumbago. lumière [lymjer] nf-1. [éclairage & fig) light; ~ tamisée subdued light; à la ~ de by the light of; faire toute la — sur qqch to make sthg clear; mettre qqch en ~ to highlight sthg. -2. [personne] leading light; ce n'est pas une ~ fam he's/she's not very bright. luminaire [lyminer] nm light. luminescent, -e [lyminesâ, ât] adj luminescent. lumineux, -euse [lymino, oz] adj -1. [couleur, cadran] luminous. -2. fig [visage] radiant; [idée] brilliant. -3. [explication] clear. luminosité [lyminozite] nf -1. [du regard, ciel] radiance. -2. SCIENCE luminosity. lump [lœp] nm: œufs de ~ lumpfish roe. lunaire [lyner] adj -1. ASTRON lunar. -2. fig [visage] moon (avant «); [paysage] lunar. lunatique [lynatik] O nmf temperamental person, o adj temperamental. lunch [lœj] nm buffet lunch. lundi [lœdi] nm Monday; ~ de Pâques/ Pentecôte Easter/Whit Monday; voir aussi samedi. lune [lyn] nf-1. ASTRON moon; nouvelle ~ new moon; pleine ~ full moon; ~ de miel fig honeymoon; dans la ~ fig in the clouds; décrocher la ~ fig to move heaven and earth; promettre la ~ fig to promise the earth. -2. fam fig [derrière] backside. luné, -e [lyne] adj: être bien/mal ~ to be in a good/bad mood. lunetier, -ière [lyntje, jer] o adj spectaclemaking (avant n). O nm, f optician. lunette [lynet] nf -1. [ouverture]: la ~ des W.-C. [cuvette] tne toilet bowl; ~ arrière rear window. -2. ASTRON telescope. ♦ lunettes nfpl glasses; —s noires dark glasses; s de soleil sunglasses. lunule [lynyl] «/"[d'ongle] half-moon.

309 macaque lupanar [lypanar] nm sout brothel. lupin [lypê] nm lupine Am, lupin Br. lurette [lyret] nf. il y a belle ~ que ... fam it's been ages since .... luron, -onne [lyr5, an] nm, f fam: un joyeux ~ a bit of a lad. Lusaka [lyzaka] n Lusaka. lusophone [lyzofon] adj Portuguesespeaking. lustre [lystr] nm -1. [luminaire] chandelier. -2. [éclat] sheen, shine; fig reputation. -3. littéraire [cinq ans] period of five years; ça fait des ~s que ... fig it's been ages since .... lustrer [lystre] [3] vt -1. [faire briller] to make shine. -2. [user] to wear. luth [lyt] nm lute. luthérien, -ienne [lyterjê, jen] adj lac. major [ma3nr] nm -1. MIL — adjutant. -2. Si :OL: ~ (de promotion) first in OU top of one's year group. majoration [ma3nrasj5] nf increase. majordome [ma3ordnm] nm majordomo. majorer [ma3Dre] [3] vt to increase. majorette [ma3nret] nf majorette.

313 malentendant majoritaire [ma3Dritcr] O nmf member of majority group. O adj majority {avant n); être ~ to be in the majority. majorité [ma3Drite] «f majority; en (grande) ~ in the majority; ~ absolue/relative POLIT absolute/relative majority: ~ civile voting age; Majorque [maprk] // Majorca; à ~ in Majorca. majorquin, -e [ma3orkê, in] adj Majorcan. ♦ Majorquin, -e nm, /"Majorcan. majuscule [ma3yskyl] o nf capital (letter); en ~s in capitals, in capital letters, o adj capital (avant n). mal, maux [mal, mo] tun -1. [ce qui est contraire à la morale] evil; dire du ~ de qqn to say bad things about sb. -2. [souffrance physique] pain; avoir ~ au cœur to feel sick; avoir ~ au dos to have backache; avoir ~ à la gorge to have a sore throat, avoir le ~ de mer to be seasick; avoir ~ à la tête to have a headache; avoir des maux de tête to get headaches; avoir le ~ des transports to oe travelsick; avoir ~ au ventre to have stomachache; faire ~ à qqn to hurt sb; ça fait ~ it hurts; se faire ~ to hurt o.s. -3. [difficulté] difficulty; avoir du ~ à faire qqch to have difficulty doing sthg; se donner du ~ (pour faire qqch) to take trouble (to do sthg). -4. [douleur morale] pain, suffering (U); avoir le ~ du pays to be OU feel homesick; être en ~ de qqch to long for sthg; faire du ~ (à qqn) to hurt (sb); c'est un moindre — it's the lesser of two evils. ♦ mal adv -1. [malade] ill; aller ~ not to be well; se sentir ~ to feel ill; être au plus ~ to be extremely ill. -2. [respirer] with difficulty. -3. [informé, se conduire] badly; être ~ reçu to get a poor welcome; ~ prendre qqch to take sthg badly; ~ tourner to go wrong. -4. loc: de ~ en pis from bad to worse; ~ à propos inappropriate; pas ~ not bad (adj), not badly (adv); pas ~ de quite a lot of. malabar [malabar] nm fam big lad, wellbuilt fellow. malade [malad] O «wf invalid, sick person; ~ mental mentally ill person, o adj -1. [souffrant - personne] ill, sick; [- organe] bad; tomber ~ to fall ill OU sick; être ~ du cœur/des reins to have heart/kidney trouble; être ~ d'inquiétude fig to be sick with worry. -2. fam [fou] crazy. -3. fig [en mauvais état] in a bad way. maladie [maladi] nf -1. MED illness; ~ de Creutzfeldt-Jakob Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, CJD; il en fait une ~ he's really worked

up about it. -2. [passion, manie] mania. maladif, -ive [maladif, iv] adj -1. [enfant] sickly. -2. [pâleur & fig] unhealthy. maladresse [maladres] nf -1. [inhabileté] clumsiness. -2. [bévue] blunder. maladroit, -e [maladrwa, at] o adj clumsy. O nm, f clumsy person. maladroitement [maladrwatmâ] adv clumsily. mal-aimé, -e [maleme] (myl mal-aimés, fpl mal-aimées) tun, f unloved person. malais, -e [male, ez] adj Malay, Malaysian; la presqu'île Malaise the Malay Peninsula. ♦ malais nm [langue] Malay. ♦ Malais, -e nm, f Malay, Malaysian. malaise [malez] nm -1. [indisposition] discomfort; avoir un ~ to feel faint. -2. [trouble] unease (U). -3. [crise] discontent (U). malaisé, -e [maleze] adj difficult. Malaisie [malezi] nf. la ~ Malaya; en ~ in Malaya. malappris, -e [malapri, iz] o adj uncouth, ill-mannered. O nm, flout. malaria [malarja] ///malaria. malavisé, -e [malavize] adj littéraire illadvised, unwise. malaxer [malakse] [3] vt to knead. Malaysia [malezja] nf: la ~ Malaysia; la ~ occidentale Malaya. malchance [maljàs] nf bad luck (U); jouer de ~ to be dogged by bad luck. malchanceux, -euse [maljuso, az] o adj unlucky, o nm, f unlucky person. malcommode [malkomod] adj inconvenient; [meuble] impractical. Maldives [maldiv] nfpk les (îles) ~ the Maldives. maldonne [maiden] nf misdeal; il y a ~ the cards have been misdealt; fig there's been a misunderstanding. mâle [mal] O adj -1. [enfant, animal, hormone] male. -2. [voix, assurance] manly. -3. ELECTR male, o nm male. malédiction [malediksjô] nf curse. maléfice [malefis] nm sout evil spell. maléfique [malefik] adj sout evil. malencontreusem*nt [malûkStrozmù] adv inopportunely. malencontreux, -euse [malùkôtro, oz] adj [hasard, rencontre] unfortunate. mal-en-point, mal en point [malâpwê] adj inv in a bad way OU sorry state. malentendant, -e [malôtâdâ, ât] o adj hard of hearing, o nm, f person who is hard of hearing.

malentendu 314 malentendu [malàtâdy] nm misunderstanding. malfaçon [malfas5] «/"defect. malfaisant, -e [malfozâ, ât] adj harmful. malfaiteur [malfetœr] nm criminal. malfamé, -e, mal famé, -e [malfamé] adj disreputable. malformation [malbrmasjfj] nf malformation. malfrat [malfra] nm fam crook. malgache [malgaj] adj Madagascan, Malagasy. ♦ malgache ////; [langue] Malagasy. ♦ Malgache nmf Madagascan, Malagasy. malgré [maigre] préj? in spite of; ~ tout [quoi qu'il arrive] in spite of everything; [pourtant] even so, yet. ♦ malgré que loc conj (+ subjonctif) fam although, in spite of the fact that. malhabile [malabil] adj clumsy. malheur [malœr] nm misfortune; le ~ misfortune, bad luck; par ~ unfortunately; porter ~ à qqn to bring sb bad luck; ~ à toi! woe betide you!; faire un ~ fam fig [faire un éclat] to do some damage; [avoir du succès] to be a great hit. malheureusem*nt [malœrozmâ] adv unfortunately. malheureux, -euse [malœro, sz] o adj -1. [triste] unhappy. -2. [désastreux, regrettable] unfortunate. -3. [malchanceux] unlucky. -4. (avant n) [sans valeur] pathetic, miserable, o nm, f -1. [infortuné] poor soul. -2. [indigent] poor person. malhonnête [mabnet] O nmf dishonest person. O adj -1. [personne, affaire] dishonest. -2. hum [proposition, propos] indecent. malhonnêteté [mabnctte] nf -1. [de personne] dishonesty. -2. [action] dishonest action. Mali [mali] nm: le ~ Mali; au ~ in Mali. malice [malis] nf mischief; sans ~ without malice. malicieux, -ieuse [malisj0, j0z] o adj mischievous. O nm, f mischievous person. malien, -ienne [maljê, jen] adj Malian. ♦ Malien, -ienne nm, f Malian. malignité [malijiite] nf -\. [méchanceté] malice, spite. -2. MED malignancy. malin, -igne [male, iji] o adj -1. [rusé] crafty, cunning; ce n'est pas ~! fig that's not very clever!; [regard, sourire] knowing. -2. [méchant] malicious, spiteful. -3. MÉD malignant, o nm, f cunning OU crafty person; faire le ~ to show off. malingre [malègr] adj sickly. malle [mal] nf [coffre] trunk; [de voiture]

trunk Am, boot Br; se faire la ~ fam fig to beat it. malléable [maleabl] adj malleable. mallette [malet] «/"briefcase. mal-logé, -e [maille] (mp>l mal-logés, fp\ mal-logées) nm, f person living in poor accommodation. malmener [malmane] [19] vt -1. [brutaliser] to handle roughly, to ill-treat. -2. [dominer] to have the better of. malnutrition [malnytrisjS] «/"malnutrition. malodorant, -e [mabdnrâ, ât] adj smelly. malotru, -e [mabtry] nm, /"lout. Malouines [malwin] nfpl: les (îles) ~ the Falkland Islands, the Falklands. malpoli, -e [malpoli] adj rude. malpropre [malpropr] adj [sale] dirty. malpropreté [malproprate] nf [saleté] dirtiness. malsain, -e [malsê, en] adj unhealthy. malséant, -e [malseâ, ât] adj unbecoming. malt [malt] nm -1. [céréale] malt. -2. [whisky] malt (whisky). maltais, -e [make, ez] adj Maltese. ♦ maltais nm [langue] Maltese. ♦ Maltais, -e nm, f Maltese (person); les Maltais the Maltese. Malte [malt] n Malta; à ~ in Malta. maltraiter [maltrete] [4] vt to ill-treat; [en paroles] to attack, to run down. malus [malys] nm increase in car insurance charges, due to loss of no-claims bonus. malveillance [malvejâs] nf spite. malveillant, -e [malvcjâ, ât] adj spiteful. malvenu, -e [malvony] adj out of place; être ~ de faire qqch sout to be wrong to do sthg. malversation [malversasjS] nf embezzlement. malvoyant, -e [malvwajâ, ât] O adj partially sighted. O nm, f person who is partially sighted. maman [mamâ] «/"mummy. mamelle [mamel] nf teat; [de vache] udder. mamelon [maml5] nm -1. [du sein] nipple. -2. [butte] hillock. mamie, mamy [mami] nf granny, grandma. mammifère [mamifer] nm mammal. mammographie [mamografi] nf mammography. mammouth [mamut] nm mammoth. mamours [mamur] nmyl fam billing and cooing ((7); se faire des — to bill and coo.

315 manifestation mamy = mamie Man [man] —»• île. management [manad3ment] nm management. manager1 [manad3er] nm manager. manager2 [manad3e] [17] vt to manage. Managua [managwa] « Managua. manche [mâj] o nf -1. [de vêtement] sleeve; sans ~s sleeveless; ~s courtes/ longues short/long sleeves; ~s raglan raglan sleeves; être en ~s de chemise to be in one's shirtsleeves. -2. [de jeu] round, game; TENNIS set. -3. be: faire la ~ fam to pass the hat round, o nm -1. [d'outil] handle; ~ à balai broomstick; [d'avion] joystick. -2. MUS neck. Manche [mâj*] nf -\. [Normandie]: la — the Manche (region). -2. [mer]: la — the English Channel. -3. [en Espagne]: la ~ La Mancha. manchette [mûJet] nf-1. [de chemise] cuff. -2. [de journal] headline. -3. [coup] forearm blow. manchon [mûj"5] nm -1. [en fourrure] muff. -2. TECHNOL casing, sleeve. manchot, -ote [mâjo, at] o adj onearmed. O nm, f one-armed person. ♦ manchot nm penguin. mandarin [mâdarë] nm -1. [en Chine] mandarin. -2. péj [personnage important] mandarin. -3. [langue] Mandarin. mandarine [mâdarin] nf mandarin (orange). mandat [mâda] nm -1. [pouvoir, fonction] mandate. -2. JUR warrant; ~ d'amener — summons; ~ d'arrêt — arrest warrant; ~ de perquisition search warrant. -3. [titre postal] money order; ~ postal money order Am, postal order Br. mandataire [mâdater] nmf proxy, representative. mandat-carte [mùdakart] {pi mandatscartes) nm money order Am, postal order Br. mandater [mâdate] [3] vt -1. [personne] to appoint. -2. [somme] to pay by money order. mandat-lettre [mûdaletr] {pi mandatslettres) nm money order Am, postal order Br. mandibule [mûdibyl] nf mandible. mandoline [mâdolin] nf mandolin. mandrill [mùdril] nm mandrill. mandrin [mâdrê] nm [de serrage] chuck; [de perçage] punch. manège [man£3] nm -1. [attraction] carousel Am, roundabout Br. -2. [de chevaux - lieu]

riding school. -3. [manoeuvre] scheme, game. manette [manet] nf lever. manganèse [mâganez] nm manganese. mangeable [mâ3abl] adj edible. mangeoire [mâ3war] «/"manger. manger [mâ3e] [17] O vt -1. [nourriture] to eat. -2. [étoffe, fer] to eat away. -3. [fortune] to get through, to squander. O vi to eat. mange-tout [m53tu] O adj inv. haricots ~ string beans Am, runner beans Br. o nm inv [haricot] string bean Am, runner bean Br; [pois] snow pea Am, mangetout Br. mangeur, -euse [mâ3oer, oz] nm, f eater; gros ~ big eater. mangue [mâg] «/"mango. maniable [manjabl] adj -1. [instrument] manageable. -2. [personne] easily influenced. maniaque [manjak] O nmf -1. [méticuleux] fusspot. -2. [fou] maniac. O adj -1. [méticuleux] fussy. -2. [fou] maniacal. maniaquerie [manjakri] «/"fussiness. manichéisme [manikeism] nm Manicheism. manie [mani] «/"-l. [habitude] funny habit; avoir la — de qqch/de faire qqch to have a mania for sthg/for doing sthg. -2. [obsession] mania. maniement [manimû] nm handling. manier [manje] [9] vt [manipuler, utiliser] to handle; fig [ironie, mots] to handle skilfully. manière [manjer] «/"-l. [méthode] manner, way; recourir à la ~ forte to resort to strong-arm tactics; de toute ~ at any rate; d'une ~ générale generally speaking; c'est une ~ de parler it's just my/his etc way of putting it. -2. [style propre à un artiste] style; à la ~ de in the style of. ♦ manières nfyl manners; les bonnes ~s good manners; faire des ~s fig to puss*foot around. ♦ de manière à loc conj (in order) to; de ~ à ce que (+ subjonctif) so that. ♦ de manière que loc conj (+ subjonctif) in such a way that. maniéré, -e [manjere] adj affected. maniérisme [manjerism] nm mannerism. manif [manif] nf fam demo. manifestant, -e [manifesta, ât] nm, f demonstrator. manifestation [manifestasj5] nf -1. [témoignage] expression. -2. [mouvement collectif] demonstration. -3. [apparition - de maladie] appearance.

manifeste 316 manifeste [manifest] O nm [déclaration] manifesto. O adj obvious. manifestement [manifestamâ] adv obviously. manifester [manifeste] [3] O vt to show, to express. O vi to demonstrate. ♦ se manifester v\? -1. [apparaître] to show on manifest itself. -2. [se montrer] to turn up, to appear. manigance [manigàs] nf fam scheme, intrigue. manigancer [manigâse] [16] vt fam to plot. Manille [manij] n Manila. manioc [manjok] nm manioc. manipulateur, -trice [manipylatœr, tris] nm, f'l. [opérateur] technician. -2. fig & péj [de personnes] manipulator. ♦ manipulateur nm télécom key. manipulation [manipylasj5] nf -1. [de produits, d'explosifs] handling; —s génétiques genetic engineering. -2. fig & péj [manœuvre] manipulation (U). manipuler [manipyle] [3] vt -1. [colis, appareil] to handle. -2. [statistiques, résultats] to falsify, to rig. -3. [personne] to manipulate. manivelle [manivel] nf crank. manne [man] ///"RELIC manna; fig godsend. mannequin [mankè] nm -1. [forme humaine] model, dummy. -2. [personne] model, mannequin. manœuvre [manœvr] O nf -1. [d'appareil, de véhicule] driving, handling; fausse ~ driver error; fig false move. -2. MIL maneuver Am, manoeuvre Br, exercise. -3. [machination] ploy, scheme, o nm laborer Am, labourer Br. manœuvrer [manœvre] [5] O vi to maneuver Am, to manoeuvre Br. o vt -1. [faire fonctionner] to operate, to work; [voiture] to maneuver Am, to manoeuvre Br. -2. [influencer] to manipulate. manoir [manwar] nm manor, country house. manomètre [manometr] nm manometer. manquant, -e [mâkâ, ât] adj missing. manque [mâk] nm -1. [pénurie] lack, shortage; par ~ de for want of. -2. [de toxicomane] withdrawal symptoms (j?f); être en (état de) ~ to have OU experience withdrawal symptoms. -3. [lacune] gap; ~ à gagner COMM loss of earnings. ♦ à la manque loc adj fam second-rate. manqué, -e [make] adj [raté] failed; [rendezvous] missed. manquement [mûkmû] nm: ~ (à) breach (of). manquer [make] [3] o vi -1. [faire défaut] to

be lacking, to be missing; Pargent/le temps me manque I don't have enough money/ time; tu me manques I miss you. -2. [être absent]: ~ (à) to be absent (from), to be missing (from). -3. [échouer] to fail. -4. [ne pas avoir assez]: ~ de qqch to lack sthg, to be short of sthg. -5. [faillir]: il a manqué de se noyer he nearly OU almost drowned; ne manquez pas de lui dire don't forget to tell him; je n'y manquerai pas I certainly will, I'll definitely do it. -6. [ne pas respecter]: ~ à [devoir] to fail in; ~ à sa parole to break one's word. O vt -1. [gén] to miss. -2. [échouer à] to bungle, to botch. O v impers: il manque quelqu'un somebody is missing; il me manque 20 francs I'm 20 francs short; il ne manquait plus que ça fig that's all I/you etc needed. mansarde [môsard] ///"attic. mansardé, -e [mâsarde] adj attic (avant n). mansuétude [mûsqetyd] nf littéraire indulgence. mante [mât] «/"HISTmantle. ♦ mante religieuse ///"praying mantis. manteau, -x [màto] nm -1. [vêtement] coat; sous le ~ fig secretly, clandestinely. -2. fig [de neige] mantle, blanket. manucure [manykyr] nmf manicurist. manuel, -elle [manqel] o adj manual. O nm, f manual worker. ♦ manuel nm manual. manufacture [manyfaktyr] nf [fabrique] factory. manuscrit, -e [manyskri, it] adj handwritten. ♦ manuscrit nm manuscript. manutention [manytûsp] nf handling. manutentionnaire [manytâspner] nmf packer. MAP (ahr de mise au point) nf focusing. mappemonde [mapmôd] nf-1. [carte] map of the world. -2. [sphère] globe. Maputo [mapyto] // Maputo. maquereau, -elle, -x [makro, el, o] nm, f fam pimp (f madam). ♦ maquereau nm mackerel. maquette [maket] nf-1. [ébauche] paste-up. -2. [modèle réduit] model. maquettiste [maketist] ///«/"model maker. maquignon [makiji5] nm -1. [marchand de chevaux] horse dealer. -2. péj [homme d'affaires] crook. maquillage [makija3] nm -1. [action, produits] make-up. -2. [falsification] disguising;

317 maréchal [- de chiffres] doctoring; [- de passeport] falsification. maquiller [makije] [3] vt -1. [farder] to make up. -2. [fausser] to disguise; [- passeport] to falsify; [- chiffres] to doctor. ♦ se maquiller vp> to make up, to put on one's make-up. maquilleur, -euse [makijoer, az] nm, f make-up artist. maquis [maki] nm -1. [végétation] scrub, brush. -2. HIST Maquis; prendre le ~ to join the Maquis. -3. fig [méli-mélo] maze. maquisard [makizar] nm member of the Resistance. marabout [marabu] nm -1. ZOOL marabou. -2. [guérisseur] marabout. maraîcher, -ère [mareje, er] O adj truck farming {avant n) Am, market garden {avant n) Br. O nm, f truck farmer Am, market gardener Br. marais [mare] nm [marécage] marsh, swamp; ~ salant saltpan; le Marais historic district in central Paris. LE MARAIS: The Marais includes the place des Vosges and the predominantly Jewish quarter around the rue des Rosiers. Typical flats in the Marais feature exposed beams and 'tomettes' (red hexagonal floor tiles) marasme [marasm] nm -1. [récession] stagnation. -2. [accablement] depression. marathon [marat5] nm marathon. marâtre [maratr] nf vieilli -1. [mauvaise mère] bad mother. -2. [belle-mère] stepmother. maraude [marod] nf, maraudage [maroda^] nm pilfering. marbre [marbr] nm -1. [roche, objet] marble; en OU de ~ marble {avant n); rester de ~ fig to remain impassive. -2. [dans imprimerie] stone. -3. Can BASE BALL home base OU plate. marbré, -e [marbre] adj -1. [gâteau] marble {avant n). -2. [peau, teint] mottled. marbrier [marbrije] nm monumental mason. marbrure [marbryr] nf-1. [imitation du marbre] marbling. -2. [sur la peau] mottling. marc [mar] nm -1. [eau-de-vie] spirit distilled from grape residue. -2. [de fruits] residue; [de thé] leaves; ~ de café grounds (yt). marcassin [markasë] nm young wild boar. marchand, -e [marjâ, ôd] o adj [valeur] market {avant n); [prix] trade {avant n). o nm, f [commerçant] merchant; [détaillant] storekeeper Am, shopkeeper Br; ~ de journaux newsdealer Am, newsagent Br; ~ des quatre-saisons street trader {selling fruit and

vegetables). ♦ marchand de sable nm fig sandman. marchandage [marfâda3] nm bargaining. marchander [marfâde] [3] O vt -1. [prix] to haggle over. -2. [appui] to begrudge, o vi to bargain, to haggle. marchandise [marfâdiz] nf merchandise {V), goods (yl). marche [marf] nf-1. [d'escalier] step. -2. [de personne] walking; [promenade] walk; être à deux heures de ~ (de) to be two hours' walk OU a two-hour walk (from); fermer la ~ to bring up the rear; ouvrir la ~ to lead the way; ~ à pied walking; ~ à suivre fig correct procedure. -3. MUS march; ~ funèbre/nuptiale funeral/wedding march. -4. [déplacement - du temps, d'astre] course; assis dans le sens de la ~ [en train] sitting facing the engine; en ~ arrière in reverse; faire ~ arrière to reverse; fig to backpedal, to backtrack. -5. [fonctionnement] running, working; en ~ running; se mettre en ~ to start (up); mettre qqch en ~ to start sthg (up). marché [marfe] nm -1. [gén] market; faire son ~ to go shopping, to do one's shopping; le ~ du travail the labor Am OU labour Br market; ~ cible target market; ~ noir black market; ~ aux puces flea market. -2. [contrat] bargain, deal; (à) bon ~ cheap; meilleur ~ cheaper; par-dessus le ~ fant fig into the bargain. ♦ Marché commun nm: le Marché commun the Common Market. marchepied [marfapje] nm [de train] step; [escabeau] stepladder; fig stepping-stone. marcher [marfe] [3] vi -1. [aller à pied] to walk. -2. [poser le pied] to step. -3. [avancer]: ~ sur [ville, ennemi] to march on OU upon. -4. [fonctionner, tourner] to work; son affaire marche bien his business is doing well. -5. fam [accepter] to agree. -6. be: faire ~ qqn fant to take sb for a ride. marcheur, -euse [marfoer, az] nm, /"walker. marcottage [markota3] nm layering. mardi [mardi] nm Tuesday; ~ gras Shrove Tuesday; voir aussi samedi. mare [mar] «/"pool. marécage [mareka3] nm marsh, bog. marécageux, -euse [mareka30, oz] adj -1. [terrain] marshy, boggy. -2. [plante] marsh {avant n). maréchal, -aux [marejal, o] nm marshal. ♦ maréchal des logis nm sergeant.

maréchal-ferrant 318 maréchal-ferrant [marejalferù] {pi maréchaux-ferrants [marejoferâ]) nm blacksmith. maréchaussée [mare/ose] nf vieilli constabulary. marée [mare] nf-1. [de la mer] tide; (à) ~ haute/basse (at) high/low tide. -2. fig [de personnes] wave, surge. -3. [poissons] seafood. ♦ marée noire nf oil slick. marelle [marel] nf hopscotch. marémoteur, -trice [maremDtcer, tris] adj [énergie] tidal; [usine] tidal power {avant n). mareyeur, -euse [marejcer, az] nm, f wholesale fish merchant. margarine [margarin] «/"margarine. marge [mars] w/" -1. [espace] margin; vivre en ~ de la société fig to live on the fringes of society. -2. [latitude] leeway; ~ d'erreur margin of error; ~ de sécurité safety margin. -3. COMM margin; ~ bénéficiaire profit margin; ~ commerciale gross margin. margelle [marçel] nf coping. marginal, -e, -aux [matinal, o] O adj -1. [gén] marginal. -2. [groupe] dropout {avant n). o nm, f dropout. marginaliser [mar3inalize] [3] vt to marginalize. marginalité [mar3inalite] nf living on the fringes of society. margoulin [margulê] nm fam shark, conman. marguerite [margarit] nf -1. BOT daisy. -2. [d'imprimante] daisy wheel. mari [mari] nm husband. mariage [marja3] nm -1. [union, institution] marriage; donner qqn en ~ to give sb away; ~ d'amour love match; ~ blanc unconsummated marriage; ~ consanguin marriage between blood relations; ~ de raison marriage of convenience. -2. [cérémonie] wedding; ~ civil/religieux civil/ church wedding. -3. fig [de choses] blend. Marianne [marian] n symbol of the French Republic. MARIANNE: Marianne is the personification of the French Republic; there is a bust of her in every town hall in France, and her portrait appears on French stamps. Her face has changed over the centuries, but she can always be recognized by the 'bonnet phrygien' she wears marié, -e [marje] O adj married. O nm, f groom, bridegroom if bride); jeunes ~s newlyweds. marier [marje] [9] vt -1. [personne] to marry.

-2. fig [couleurs] to blend. ♦ se marier vp> -1. [personnes] to get married; se ~ avec qqn to marry sb. -2. fig [couleurs] to blend. marihuana [marirwana], marijuana [mari3qana] «/"marijuana. marin, -e [mare, in] adj -1. [de la mer] sea {avant «); [faune, biologie] marine. -2. NAVIG [carte, mille] nautical. ♦ marin nm -1. [navigateur] seafarer. -2. [matelot] sailor; ~ pêcheur deep-sea fisherman. ♦ marine o nf -1. [navigation] seamanship, navigation. -2. [navires] navy; ~e marchande merchant marine Am OU navy Br; ~e nationale navy. 0> nm -1. MIL marine. -2. [couleur] navy (blue), o adj inv navy (blue). marinade [marinad] «/"marinade. mariner [marine] [3] O vt to marinate. O vi -1. [aliment] to marinate; faire ~ qqch to marinate sthg. -2. fam fig [attendre] to hang around; faire ~ qqn to let sb stew. marinier [marinje] nm bargeman Am, bar• gee Br. marinière [marinjer] nf smock. marionnette [marjonet] «/"puppet. marital, -e, -aux [marital, o] adj: autorisation ~e husband's permission. maritalement [maritalmâ] adv. vivre ~ to cohabit. maritime [maritim] adj [navigation] maritime; [ville] coastal. marivaudage [marivodas] nm littéraire banter. marjolaine [malien] nf marjoram. mark [mark] nm [monnaie] mark. marketing [marketig] ««/ marketing; ~ téléphonique telemarketing. marmaille [marmaj] nf fam brood (of kids). marmelade [marmalad] nf stewed fruit; en ~ cooked to a pulp; fam fig [nez] smashed to a pulp; ~ d'oranges marmalade. marmite [marmit] nf [casserole] pot; faire bouillir la — fig to be the breadwinner. marmiton [marmitô] nm kitchen boy. marmonner [marmDne] [3] vt cj [médecin] quack {avant n); [avocat] crooked. ♦ marron o nm -1. [fruit] chestnut; ~ glacé candied chestnut; ~ d'Inde horse chestnut. -2. [couleur] brown. -3. fam [coup de poing] thump. O adj inv brown. marronnier [marsnje] nm chestnut tree.

mars [mars] nm March; voir aussi septembre. marseillais, -e [marseje, ez] adj of/from Marseilles. ♦ Marseillais, -e nm, f native ou inhabitant of Marseilles. ♦ Marseillaise nf. la Marseillaise French national anthem. Marseille [marsej] n Marseilles. marsouin [marswë] nm porpoise. marsupial, -e, -iaux [marsypjal, jo] adj marsupial. ♦ marsupial nm marsupial. marte = martre. marteau, -x [marto] o nm -1. [gén] hammer; ~ piqueur, ~ pneumatique pneumatic drill. -2. [heurtoir] knocker, o adj fam barmy. marteau-pilon [martopil5] {pi marteauxpilons) nm power hammer. marteau-piqueur [martopikoer] {pi marteaux-piqueurs) nm pneumatic drill. martel [martel] nm: se mettre ~ en tête to get worked up. marteler [martale] [25] vt -1. [pieu] to hammer; [table, porte] to hammer on, to pound. -2. [phrase] to rap out. martial, -e, -iaux [marsjal, jo] adj martial. martien, -ienne [marsjë, j'en] adj âl nm, f Martian. martinet [martine] nm -1. Z00L swift. -2. [fouet] whip. martingale [martëgal] nf -1. [de vêtement] half-belt. -2. jeu winning system. martini [martini] nm martini. martiniquais, -e [martinike, ez] adj of/from Martinique. ♦ Martiniquais, -e nm, f native OU inhabitant of Martinique. Martinique [martinik] nf: la ~ Martinique; à la ~ in Martinique. martin-pêcheur [martëpefcer] {pi martinspêcheurs) nm kingfisher. martre [martr], marte [mart] «/"marten. martyr, -e [martir] o adj martyred, o nm, f martyr. ♦ martyre nm martyrdom; souffrir le ~e to suffer agonies. martyriser [martirize] [3] vt to torment. marxisme [marksism] nm Marxism. marxiste [marksist] nmf & adj Marxist. mas [mas] nm country house or farm in the South of France. mascara [maskara] nm mascara.

mascarade 320 mascarade [maskarad] «/ -1. [mise en scène] masquerade. -2. [accoutrement] getup. mascotte [masknt] nf mascot. masculin, -e [maskylê, in] adj [apparence & GRAM] masculine; [métier, population, sexe] maie. ♦ masculin nm GRAM masculine. maso [mazo] fam o nm masoch*st. O adj masoch*stic. masochisme [mazDjism] nm masochism. masoch*ste [maznjist] o nmf masoch*st. O adj masoch*stic. masque [mask] nm -1. [gén] mask; ~ à gaz gas mask; ~ de plongée diving mask. -2. [crème]: ~ (de beauté) face pack. -3. fig [façade] front, façade; lever le ~ fig to show one's true colours. masqué, -e [maske] adj masked. masquer [maske] [3] vr -1. [vérité, crime, problème] to conceal. -2. [maison, visage] to conceal, to hide. massacrant, -e [masakrû, ât] adj: être d'une humeur ~e to be in a foul temper. massacre [masakr] nm lia & fig massacre. massacrer [masakre] [3] vt to massacre; [voiture] to smash up. massage [masa3] nm massage; faire un ~ à qqn to give sb a massage. masse [mas] nf-1. [de pierre] block; [d'eau] volume; tomber comme une ~ fig to drop like a stone. -2. [de gens]: la ~ the majority; les ~s the masses. -3. [grande quantité]: une ~ de masses iyt) OU loads (/?/) of. -4. PHYS mass; ~ molaire molar weight; ~ moléculaire molecular weight. -5. ELECTR ground Am, earth Br. -6. [maillet] sledgehammer. ♦ masse monétaire nf FIN money supply. ♦ masse salariale ///'payroll. ♦ en masse be adv [venir] en masse, all together; fam [acheter] in bulk. massepain [maspë] nm marzipan. masser [mase] [3] vr -1. [assembler] to assemble. -2. [frotter] to massage. ♦ se masser v\? -1. [s'assembler] to assemble, to gather. -2. [se frotter]: se ~ le bras to massage one's arm. masseur, -euse [masoer, oz] nm, f [personne] masseur (/"masseuse). ♦ masseur nm [appareil] massager. massicot [masiko] nm guillotine. massif, -ive [masif, iv] adj -1. [monument, personne, dose] massive. -2. [or, chêne] solid. ♦ massif nm -1. [de plantes] clump. -2. [de montagnes] massif; le Massif central the Massif Central. massivement [masivmâ] adv -1. [construit]

massively. -2. [répondre] en masse. massue [masy] O adj inv crushing. O nf club. mastic [mastik] nm mastic, putty. mastiquer [mastike] [3] vt -1. [mâcher] to chew. -2. [coller] to putty. mastoc [mastok] adj inv yéj hulking. mastodonte [mastnd5t] nm -1. [mammifère] mastodon. -2. fam [personne] hulk. masturbation [mastyrbasj5] nf masturbation. masturber [mastyrbe] [3] ♦ se masturber vy to masturbat*. m'as-tu-vu [matyvy] nmf inv show-off. masure [mazyr] «/'hovel. mat, -e [mat] adj -1. [peinture, surface] matte Am, matt Br. -2. [peau, personne] dusky. -3. [bruit, son] dull. -4. [aux échecs] checkmated. ♦ mat nm checkmate. mât [ma] nm -1. NAVIC mast. -2. [poteau] pole, post; ~ de cocagne greasy pole. match [mat/] {pi matches OU matchs) nm match; (faire) ~ nul (to) draw; ~ aller/ retour first^second leg. matelas [matla] nm inv [de lit] mattress; ~ de crin horsehair mattress; ~ pneumatique airbed. matelassé, -e [matlase] adj padded. matelot [matlo] nm sailor. mater [mate] [3] vt -1. [soumettre, neutraliser] to subdue. -2. fam [regarder] to eye up. matérialiser [materjalize] [3] ♦ se matérialiser vy [aspirations] to be realized. matérialisme [materjalism] nm materialism. matérialiste [materjalist] o nmf materialist. O adj materialistic. matériau, -x [materjo] nm material. ♦ matériaux nm\A -1. CONSTR material ((./), materials; ~x de construction building material ou materials. -2. [documents] material (U). matériel, -ielle [materjel] adj -1. [être, substance] material, physical; [confort, avantage, aide] material. -2. [considération] practical. ♦ matériel nm -1. [gén] equipment (U); ~ d'exploitation plant (U); ~ roulant rolling stock (17). -2. INFORM hardware (U). matériellement [materjelmâ] adv materially. maternel, -elle [maternel] adj maternal; [langue] mother (avant n); lait ~ mother's milk. ♦ maternelle nf nursery school. materner [materne] [3] vt to mother.

321 max maternité [maternité] nf -1. [qualité] maternity, motherhood. -2. [hôpital] maternity hospital. mathématicien, -ienne [matematisjë, jen] nm, f mathematician. mathématique [matematik] adj mathematical. ♦ mathématiques nfy\ mathematics (U). matheux, -euse [mato, oz] /;//;, f faut mathematician. maths [mat] nfpl faut math Ain, maths Br. matière [matjer] ///" -1. [substance] matter; —s fécales feces Am, faeces Br; ~s grasses fats; ~ grise gray Ant OV grey Br matter. -2. [matériau] material; ~ plastique plastic; —s premières raw materials. -3. [discipline, sujet] subject; en ~ de sport/littérature as far as sport/literature is concerned. -4. loc: donner ~ à to give cause for. MATIF, Matif [matif] (abr de Marché à terme international de France) nm body regulating activities on the French stock exchange. Matignon [matiji5] it: (l'hôtel) ~ building in Paris which houses the offices of the Prime Minister. MATIGNON: This term is often used to refer to the Prime Minister and his or her administrative staff: 'Matignon ne semble pas être d'accord' matin [mate] ///// morning; le ~ in the morning; ce ~ this morning; à trois heures du ~ at 3 o'clock in the morning; de bon OU de grand ~ early in the morning; du ~ au soir fig from dawn to dusk. matinal, -e, -aux [matinal, o] adj -1. [gymnastique, émission] morning {avant n). -2. [personne]: être ~ to be an early riser. mâtiné, -e [mâtine] adj: ~ de [chien] crossed with; fig [mélangé de] mixed with. matinée [mâtine] nf -1. [matin] morning; faire la grasse ~ to have a lie in. -2. [spectacle] matinée, afternoon performance. matines [matin] nfpl matins. matois, -e [matwa, az] littéraire O adj wily. o tun, f wily person. maton, -onne [matô, on] nm, ffam arg crime screw. matou [matu] nm torn, tomcat. matraquage [matraka3] nm -1. [bastonnade] beating, clubbing. -2. fig [intoxication] bombardment; ~ publicitaire bombardment with adverts. matraque [matrak] //f truncheon. matraquer [matrake] [3] vt -1. [frapper] to beat, to club. -2. fig [intoxiquer] to bombard. matriarcal, -e, -aux [matrijarkal, o] adj

matriarchal. matriarcat [matrijarka] nm matriarchy. matrice [matris] /// -1. [moule] mould. -2. MATHS matrix. -3. AN AT womb. matricule [matrikyl] O nm: (numéro) ~ number, o ///register. matrimonial, -e, -iaux [matrimnnjal, jo] adj matrimonial. matrone [matron] nfpéj old bag. maturation [matyrasjô] «/"maturing. mature [matyr] adj mature. mâture [matyr] nf masts (pi). maturité [matyrite] nf maturity; [de fruit] ripeness. maudire [modir] [104] vt to curse. maudit, -e [modi, it] o pp —> maudire. O adj -1. [réprouvé] accursed. -2. (avant n) [exécrable] damned, o nm, f person who is damned. maugréer [mogree] [15] O vt to mutter. O vi: ~ (contre) to grumble (about). maure, more [mor] adj Moorish. ♦ Maure, More nmfishoox. mauresque, moresque [morcsk] adj Moorish. ♦ Mauresque, Moresque nf Moorish woman. Maurice [moris] —» ue. mauricien, -ienne [morisjè, jen] adj Mauritian. ♦ Mauricien, -ienne nm, f Mauritian. Mauritanie [moritani] nf: la ~ Mauritania. mauritanien, -ienne [moritanjë, jen] adj Mauri tanian. ♦ Mauritanien, -ienne nm, f Mauritanian. mausolée [mozole] nm mausoleum. maussade [mosad] adj -1. [personne, air] sullen. -2. [temps] gloomy. mauvais, -e [move, ez] adj -1. [gén] bad. -2. [moment, numéro, réponse] wrong. -3. [mer] rough. -4. [personne, regard] nasty. ♦ mauvais adv. il fait ~ the weather is bad; sentir ~ to smell bad. mauve [mov] nm 62 adj mauve. mauviette [movjet] nf fam -1. [physiquement] weakling. -2. [moralement] coward, wimp. maux — mal. max [maks] (abr de maximum) nm fam: un

max. 322 ~ de fine loads of money; il en a rajouté un ~ he went completely overboard. max. {abr de maximum) max. maxillaire [maksiler] nm jawbone. maximal, -e, -aux [maksimal, o] adj maximum; [degré] highest. maxime [maksim] «/"maxim. maximum [maksimnm] (/?/ maxima [maksima]) O nm maximum; le ~ de vitesse/ capacité etc maximum speed/capacity etc, le ~ de personnes the greatest (possible) number of people; au ~ at the most, o adj maximum. maya [maja] adj Mayan. ♦ Maya nmf: les Mayas the Maya. mayonnaise [majDnez] nf mayonnaise. Mazarine [mazarin] n: la bibliothèque ~ public library in Paris. LA BIBLIOTHÈQUE MAZARINE: This library opened to the public in 1643, and is the oldest in France. It specializes in French history, especially local history mazout [mazut] nm fuel oil. mazouté, -e [mazute] adj polluted with oil. MDM nmf I abr de Médecins du monde. me [ma], m' {devant voyelle ou h muet) pron pers -1. [complément d'objet direct] me. -2. [complément d'objet indirect] (to) me. -3. [réfléchi] myself. -4. [avec un présentatif]: ~ voici here I am. Me {abr de maître) title for barristers, — QC Br. mea culpa [meakulpa] nm inv: faire son ~ fig to admit one's mistake. méandre [meâdr] nm [de rivière] meander, bend. ♦ méandres nmpl [détours sinueux] meanderings (/?/). mec [mek] nm fam guy, bloke. mécanicien, -ienne [mekanisjê, jen] o adj mechanized. O nm, f -1. [de garage] mechanic. -2. [conducteur de train] engineer Am, train driver Br. mécanique [mekanik] O nf -1. TECHN01. mechanical engineering. -2. MATHS & PHYS mechanics {U). -3. [mécanisme] mechanism. o adj mechanical. mécaniquement [mekanikmâ] adv mechanically. mécanisation [mekanizasjS] nf mechanization. mécaniser [mekanize] [3] vt to mechanize. mécanisme [mekanism] nm mechanism. mécano [mekano] nm fam mechanic. mécénat [mesena] nm patronage. mécène [mesen] nm patron. méchamment [me/amâ] adv -1.

[cruellement] nastily. -2. fam [beaucoup] really, terribly. méchanceté [me/ûste] nf -\. [attitude] nastiness. -2. fam [rosserie] nasty thing. méchant, -e [mejû, ût] o adj -1. [malveillant, cruel] nasty, wicked; [animal] vicious. -2. [désobéissant] naughty, o nm, f-1. [moralement] wicked person. -2. [en langage enfantin] baddy. mèche [mej] nf-1. [de bougie] wick. -2. [de cheveux] lock; ~ rebelle cowlick. -3. [de bombe] fuse. -4. [de perceuse] bit. -5. loc. être de ~ avec qqn to be hand in glove with sb; vendre la ~ to give the game away. méchoui [mejwi] nm whole roast sheep. méconnaissable [meknnesabl] adj unrecognizable. méconnaissance [meknnesùs] nf ignorance. méconnu, -e [mekony] adj unrecognized. mécontent, -e [mek5tâ, ât] o adj unhappy, o nm, f malcontent. mécontentement [mekStùtmù] nm displeasure, annoyance. mécontenter [mekStâte] [3] vt to displease. Mecque [mek] n: La ~ Mecca. mécréant, -e [mekreâ, ât] nm, f nonbeliever. méd. abr de médecin. médaille [medaj] nf -1. [pièce, décoration] medal. -2. [bijou] medallion. -3. [de chien] identification disk Am OU disc Br, tag. médaillé, -e [medaje] O adj MIL decorated; SPORT medal-winning {avant n). o nm, f MIL holder of a medal; SPORT medal-winner, medalist Am, medallist Br. médaillon [medajô] nm -1. [bijou] locket. -2. PRESSE: en ~ inset. -3. ART & CULIN medallion. médecin [medsê] nm doctor; ~ de famille family doctor, GP Br; ~ de garde doctor on duty, duty doctor; ~ légiste medical examiner Am, forensic scientist Br; ~ traitant consulting physician. ♦ Médecins nmpl: Médecins du monde, Médecins sans frontières organizations providing medical aid to victims of war and disasters, especially in the Third World. médecine [medsin] nf medicine; ~ générale general medicine. média [medja] nm: les ~s the (mass) media. médian, -e [medjâ, an] adj median. ♦ médiane «/"median.

323 mélanésien médiateur, -trice [medjatœr, tris] o adj mediating (avant n). O nm, /"mediator; [dans conflit de travail] arbitrator. ♦ médiateur nm admin ombudsman. ♦ médiatrice «/"median. médiathèque [medjatek] nf media library. médiation [medjasj5] nf mediation; [dans conflit de travail] arbitration. médiatique [medjatik] adj media (avant n). médiatisation [medjatizasj5] nf saturation media coverage. médiatiser [medjatize] [3] vt péj to turn into a media event. médical, -e, -aux [medikal, o] adj medical. médicalisation [medikalizasj5] nf [d'établissem*nt, de service] provision of medical equipment; [de population] provision of medical care. médicament [medikamà] nm medicine, drug. médicamenteux, -euse [medikamùto, oz] adj medicinal. médication [medikasj5] «f (course of) treatment. médicinal, -e, -aux [medisinal, o] adj medicinal. Médicis [medisis] n: le prix ~ French literary prize. médico-légal, -e, -aux [medikolegal, o] adj forensic. médico-social, -e, -iaux [mediknsDsjal, jo] adj public health (avant n). médiéval, -e, -aux [medjeval, o] adj medieval. médiocre [medjokr] O nmf mediocre person, o adj mediocre. médiocrité [medjokrite] nf mediocrity. médire [medir] [103] vi to gossip; ~ de qqn to speak ill of sb. médisance [medizâs] nf-1. [calomnie] slander. -2. [ragot] piece of gossip. médisant, -e [medizà, àt] O adj slanderous. O nm, /slanderer, scandalmonger. médit [medi] pp inv —* médire. méditatif, -ive [méditatif, iv] O adj thoughtful, reflective. O nm, f thoughtful person. méditation [meditasjS] «f meditation. méditer [médite] [3] O vt -1. [projeter] to plan; ~ de faire qqch to plan to do sthg. -2. [approfondir] to meditate on. O vi: ~ (sur) to meditate (on). Méditerranée [mediterane] nf. la ~ the Mediterranean (Sea). méditerranéen, -enne [mediteraneë, en] adj Mediterranean. ♦ Méditerranéen, -enne nm, f person

from the Mediterranean. médium [medJDm] nm -1. [personne] medium. -2. MHS middle register. médius [medjys] nm middle finger. méduse [medyz] «f jellyfish. méduser [medyze] [3] vt to dumbfound. meeting [mitirj] nm meeting; ~ aérien air show. méfait [mefe] nm misdemeanor Am, misdemeanour Br, misdeed. ♦ méfaits nmpl [du temps] ravages. méfiance [mefjâs] «f suspicion, distrust. méfiant, -e [mefjâ, ât] adj suspicious, distrustful. méfier [mefje] [9] ♦ se méfier vp to be wary ou careful; se ~ de qqn qqch to distrust sb/sthg. méga [mega] adj mega. mégalo [mégalo] nmf raj] O nm monorail. O adj inv monorail (avant n). monoski [monoski] nm -1. [objet] monoski. -2. SPORT monoskiing. monosyllabe [monosilab] O nm monosyllable. O adj monosyllabic. monosyllabique [mariDsilabik] adj monosyllabic. monothéisme [monDteism] nm monotheism. monotone [monDtDn] adj monotonous.

337 monture monotonie [monotoni] nf monotony; rompre la ~ to break the monotony. Monrovia [m5rDvja] n Monrovia. monseigneur [mSscjiœr] {pi messeigneurs [mesejiœr]) nm -1. [titre - d'évêque, de duc] His Grace; [- de cardinal] His Eminence; [- de prince] His (Royal) Highness. -2. [formule d'adresse - à évêque, à duc] Your Grace; [- à cardinal] Your Eminence; [- à prince] Your (Royal) Highness. monsieur [mssjo] {pi messieurs [mesjo]) nm -1. [titre]: ~ X Mr X; bonjour ~ good morning; [dans hôtel, restaurant] good morning, sir; bonjour messieurs good morning (gentlemen); Monsieur le Ministre n'est pas là the Minister is out. -2. [homme quelconque] gentleman. monstre [m5str] nm -1. [gén] monster; ~ marin sea monster; ~ sacré idol. -2. {en apposition) fa m [énorme] colossal. monstrueusem*nt [m5stryozmâ] adv [gros, laid] monstrously; [intelligent] prodigiously. monstrueux, -euse [mSstryo, oz] adj -1. [gén] monstrous. -2. fig [erreur] terrible. monstruosité [mSstryozite] ///"monstrosity. mont [m5] nm -1. littéraire [montagne] mountain; par ~s et par vaux fig up hill and down dale; promettre -set merveilles to promise the earth. -2. GEOCR Mount; le ~ Blanc Mont Blanc; le ~ Cervin the Matterhorn. -3. AN AT: ~ de Vénus mons veneris. montage [m5ta3] nm -1. [assemblage] assembly; [de bijou] setting. -2. PHOT photomontage. -3. GIN editing. -4. ELECT R wiring. montagnard, -e [m5tajiar, ard] o adj mountain {avant n). o nm, f mountain dweller. montagne [m5taji] nf -1. [gén] mountain; les —s Rocheuses the Rocky Mountains. -2. [région]: la ~ the mountains {pt); à la ~ in the mountains; en haute ~ at high altitudes; faire de la haute ~ to go mountain climbing. -3. be: se faire une ~ de qqch to make a great song and dance about sthg. ♦ montagnes russes nfpl big dipper {sg), roller coaster {sg). montagneux, -euse [m5tajio, oz] adj mountainous. montant, -e [m5tâ, ât] adj -1. [mouvement] rising. -2. [vêtement] high-necked. ♦ montant nm -1. [pièce verticale] upright. -2. [somme] total (amount). mont-blanc [m5blâ] {pi monts-blancs) nm pureed chestnuts with whipped cream. mont-de-piété [mSdpjete] {pi monts-depiété) nm pawnshop.

monté, -e [m5te] adj: être ~ en qqch to be well off for sthg. monte-charge [m5tfar3] nm inv service elevator Am, goods lift Br. montée [m5te] nf -1. [de montagne] climb, ascent. -2. [de prix] rise. -3. [relief] slope, gradient. Monténégro [m5tenegro] nm: le ~ Montenegro. monte-plats [m5tpla] nm inv dumbwaiter. monter [m5te] [3] o vi {aux: être) -l. [personne] to come/go up; [température, niveau] to rise; [route, avion] to climb; ~ sur qqch to climb onto sthg. -2. [passager] to get on; ~ dans un bus to get on a bus; ~ dans une voiture to get into a car. -3. [cavalier] to ride; ~ à cheval to ride; ~ à cheval sur qqch fig to straddle sthg. -4. [marée] to go/ come in. O vt {aux: avoir) -1. [escalier, côte] to climb, to come/go up; ~ la rue en courant to run up the street. -2. [chauffa*ge, son] to turn up. -3. [valise] to take/bring up. -4. [meuble] to assemble; COUTURE to assemble, to put OU sew together; [tente] to put up. -5. GIN to edit, to cut (together). -6. [cheval] to mount. -7. [dispositif] to assemble. -8. THEATRE to put on. -9. [société, club] to set up. -10. CUL1N to beat, to whisk (up). -11. be: ~ qqn contre qqn to set sb against sb. ♦ se monter vp -1. [s'assembler]: se ~ facilement to be easy to assemble. -2. [atteindre]: se ~ à to amount to, to add up to. monteur, -euse [m5toer, oz] nm, f -1. TECHNOL fitter. -2. (IN editor. monticule [m5tikyl] nm mound; Can BASEBALL pitcher's mound. montre [m5tr] «/"watch; ~ à quartz quartz watch; ~ en main to the minute, exacdy; contre la ~ [sport] time-dialling; [épreuve] time trial; une course contre la ~ fig a race against time. Montréal [m5real] n Montreal. montre-bracelet [m5trabrasle] {pi montresbracelets) nf wristwatch. montrer [m5tre] [3] vt -1. [gén] to show; ~ qqch à qqn to show sb sthg, to show sthg to sb. -2. [désigner] to show, to point out; ~ qqch du doigt to point at OU to sthg. ♦ se montrer vp -1. [se faire voir] to appear. -2. fig [se présenter] to show o.s. -3. fig [se révéler] to prove (to be). montreur, -euse [m5trœr, oz] nm, f: ~ de marionnettes puppeteer. monture [mStyr] nf-1. [animal] mount. -2. [de lunettes] frame. -3. [de bijou] setting.

monument 338 monument [monymâ] nm -1. [gén]: ~ (à) monument (to); ~ aux morts war memorial. -2. fig & hum [chef-d'œuvre] masterpiece. monumental, -e, -aux [monymâtal, o] adj monumental. moquer [moke] [3] ♦ se moquer vy?: se ~ de [plaisanter sur] to make fun of, to laugh at; [ne pas se soucier de] not to give a damn about; ne vous moquez pas! don't mock!, don't laugh! moquerie [mokri] ///"mockery (U), jibe. moquette [moket] //f (fitted) carpet. moqueur, -euse [mokœr, oz] o adj mocking. O nm, f mocker. moraine [moren] nf moraine. moral, -e, -aux [moral, o] adj moral. ♦ moral nm -1. [mental]: au ~ comme au physique mentally as well as physically. -2. [état d'esprit] morale, spirits (/>/); avoir/ ne pas avoir le ~ to be in good/bad spirits; remonter le ~ à qqn to cheer sb up; se remonter le — to cheer (o.s.) up. ♦ morale nf -1. [science] moral philosophy, morals (/.?/). -2. [règle] morality. -3. [mœurs] morals (/.?/). -4. [leçon] moral; faire la ~e à qqn to preach at OU lecture sb. moralement [moralmâ] adv morally. moralisateur, -trice [moralizatoer, tris] O adj moralizing, o nm, f moralizer. moralisme [moralism] nm morality. moraliste [moralist] O ///«/"moralist. O adj moralistic. moralité [moralité] nf-1. [gén] morality. -2. [enseignement] moral. moratoire [moratwar] nm moratorium. morbide [morbid] adj morbid. morbidité [morbidité] //f morbidity. morceau, -x [morso] nm -1. [gén] piece; manger un ~ fam to have a bite to eat; mettre en ~x to pull OU tear to pieces; cracher le ~ fam fig to spill the beans; emporter le ~ fam to carry it off. -2. [de poème, de film] passage; un ~ de bravoure a purple passage. morceler [morsale] [24] vt to break up, to split up. ♦ se morceler vy to break up. morcellement [morselmà] nm breaking up, splitting up. mordant, -e [mordu, ôt] adj biting. ♦ mordant nm [vivacité] keenness, bite. mordicus [mordikys] adv fam stubbornly, stoutly. mordiller [mordije] [3] vt to nibble. mordoré, -e [mordoré] adj bronze. mordre [mordr] [76] O vt -1. [blesser] to

bite. -2. [dépasser] to go over. -3. fig [entamer, ronger] to eat into OU away. o vi -1. [saisir avec les dents]: ~ à to bite. -2. [croquer]: ~ dans qqch to bite into sthg. -3. SPORT: ~ sur la ligne to step over the line. mordu, -e [mordy] O p>p —► mordre. O adj [amoureux] hooked, o nm, f. ~ de foot/ski etc football/ski etc addict. more = maure. moresque = mauresque. morfondre [morBdr] [75] ♦ se morfondre vj? to mope. morgue [morg] nf -1. [attitude] pride. -2. [lieu] morgue. moribond, -e [moribô, 5d] o adj dying. O nm, /dying person. morigéner [mori3ene] [18] vt littéraire to rebuke. morille [morij] ///"morel. mormon, -e [morm5, on] adj naître. narcisse [narsis] nm ROT narcissus. narcissique [narsisik] O nmf narcissist. O adj narcissistic. narcissisme [narsisism] nm narcissism. narcodoUars [narkodolar] nmpl narcodollars. narcotique [narkrmk] nm & adj narcotic.

narguer [narge] [3] vt [danger] to flout; [personne] to scorn, to scoff at. narine [narin] ///'nostril. narquois, -e [narkwa, az] adj sardonic. narrateur, -trice [naratœr, tris] nm, /"narrator. narratif, -ive [naratif, iv] adj narrative. narration [narasj5] /// -1. [récit] narration. -2. SCOL essay. narrer [nare] [3] vt littéraire to narrate. NASA, Nasa [naza] (abr de National Aeronautics and Space Administration) nf NASA. nasal, -e. -aux [nazal, o] adj nasal. nasaliser [nazalize] [3] vt to nasalize. naseau, -x [nazo] nm nostril. nasillard, -e [nazijar, ard] adj nasal. nasiller [nazije] [3] v; -1. [personne] to speak through one's nose. -2. [machine] to whine. nasse [nas] «/"keep net. natal, -e, -als [natal] adj [d'origine] native. natalité [natalité] «/"birth rate. natation [natasp] a;/ swimming; faire de la ~ to swim. natif, -ive [natif, iv] O adj -1. [originaire] native (avant n); ~ de native of. -2. [inné] innate. O nm, f native. nation [nasj5] nf nation. ♦ Nations unies nfpl: les Nations unies the United Nations. national, -e, -aux [naspnal, o] adj national. ♦ nationale nf (route) ~e — state highway Am, — A road Br. nationalisation [naspnahzasp] ///"nationalization. nationaliser [nasjonalize] [3] vt to nationalize. nationalisme [naspnalismj nm nationalism. nationaliste [nasjanalist] nmf & adj nationalist. nationalité [nasjnnalite] ///"nationality; de ~ française of French nationality; double ~ dual nationality. nativité [nativité] «/"nativity. natte [nat] nf -1. [tresse] plait. -2. [tapis] mat. natter [nate] [3] vt to plait. naturalisation [natyralizasjS] nf -\. [de personne, de plante] naturalization. -2. [taxidermie] stuffing.

345 nécessaire naturalisé, -e [natyralize] O adj -1. [personne, plante] naturalized. -2. [empaillé] stuffed, o mn, f naturalized person. naturaliser [natyralize] [3] vt -1. [personne, plante] to naturalize; se faire ~ to become naturalized. -2. [empailler] to stuff. naturaliste [natyralist] O nmf -1. LITTÉRATURE 'a ZOOL naturalist. -2. [empailleur] taxidermist, o adj naturalistic. nature [natyr] O nf nature; par ~ by nature; payer en ~ to pay in kind. O adj inv -1. [simple] plain. -2. fam [spontané] natural. ♦ nature morte «/"still life. naturel, -elle [natyrel] adj natural. ♦ naturel nm -1. [tempérament] nature; être d'un ~ affable/sensible etc to be affable/sensitive etc by nature. -2. [aisance, spontanéité] naturalness. -3. CUL1N: thon au ~ tuna in brine. naturellement [natyrdmû] adv -1. [gén] naturally. -2. [logiquement] rationally. naturisme [natyrism] nm naturism. naturiste [natyrist] o nmf naturist. o adj naturist {avant it), nudist {avant it). naufrage [nofra3] nm -1. [navire] shipwreck; faire ~ to be wrecked. -2. fig [effondrement] collapse. naufragé, -e [nofra3e] o adj shipwrecked. O nm, /shipwrecked person. nauséabond, -e [nozeabn, 5d] adj nauseating. nausée [noze] itf -1. MËD nausea; avoir la ~ to feel nauseous OU sick; donner la ~ à qqn lift & fig to make sb (feel) sick. -2. [dégoût] disgust. nautique [notik] adj nautical; [ski. sport] water {avant n). nautisme [notism] nm water sports (/?/). naval, -e, -als [naval] adj naval. navarin [navarê] nm lamb stew. navet [nave] nm -1. BOT turnip. -2. fam péj [œuvre] load of rubbish. navette [navet] nf shuttle; ~ spatiale AÉRON space shuttle; faire la ~ to shuttle. navigable [navigabl] adj navigable. navigant, -e [navigà, ât] O adj navigation {avant n). O nm, f. les —s the flight crew. navigateur, -trice [navigatoer, tris] nm, f navigator. navigation [navigasj5] nf navigation; COMM shipping; ~ aérienne/spatiale air/space travel. naviguer [navige] [3] v; -1. [voguer] to sail. -2. fam [voyager] to travel. -3. [piloter] to navigate. navire [navir] nm ship; ~ de guerre warship; ~ marchand merchant ship.

navrant, -e [navra, ât] adj -1. [triste] upsetting, distressing. -2. [regrettable, mauvais] unfortunate. navrer [navre] [3] vt to upset; être navré de qqch/de faire qqch to be sorry about sthg/ to do sthg. nazi, -e [nazi] o adj Nazi {avant n). o nm, f Nazi. nazisme [nazism] nm Nazism. NB {abr de Nota Bene) NB. NBC {abr de nucléaire, bactériologique, chimique) adj NBC. nbreuses abr de nombreuses. nbrx abr de nombreux. n.c. -1. {abr de non communiqué) n.a. -2. {abr de non connu) n.a. n.d. -1. {abr de non daté) n.d. -2. {abr de non disponible) n.a. N-D {abr de Notre-Dame) OL. NDA {abr de note de l'auteur) author's note. N'Djamena [nd3amena] n N'Djamena. NDLR {abr de note de la rédaction) editor's note. NDT {abr de note du traducteur) translator's note. ne [na], n; {devant voyelle ou h muet) adv -1. [négation] —► pas, plus, rien etc. -2. [négation implicite]: il se porte mieux que je ~ (le) croyais he's in better health than I thought (he would be). -3. [avec verbes ou expressions marquant le doute, la crainte etc]: je crains qu'il n'oublie I'm afraid he'll forget; j'ai peur qu'il n'en parle I'm frightened he'll talk about it. né, -e [ne] adj born; ~ en 1965 born in 1965; ~ le 17 juin born on the 17th June; ~ de born to oi ' of; Mme X, ~e Y Mrs X née Y; je ne suis pas ~ d'hier I wasn't born yesterday. néanmoins [neûmwë] adv nevertheless. néant [neû] nm -1. [absence de valeur] worthlessness. -2. [absence d'existence] nothingness; réduire à ~ to reduce to nothing. nébuleux, -euse [nebylo, oz] adj -1. [ciel] cloudy. -2. [idée, projet] nebulous. ♦ nébuleuse nf -\. ASTRON nebula. -2. fig [groupe] nebulous group. nécessaire [neseser] O adj necessary; ~ à necessary for; il est ~ de faire qqch it is necessary to do sthg; il est ~ que (+ subjonctif): U est ~ qu'elle vienne she must come.

nécessairement 346 O nm -1. [biens] necessities (yl); le strict ~ the bare essentials {pi). -2. [mesures]: faire le ~ to do the necessary. -3. [trousse] bag; ~ de couture sewing kit; ~ de toilette toilet bag. nécessairement [nesesermâ] adv -1. [fatalement] necessarily, of necessity. -2. [absolument] absolutely, positively. nécessité [nesesite] nf -1. [obligation, situation] necessity; être dans la ~ de faire qqch to have no choice OU alternative but to do sthg. -2. [besoin] need. ♦ nécessités nfpl necessities. nécessiter [nesesite] [3] vt to necessitate. nee plus ultra [nekplyzyltra] nm inv: le ~ de the last word in. nécrologie [nekrnl^i] nf [notice] obituary; [rubrique] deaths {pi). nécrologique [nekrDb3ik] adj obituary {avant n). nécromancien, -ienne [nekrnmàsjê, jen] nm, f necromancer. nécrose [nekroz] «/"necrosis. nectar [ncktar] nm nectar; ~ d'abricot/de pêche apricot/peach nectar. nectarine [nektarin] «/"nectarine. néerlandais, -e [neeriâde, ez] adj Dutch. ♦ néerlandais nm [langue] Dutch. ♦ Néerlandais, -e ««/, f Dutchman (/" Dutchwoman); les Néerlandais the Dutch. nef [nef] «/"[d'église] nave. néfaste [nefast] adj -1. [jour, événement] fateful. -2. [influence] harmful. nèfle [nefl] nf medlar. néflier [neflije] nm medlar tree. négatif, -ive [négatif, iv] adj negative. ♦ négatif nm PHOT negative. ♦ négative nf: répondre par la négative to reply in the negative. négation [negasjS] nf -1. [rejet] denial. -2. GRAM negative. négativement [negativmû] adv negatively. négligé, -e [negli3e] adj -1. [travail, tenue] untidy. -2. [ami, jardin] neglected. ♦ négligé ««7 -1. [laisser-aller] untidiness. -2. [déshabillé] négligée. négligeable [negli3abl] adj negligible. négligemment [negli3amâ] adv -1. [sans soin] carelessly. -2. [avec indifférence] casually. négligence [negli3Ôs] nf -1. [laisser-aller] carelessness. -2. [omission] negligence; par ~ out of negligence. négligent, -e [negli3â, ât] o adj -1. [sans soin] careless. -2. [indifférent] casual. O nm, f casual person.

négliger [negli3e] [17] vt -1. [ami, jardin] to neglect; ~ de faire qqch to fail to do sthg. -2. [avertissem*nt] to ignore. ♦ se négliger vp to neglect o.s. négoce [negns] «»; business. négociable [negosjabl] adj negotiable. négociant, -e [negDsjâ, ât] nm, /"dealer. négociateur, -trice [negosjatoer, tris] nm, f negotiator. négociation [negDsjasjn] nf negotiation; ~s de paix peace negotiations; —s au sommet summit meeting (sg). négocier [negDsje] [9] vt to negotiate. nègre, négresse [negr, nègres] nm, f negro (/"negress) {beware: the terms 'nègre' and 'négresse' are considered racist). ♦ nègre O nm fam ghost writer, o adj negro {avant n) {beware: the term 'nègre' is considered racist). négrier [negrije] nm -1. [esclavagiste] slave trader. -2. fig [exploiteur] slave driver. negro [negro] nm racist term used with reference to black people. neige [ne3] «/"-l. [flocons] snow; aller à la ~ ~ to go skiing; blanc comme ~ as white as snow; fig pure as the driven snow; ~ fabriquée Can artificial snow. -2. he: battre en ~ CULIN to beat OU whip until stiff. ♦ neige carbonique nf dry ice. neiger [ne3e] [23] v impers: il neige it is snowing. neigeux, -euse [nc3o, oz] adj snowy. nénuphar [nenyfar] nm water-lily. néo-calédonien, -ienne [neDkaledonjc, jen] {mpl néo-calédoniens, fpl néo-calédoniennes) adj New Caledonian. ♦ Néo-Calédonien, -ienne nm, f New Caledonian. néo-colonialiste [neoknbnjalist] {pi néocolonialistes) nmf &> adj neo-colonialist. néologisme [nenb3ism] nm neologism. néon [ne5] nm -1. [gaz] neon. -2. [enseigne] neon light. néonatal, -e, -als [neonatal] adj neonatal. néophyte [neofit] O nmf novice. O adj novice {avant «). néo-zélandais, -e [neozelade, cz] {mpl inv, fpl néo-zélandaises) adj New Zealand {avant n). ♦ Néo-Zélandais, -e nm, f New Zealander. Népal [nepal] nm: le ~ Nepal; au ~ in Nepal. népalais, -e [nepale, cz] adj Nepalese.

347 nez ♦ népalais nm [langue] Nepali, Nepalese. ♦ Népalais, -e nm, f Nepalese (person); les Népalais the Nepalese. néphrite [nefrit] ///"nephritis. népotisme [nepotism] nm nepotism. nerf [ner] nm -1. ANAT nerve; ~ optique/ rachidien optic/spinal nerve. -2. fig [vigueur] spirit. ♦ nerfs nmyl nerves; avoir les —s solides/ d'acier to have strong nerves/nerves of steel; être à bout de —s to be at the end of one's tether; être sur les ~s to be tense; taper sur les —s de qqn fam to get on sb's nerves. nerveusem*nt [nervozmà] adv nervously. nerveux, -euse [nervo, oz] o adj -1. [gén] nervous. -2. [viande] stringy. -3. [style] vigorous; [voiture] nippy. O nm, f nervous person. nervosité [nervozite] >/f nervousness. nervure [nervyr] nf -1. [de feuille, d'aile] vein. -2. [de voûte] rib. n'est-ce pas [nespa] adv. vous me croyez, ~£ you believe me, don't you£; c'est délicieux, ~£ it's delicious, isn't it£; ~ que vous vous êtes bien amusés^ you enjoyed yourselves, didn't you£ net, nette [net] adj -1. [écriture, image, idée] clear. -2. [propre, rangé] clean, neat. -3. COMM & FIN net; ~ d'impôt tax-exempt Am, tax-free Br. -4. [visible, manifeste] definite, distinct. ♦ net adv -1. [sur le coup] on the spot; s'arrêter ~ to stop dead; se casser ~ to break clean off. -2. [franchement - parler] plainly. Net [net] nm fam: le ~ the Net^ surfer sur le ~ to surf the Net. nettement [netmâ] adv -1. [clairement] clearly. -2. [incontestablement] definitely; ~ mieux definitely better; ~ plus/moins much more/less. netteté [nette] «/"clearness. nettoie, nettoies etc —> nettoyer. nettoyage [netwaja3] nm [de vêtement] cleaning; ~ à sec dry cleaning. nettoyant [netwajû] nm cleaning fluid. nettoyer [netwaje] [13] vi -1. [gén] to clean. -2. [grenier] to clear out. -3. [suj: police, soldats] to clean up. neuf1, neuve [nœf, noev] adj new; flambant ~ brand new. ♦ neuf nm: vêtu de ~ wearing new clothes; quoi de ~sivite] /;/" -1. [de produit, gaz] noxiousness. -2. fig [de théorie, doctrine] harm fulness. noctambule [nsktûbyl] nmf night bird. nocturne [nsktym] o nm -1. MUS nocturne. -2. ZOOL night hunter. O nm ou nf -1. [d'un magasin] late opening; ouvert en ~ open late. -2. SPORT: match en ~ evening game. O adj -1. [émission, attaque] night (avant n). -2. [animal] nocturnal. nodule [nsdyl] nm nodule. Noël [nnel] nm Christmas; joyeux ~! happy OU merry Christmas!

349 non nœud [no] nm -1. [de fil. de bois] knot; ~ coulant slipknot; double ~ double knot. -2. NAV1G knot; filer à X ~s NAVKi to do X knots. -3. fig & littéraire [attachement] bond. -4. (de l'action, du problème] crux. -5. [ornement] bow; ~ de cravate knot (in one's tie); ~ papillon bow tie. -6. ANAT, ASTRON, Hl.HCTR :•* RAIL node. noie, noies etc —*• noyer. noierai, noieras etc —* noyer. noir, -e [nwarj adj -1. fgén] black; ~ de [poussière, suie] black with. -2. [pièce, couloir] dark. -3. fig [pressentiment] somber Am, sombre Br. -4. fig [ivre] drunk. ♦ Noir, -e nm, /black. ♦ noir ///// -1. [couleur] black; ~ sur blanc fig in black and white. -2. [obscurité] dark. -3. loc: acheter qqch au ~ to buy sthg on the black market; broyer du ~ to be down in the dumps; travail au ~ moonlighting; travailler au ~ to moonlight; voir tout en ~ to see the dark side of everything. ♦ noire ///quarter note Ant, crotchet Br. noirâtre [nwaratr] adj blackish. noiraud, -e [nwaro, od] -o adj swarthy, cnm, /swarthy person. noirceur [nwarsoer] /// -1. littéraire [couleur] blackness. -2. fig [méchanceté] wickedness. noircir [nwarsir] [32] O vi to darken, v • vt //// & fig to blacken. ♦ se noircir \y.? [devenir noir] to darken. Noire —* mer. noise [nwaz: nf littéraire: chercher ~ à qqn to pick a quarrel with sb. noisetier [nwaztje] nm hazel tree. noisette [nwazet] o /// -1. [fruit] hazelnut. -2. [petite quantité]: une ~ de beurre a knob of butter, v adj inv hazel. noix [nwa] nf -\. [fruit] walnut; ~ de cajou cashew (nut); ~ de coco coconut; ~ de muscade nutmeg. -2. [de viande]: ~ de veau cushion of veal. -3. loc: à la ~ fam dreadful. nom [no] ///// -1. fgén J name; au ~ de in the name of; ~ de Dieu! tfam God damn it!, bloody hell! Br; ~ d'un chien OU d'une pipe! fam drat!; faux ~ false name; ~ déposé trade name; — d'emprunt assumed name; ~ de famille surname; ~ de fichier INFORM filename; ~ de jeune fille maiden name; traiter qqn de tous les —s to call sb all the names under the sun. -2. [prénom] (first) name. -3. CRAM noun; ~ composé compound noun; ~ propre^ommun proper/common noun. nomade [nnmad] ^ nmf nomad. adj nomadic.

nombre [nàbr] nm number: au ~ de among; bon ~ de a large number of, a good many: un bon ~ d'entre nous/eux many of us them; venir en ~ to come in large numbers; ~ pair impair even odd number. nombreux, -euse [nSbro, oz] adj -1. [famille, toule] large. -2. [erreurs, occasions] numerous; peu ~ few. nombril [n3bril] ///// navel; il se prend pour le ~ du monde he thinks the world revolves around him. nombrilisme [nnbrilismj ///// fam \>éj navelgazing. nomenclature [romûklatyrj /// -1. [terminologie] nomenclature. -2. [liste] word list. nominal, -e, -aux [nominal, o] adj -1. [liste] of names. -2. [valeur, autorite] nominal. -3. GRAM noun (avant n). nominalement [nominalmû] adv -1. [désigner] by name. -2. GRAM nominally. nominatif, -ive [naminatif, iv] adj [liste] of names. ♦ nominatif ///// GRAM nominative. nomination [nr>minasp] ///nomination, appointment. nommé, -e [n.ime] o adj -1. [désigné] named. -2. [choisi] appointed. O /////, f aforementioned. nommément [n.imemû] adv [citer] by name. nommer [n.imc] [3] vt -1. [appeler] to name, to call. -2. [qualifier] to call. -3. [promouvoir] to appoint, to nominate. -4. [dénoncer, mentionner] to name. ♦ se nommer v/> -1. [s'appeler] to be called. -2. [se designer] to give one's name. non [n3j ^- adv -1. [réponse negative] no. -2. [se rapportant à une phrase précédente] not; moi ~ not me; moi ~ plus (and) neither am do etc I; elle ne travaille pas aujourd'hui, moi ~ plus she's not working today and neither am I. -3. [sert a demander une confirmation]: c'est une bonne idée, ~/ nord-coréennes) North Korean. ♦ Nord-Coréen, -enne nm, f North Korean. nord-est [norest] nm dl adj inv north-east. nordicité [nordisite] nf Can northerliness. nordique [nordik] adj Nordic, Scandinavian. ♦ Nordique nmf-1. [Scandinave] Scandinavian. -2. Can North Canadian. nord-ouest [norwest] nm & adj inv northwest. normal, -e, -aux [normal, o] adj normal. ♦ normale nf -1. [moyenne]: la ~e the norm. -2. Can GOLF par. normalement [normalmâ] adv normally, usually; ~ il devrait déjà être arrivé he should have arrived by now. normalien, -ienne [normaljê, jen] nm, /"student at teachers college Am on teacher training college Br. normalisation [normalizasjô] nf -1. [stabilisation] normalization. -2. [standardisation] standardization. normaliser [normalize] [3] vt -1. [situation] to normalize. -2. [produit] to standardize. ♦ se normaliser v/> to return to normal. normalité [normalité] ///"normality. normand, -e [normû, ùd] adj Norman. ♦ Normand, -e nm, f Norman. Normandie [normûdi] nf. la ~ Normandy. normatif, -ive [normatif, iv] adj prescriptive. norme [norm] nf -1. [gén] standard, norm; être hors —s to be non-standard. -2. [critère] criterion. Norvège [norves] nf. la ~ Norway. norvégien, -ienne [norve3jê, jen] adj Norwegian. ♦ norvégien nm [langue] Norwegian. ♦ Norvégien, -ienne nm, f Norwegian. nos —» notre. nostalgie [nostal3i] nf nostalgia; avoir la ~ de to feel nostalgia for. nostalgique [nosta^ik] adj nostalgic.

351 Nouvelle-Guinée nota bene [mtabene; ///// inv nota bene. notable [nr>tabl] adj noteworthy, notable. tifikasj3i /// notification. notifier [nntifjej [9] vt: ~ qqch à qqn to notify sb of sthg. notion [nnsp! /// -1. [conscience, concept) notion, concept. -2. (gen ft) [rudiment] smattering (If). notoire [mtwari adj (taitj well-known: [criminel] notorious. notoirement [nr>twarmùj adv notoriously. notoriété [mtmjetej /// -1. [de rait] notoriety; être de ~ publique to be common )\ ' public knowledge. -2. [célébrité] fame. notre [mtrj (/'/nos [no]) adj /ws our. nôtre [notr] ♦ le nôtre (/la nôtre, fl les nôtres) fnvi foss ours; les —s our family (s g); serez-vous des ~s demain^ will you be joining us tomorrow^; il faut y mettre du ~ we 11 ail have to pull our weight. Nouakchott [nuakjnt] n Nouakchott. nouba [nuba] ///: faire la - fam to paint the town red. nouer [nwe] [6] vt -1. [corde, lacet] to tie; [bouquet] to tie up. -2. fig [gorge, estomac] to knot. -3. sont [alliance, amitié] to make, to form. ♦ se nouer vf -1. [gorge] to tighten up. -2. [alliance, amitié] to be formed. -3. [intrigue] to start.

noueux, -euse [nwo, oz] adj [bois] knotty; (mains) gnarled. nougat [nuga] ///// nougat. nouille fnuj] nf fam féj idiot. ♦ nouilles nffl [pâtes] pasta ((./), noodles Noumea [numca] // Nouméa. nounou [nunu] ///nanny. nourrice [nuris] /// -1. [garde d'enfants] nanny, child-minder; [qui allaite] wet nurse. -2. [reservoir] can Am, jerrycan Br. nourrir [nurir] [32] vt -1. [gen] to feed; nourri-logé-blanchi board, lodging and laundry. -2. [sentiment, projet] to nurture. -3. [style, esprit] to improve. ♦ se nourrir \y? to eat; se ~ de qqch litt & fig to live on sthg. nourrissant, -e [nurisu, ût] adj nutritious, nourishing. nourrisson [nuris5] nm infant. nourriture [nurityr] ///"food. nous [nu] j7ron yers -1. [sujet] we. -2. [objet] us. ♦ nous-mêmes \non yers ourselves. nouveau, -elle, -x [nuvor nuvcl, nuvo] (nouvel devant voyelle et h muet) O adj new; ~x mariés newlyweds. o nm, f new boy (/ new girl). ♦ nouveau /////: il y a du — there's something new. ♦ nouvelle ///"-l. [information] (piece of) news ((-'). -2. [court récit] short story. ♦ nouvelles ////>/ news; les nouvelles MF i I the news (sg); il a donné de ses nouvelles I we etc have heard from him; être sans nouvelles de qqn qqch to have no news of sb sthg; aux dernières nouvelles ... the latest is .... ♦ à nouveau toc adv -1. [encore] again. -2. [de manière différente] afresh, anew. ♦ de nouveau la adv again. nouveau-né -e fnuvone] (mfl nouveaunés, //>/ nouveau-nées) o adj newborn. O /////., / newborn baby. nouveauté [nuvote] nf-1. [actualité] novelty. -2. [innovation] something new. -3. [ouvrage] new boolc film etc. nouvel, nouvelle —> nouveau. Nouvelle-Calédonie [nuvelkalednni] nf: la ~ New Caledonia. Nouvelle-Ecosse [nuvelekos] nf. la ~ Nova Scotia. Nouvelle-Guinée [nuvelgine] nf. la ~ New Guinea.

nouvellement 352 nouvellement [nuvdmû] adv recently. Nouvelle-Orléans [nuvcbrleù] /;: La ~ New Orleans. Nouvelle-Zélande [nuvelzelùd] nf. la ~ New Zealand. novateur, -trice [novatcer, tris] vx adj innovative. O tun, f innovator. novembre [nnvùbrj /;//; November; voir aussi septembre. novice [nnvis] o nmf novice. ^ adj inexperienced. noyade [nwajad] nf drowning. noyau, -x [nwajo] /;/// -1. [de fruit] stone, pit. -2. ASTRON, BIOL oc PHYS nucleus. -3. fig [d'amis] group, circle; [d'opposants, de résistants] cell; ~ dur hard core. -4. fig [centre] core. noyauter [nwajote] [3] vt to infiltrate. noyé, -e [nwaje] O adj -1. [personne] drowned. -2. [inondé] flooded; yeux ~s de larmes eyes swimming with tears. O nm, f drowned person. noyer [nwaje] [13] vt -1. [animal, personne] to drown; ~ son chagrin to drown one's sorrows. -2. [terre, moteur] to flood. -3. [estomper, diluer] to swamp; [contours] to blur. ♦ se noyer \y? -1. [personne] to drown. -2. fig [se perdre]: se ~ dans to become bogged down in. -3. [s'estomper] to be swamped. N/Réf (ahr de Notre référence) O/Ref. NRF (ahr de Nouvelle Revue Française) nf -1. [revue] literary review. -2. [mouvement] literary movement. nu, -e [ny] adj -1. [personne] naked. -2. [paysage, fil électrique] bare. -3. [style, vente] plain. ♦ nu nm nude; à ~ stripped, bare; mettre à ~ to strip bare. nuage [nqa3] nm -1. [gén] cloud; être dans les —s fig to have one's head in the clouds. -2. [petite quantité]: un ~ de lait a drop of milk. -3. Can [foulard] scarf. nuageux, -euse [nqa30. oz] adj -1. [temps. ciel] cloudy. -2. fig [esprit] hazy. nuance [nqùs] nf -\. [de couleur] shade; [de son, de sens] nuance; tout en ~s extremely subtle. -2. [touche]: ~ de touch of, trace of. nuancer [nqûse] [16] vt -1. [couleurs] to shade. -2. [pensée] to qualify. nubile [nybil] adj nubile. nucléaire [nykleer] o nm nuclear energy. o adj nuclear. nudisme [nydism] nm nudism, naturism. nudiste [nydist] nmf& adj nudist. nudité [nydite] nf-1. [de personne] nudity, nakedness. -2. [de lieu, style] bareness. nuée [nqe] /// -1. [multitude]: une ~ de a

horde of. -2. littéraire [nuage] cloud. nues [ny] nfi'l: tomber des ~ to be completely taken aback. nui [nqi] /?/? inv —► nuire. nuire [nqir] [97] vi: ~ à to harm, to injure. ♦ se nuire v/» to harm o.s. nuisais, nuisions etc — nuire. nuisance [nqizùs] /// nuisance ((/), harm ((/); ~s sonores noise pollution. nuise, nuises etc —► nuire. nuisette [nqizct] nf short nightgown, babydoll nightgown. nuisible [nqizibl] adj harmful. nuit [nqi] nf-1. [laps de temps] night; cette ~ [la nuit dernière] last night; [la nuit prochaine] tonight; de ~ at night; bateau/vol de ~ night ferry/flight; passer la ~ à l'hôtel to spend the night in a hotel; ~ blanche sleepless night. -2. [obscurité] darkness, night; il fait ~ it's dark; perdu dans la ~ des temps lost in the mists of time. nuitamment [nqitamù] adv littéraire by night. nuitée [nqite] ///"overnight stay. nul, nulle [nyl] O adj indéf (avant n) littéraire no. O adj (après n) -1. [égal à zéro] nil. -2. [sans valeur] useless, hopeless; c'est ~! fam it's rubbish! -3. [sans résultat]: match ~ draw. -4. [caduc]: ~ et non avenu JUR null and void. O nm, f yéj nonentity. O pron indéf sont no one, nobody. ♦ nulle part adv no-place Am, nowhere Br. nullement [nylmù] adv by no means. nullité [nylite] nf -1. [médiocrité] incompetence. -2. fMj [personne] nonentity. -3. JUR invalidity, nullity. numéraire [nymercr] o nm cash. O adj [espèces] legal. numéral, -e, -aux [nymeral, o] adj numeral. ♦ numéral, -aux /;/// numeral. numérateur [nymeratcer] nm numerator. numération [nymerasp] nf -1. MATHS numeration. -2. MED: ~ globulaire blood count. numérique [nymerik] adj -1. [gén] numerical. -2. INFORM digital. numériquement [nymerikmâ] adv numerically. numéro [nymero] nm -1. [gén] number; composer OU faire un ~ to dial a number; faire un faux — to dial a wrong number; ~ minéralogique OU d'immatriculation license Am Ol i registration Br number; ~ azur telephone numher for which calls are charged at the

353 oblitérer local rate irrespective of the actual distance covered-, ~ de telephone telephone number; ~ vert — freefone number; tirer le mauvais ~ fig to get a raw deal. -2. [de spectacle] act, turn; faire son ~ fig to do one's little act. -3. fain [personne]: quel ~! what a character! numéroter [nymerntej [3j vt to number. numerus clausus [nymeryskbzysl tun restricted intake of students. numismatique [nymismatikj psen] adj obscene. obscénité [npsenite] ///obscenity. obscur, -e [npskyr] adj -1. [sombre] dark. -2. [confus) vague. -3. [inconnu, douteux] obscure. obscurantisme [npskyrûtism] ///// obscurantism. obscurcir [opskyrsir] [32] vt -1. [assombrir] to darken. -2. [embrouiller] to confuse. ♦ s'obscurcir \y> -1. [s'assombrir] to grow dark. -2. [s'embrouiller] to become confused. obscurément [opskyremù] adv obscurely. obscurité [opskyrite] nf-1. [nuit] darkness. -2. [anonymat] obscurity. -3. [hermétisme] abstruseness. obsédant, -e [npsedà, ât] adj haunting. obsédé, -e [opsede] O adj obsessed. O /////, f obsessive; ~ sexuel sex maniac. obséder [opsede] [18] vt to obsess, to haunt. obsèques [apsek] nfyl funeral (sg). obséquieux, -ieuse [npsekjo, jozj adj obsequious. obséquiosité [npsekjozitei /// obsequiousness. observance [npservus] ///observance. observateur, -trice [r>pservataer, tris] -■> adj observant. O tun, f observer. observation [spscrvasp] /// -1. [gen] observation; être en ~ MED to be under observation. -2. [critique] remark. -3. [conformité] observance. observatoire [:>pscrvatwar] ///// -1. as iron observatory. -2. [lieu de surveillance] observation post. observer [opscrve] [3] vt -1. [regarder, remarquer, respecter] to observe. -2. [epier] to watch. -3. [constater]: ~ que to note that; faire ~ qqch à qqn to point sthg out to sb. -4. sont [attitude] to keep, to maintain. ♦ s'observer vp -1. [se surveiller] to be careful of one's behavior Am OU behaviour Br. -2. [s'épier] to watch each other. obsession [npsesj5] ///"obsession. obsessionnel, -elle [Dpsespnel] adj obsessional. obsolète [npsnlet] adj obsolete. obstacle [npstakl] tun -1. [entrave] obstacle. -2. fig [difficulté] hindrance; faire ~ à qqch/' qqn to hinder sthg/sb; rencontrer un ~ to

meet an obstacle. obstétricien, -ienne [apstetrisje, jen] ntn, f obstetrician. obstétrique [apstetrik] ///"obstetrics (17). obstination [opstinasjô] /// stubbornness, obstinacy. obstiné, -e [spstine] adj -1. [entêté] stubborn, obstinate. -2. [acharné] dogged. O tun, f stubborn Oi ' obstinate person. obstinément [npstinemù] adv -1. [refuser] obstinately. -2. [travailler] doggedly. obstiner [npstine] [3] ♦ s'obstiner v/> to insist; s'~ à faire qqch to persist stubbornly in doing sthg; s'~ dans qqch to cling stubbornly to sthg. obstruction [npstryksjn] ///"-l. MÉD obstruction, blockage. -2. POLIT & SPORT obstruction. obstructionniste [^pstrykspnist] tunf & adj POLIT obstructionist. obstruer [npstrye] [3] vt to block, to obstruct. ♦ s'obstruer vp to become blocked. obtempérer [nptûpere] [18] vi: ~ à to comply with. obtenir [nptonir] [40] vt to get, to obtain; ~ qqch de qqn to get sthg from sb; ~ de faire qqch to get permission to do sthg; ~ qqch à ou pour qqn to obtain sthg for sb. obtention [nptùsp] ///"obtaining. obtenu, -e [r>ptony] pp —► obtenir. obtiendrai, obtiendras etc —» obtenir. obtienne, obtiennes etc —► obtenir. obturateur, -trice [Dptyratcer, tris] adj closing (avant //). ♦ obturateur ///// -1. [valve] stop valve. -2. Pi lui shutter. obturation [optyrasjà] nf closing, sealing. obturer [nptyre] [3] vt to close, to seal; [dent] to fill. obtus, -e [npty, yz] adj obtuse. obus [oby] ///// shell. OC (ahr de ondes courtes) SW. occasion [nkazjô] /// -1. [possibilité, chance] opportunity, chance; saisir l'~ (de faire qqch) to seize OU grab the chance (to do sthg): rater une ~ (de faire qqch) to miss a chance (to do sthg); être l'~ de to give rise to; à l'~ some time; [de temps en temps] sometimes, on occasion; à la première ~ at the first opportunity. -2. [circonstance] occasion; à l'~ de on the occasion of; dans les

355 œil grandes —s on important occasions. -3. [bonne affaire] bargain. ♦ d'occasion loc adv & loc adj secondhand. occasionnel, -elle [okazjanel] adj firrégulier - visite, problème] occasional; [- travail] casual. occasionner [akazjone] [3] vt to cause. occident [oksidù] nm west. ♦ Occident nm: l'Occident the West. occidental, -e, -aux [aksidôtal, o] adj western. ♦ Occidental, -e, -aux nm, /Westerner. occiput [sksipyt] nm back of the head. occitan, -e [nksitù, an] adj Provençal French. ♦ occitan nm [langue] Provençal French. ♦ Occitan, -e nm, f speaker of Provençal French. occlusion [.-)klyzj5] /;/-1. mhd blockage, obstruction. -2. UNG ,.; ( lllM occlusion. occulte [r>kylt] adj occult. occulter [okylte] [3] vt [sentiments] to conceal. occupant, -e [akypù, ùt] to grant o.s., to treat o.s. to. oculaire [.->kyler] o nm eyepiece. O adj ocular, eye (avant n); témoin ~ eyewitness. oculiste [nkylist] nmf ophthalmologist. ode [r>d] nf ode. odeur [ndoerj nf smell; ne pas être en ~ de sainteté (auprès de) fig to be out of favor Am CM i favour Br (with). odieusem*nt [ndjozmû] adv abominably. odieux, -euse [ndjo. joz] adj -1. [crime] odious, abominable. -2. [personne, attitude] unbearable, obnoxious. odorant, -e [ndnrû, ùt] adj sweet-smelling, fragrant. odorat [r>dr>ra] nm (sense of) smell. odoriférant, -e [ndrmferù, ùt] adj sweetsmelling, fragrant. odyssée [odise] /// odyssey. OEA (ahr de Organisation des États américains) nfOAS. œdème [edem] nm oedema. œil [cej] (yl yeux [jo]) nm -1. [gén] eye; yeux bridés/exorbités/globuleux slanting/bulgingprotruding eyes; avoir les yeux cernés to have bags under one's eyes; baisser/ lever les yeux to look down/up, to lower/ raise one's eyes; du coin de l'~ out of the corner of one's eye; écarquiller les

œil-de-bœuf 356 yeux to stare wide-eyed; à T- nu to the naked eye; sous mes/tes etc yeux before my/your etc very eyes; à vue d'~ visibly. -2. [bulle de graisse] blob of grease OW fat. -3. loc: avoir qqch/qqn à l'~ to have one's eye on sthg/sb; avoir un — au beurre noir to have a black eye; n'avoir pas froid aux yeux not to be afraid of anything, to have plenty of nerve; avoir des yeux de lynx to have eyes like a hawk; ne pas avoir les yeux dans sa poche to be very observant; couver qqch/qqn des yeux to look fondly at sthg sb, to look lovingly at sthg/sb; ça crève les yeux fam it's staring you in the face, it's as plain as the nose on your face; ne pas en croire ses yeux not to believe one's eyes; dévorer qqn qqch des yeux [avec insistance] to eye sb/sthg intently; [avec convoitise] to eye sb sthg greedily; faire de l'~ à qqn fam to eye sb up; faire les gros yeux à qqn to glare at sb; fermer les yeux sur qqch to close ones eyes to fsthg; mon ~! fam like hell!; ouvrir l'~ to j keep one's eyes open; se rincer l'~ fam to get an eyeful; cela saute aux yeux it's obvious; tourner de Y— fam to pass out. œil-de-bœuf [œjdobœfl (/>/ œils-de-bœuf) ///// bull's eye window. œillade [oejad] /// wink; lancer une ~ à qqn to wink at sb. œillère [œjer] /// eyebath. ♦ œillères ////>/ blinders Am, blinkers Br: avoir des —s fam fig to be blinkered. œillet [œjd ///// -1. [fleur] carnation. -2. [de chaussure] eyelet. œnologie [en^b^i] tif wine appreciation. œnologue [en:>bg] nm\ wine expert. œsophage [ez:>fa3] nm esophagus Am, oesophagus Br. œstrogène [cstr^cn] nm estrogen Am, oestrogen Br. œuf [œfj ///;/ egg; — à la coque/au plat/ poché boiled fried poached egg; ~ mollet/ dur soft-boiled hard-boiled egg; ~ de Pâques Easter egg; —s brouillés scrambled eggs; —s en Ol[ à la neige whipped egg whites: dans l'~ fig in the bud. œuvre [œvr] o ///"-l. [travail] work; être à T~ to be working ow at work; se mettre à T~ to get down to work; mettre qqch en ~ to make use of sthg; [loi, accord, projet] to implement sthg. -2. [d'artiste] work; [ensemble de sa production] works (/*/); — d'art work of art. -3. [organisation] charity; ~ de bienfaisance charity, charitable organization. < nm -1. [d'artiste] works (/*/), work. -2. [de bâtiment]: le gros ~ the shell.

œuvrer [œvre^ [5] v/ littéraire: ~ (pour) to work (for). OFCE (ahr de Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques) nm economic research institute. off [:>f; adj inv -1. cin [voix, son] off. -2. [festival] fringe (avant n). offensant, -e bfùsù, ut] ^//offensive. offense [nfùsl ///"-l. (insulte] insult. -2. RFllG trespass. offenser [r>fùseî [3j vt -1. [personne] to offend. -2. [bon ^oût] to offend against. ♦ s'offenser vjr. s'~ de to take offense Am on offence Br at, to be offended by. offenseur [sfùsœrj ///// offender, offending party. offensif, -ive bfùsif, iv] adj offensive. ♦ offensive /// -1. mil offensive; passer à l'offensive to go on the offensive; prendre l'offensive to take the offensive. -2. fig [du froid] (sudden) onset. offert, -e [;>fer, trt] pp —► oflErir. offertoire [sfertwar] nm offertory. office bfis] ///;/ -1. [bureau] office, agency; — du tourisme tourist office. -2. [fonction]: faire ~ de to act as; remplir son ~ to do its job, to fulfil its function. -3. RF.Llc; service. -4. loc. recourir aux ~s de qqn to turn to sb for help. ♦ d'office loc adv automatically, as a matter of course: commis d'~ officially appointed. officialiser [^fisjalize] [3] vt to make official. officiel, -ielle [rrfisjd] adj cC; /////, /"official. officiellement [;>fis]dmtr adv officially. officier1 f^fisje; [9] vt to officiate. officier2 [r>fisjc\ nm officer; ~ d'ordonnance aide-de-camp. officieusem*nt [rrfisjozmûj adv unofficially. officieux, -ieuse [rrfisjo, joz] adj unofficial. officine [r>fisin] /// -1. [pharmacie] pharmacy. -2. \>é\ (repaire) agency. offrande [rrfrcid] ///'-l. [don] offering. -2. RELIC offertory. offrant [ofru] nm: au plus — to the highest bidder. offre f.ifr] /// -1. [proposition] offer: [aux enchères] bid; [pour contrat] tender; «~s d'emploi» "situations vacant", "vacancies"; ~ d'essai trial offer; ~ de lancement introductory offer; ~ publique d'achat takeover bid. -2. FC ON supply; la loi de l'~ et de la demande the law of supply and demand. offrir [nfriri [34] vt -1. [faire cadeau]: ~ qqch à qqn to give sb sthg, to give sthg to sb. -2. [proposer]: ~ qqch à qqn to offer sb

357. omets sthg OU sthg to sb: ~ (à qqn) de faire qqch to offer to do sthg (for sb). -3. [presenter] to offer, to present; son visage n'offrait rien d'accueillant his/her face showed no sign of welcome. ♦ s'offrir \'f> -1. [croisière, livre] to treat o.s. to. -2. [se présenter] to present itself. -3. [s'exposer]: s'~ à qqch to expose o.s. to sthg. -4. [se proposer] to offer one's services, to offer o.s., s'~ à faire qqch to offer to do sthg. offset [nfsct] o adj inv offset. nm inv offset (lithography), o nf inv offset press. offshore [nffnr] O adj inv -1. [exploitation] offshore. -2. SPORT speedboat (avant /;); bateau ~ speedboat, o nm SPORT speedboat racing. offusquer [afyske] [3] vt to offend. ♦ s'offusquer vp: s'~ (de) to take offense Am OU offence Br (at). ogive [:>3iv] nf -1. ARCH IT ogive; en ~ ribbed. -2. MIL [d'obus] head; [de fusée] nosecone; ~ nucléaire nuclear warhead. ogre, ogresse [agr, ngresi nm, f ogre (f ogress). oh [o] o interj oh!; ~ la la! dear oh dear! o nm inv: pousser des ~ et des ah to ooh and ah. ohé [ne] inter] hey! OHQ (abr de ouvrier hautement qualifié) nm highly skilled worker. oie [wa] /;/ goose; ~ blanche fig innocent young girl. oignon [njn] nm -1. [plante] onion; mêletoi de tes ~s fam fig mind your own business; soigner qqn aux petit* ~s fam fig to take care of sb's every need. -2. [bulbe] bulb. -3. MED bunion. oindre [wèdr] [82] vt littéraire -1. [corps] to (rub with) oil. -2. relic, to anoint. oiseau, -x [wazo] nm -1. COOL bird; — de proie bird of prey. -2. fam \?é\ [individu] character. oiseau-mouche [wazomuj] (/'/ oiseauxmouches) nm hummingbird. oiseleur [wasloer] nm bird-catcher. oiseux, -euse [wazo, oz] ad] pointless. oisif, -fve [wazif, iv] o adj idle. O nm, f man of leisure (/"woman of leisure). oisillon [wazij5] nm fledgling. oisiveté [wazivte] ///"idleness. oison [waz5] nm gosling. OIT (abr de Organisation internationale du travail) nf ILO. O.K. [Dke] inter] fam okay. OL (abr de ondes longues) LW. oléagineux, -euse [olea3ino, oz] adj

oleaginous. ♦ oléagineux nm oleaginous plant. oléoduc [aleadyk] nm (oil) pipeline. olfactif, -ive [nlfaktif, iv] adj olfactory. oligo -élément [nligoelemû] (yl oligoéléments) nm trace element. olivâtre [nlivatr] adj [verdâtre] olive-colored Am, olive-coloured Br; [teint] sallow. olive [dHv] C /// olive. O adj inv olive, olive-green. oliveraie [olivre] nf olive grove. olivier [olivje] nm [arbre] olive tree; [bois] olive wood. OLP (abr de Organisation de libération de la Palestine) nf PLO. olympiade [:>lêpjad] nf (gén /?/) olympiad fe). olympien, -ienne [r>lcpjê, jen] adj Olympian. olympique [nlûpik] ad] Olympic (avant n). OM O nm (abr de Olympique de Marseille) Marseilles football team. O (abr de ondes moyennes) MW. Oman [oman] n Oman; le sultanat d'~ the Sultanate of Oman. ombilic [ôbilik] nm -1. [de personne] navel. -2. BOT navel wort. ombilical, -e, -aux [5bilikal, o] adj umbilical. ombrage [ôbra3] nm shade; porter ~ à qqn fig to offend sb; prendre ~ de qqch fig to take offense Am ou offence Br at sthg, to take umbrage at sthg. ombragé, -e [5bra3e] adj shady. ombrageux, -euse [5bra3o, oz] adj -1. [personne] touchy, prickly. -2. [cheval] nervous, skittish. ombre [5br] /// -1. [zone sombre] shade; faire de l'~ à qqn to get in sb's light; à l'~ de [arbre] in the shade of; [personne] in the shadow of; rester dans l'~ de qqn fig to live in sb's shadow; laisser qqch dans l'~ fig to deliberately ignore sthg; vivre dans l'~ fig to live in obscurity. -2. [forme, fantôme] shadow; —s chinoises [spectacle] shadow play ou pantomime (sg); [jeu] Chinese shadows. -3. [trace] hint; ça ne fait pas l'~ d'un doute there's not the shadow of a doubt. -4. [cosmétique]: ~ à paupières eye shadow. ombrelle [5brel] nf parasol. ombrer [5bre] [3] vt -1. [paupières] to put eye shadow on. -2. [dessin] to shade (in). omelette [omlet] nf omelette; ~ norvégienne baked Alaska. omets —► omettre.

omettre 358 omettre [smctr] [84] w to omit; — de faire qqch to omit to do sthg. OMI (abr de Organisation maritime internationale) /// IMO. omis, -e [pmi. iz] /?/? —* omettre. omission [r>misp] /// omission; par ~ by omission. OMM (abr de Organisation météorologique mondiale) /// WMO. omnibus [nmnibysj ///// stopping OU local train. adj itiv: ce train est ~ pour ... this train stops at all stations to .... omnipotent, -e [DmnipDtû, citj adj omnipotent. omniprésence [r>mniprezàs^ ///" omnipresence. omniprésent -e [smniprezû. ùtj adj omnipresent. omniscient, -e [Dmnisjà. ût adj omniscient. omnisports [smnispnr] adj inv sports (avant n). omnivore [omnivDrj O nm omnivore. O adj omnivorous. omoplate [smnplatj /// [os] shoulder blade; [épaule] shoulder. OMS {abr dc Organisation mondiale de la santé) ///"WHO. on [5] l'ron fers itide'f -1. [indéterminé] you, one; ~ n'a pas le droit de fumer ici you're not allowed CM ' one isn't allowed to smoke here, smoking isn't allowed here. -2. [les gens, l'espèce humaine] they, people; ~ vit de plus en plus vieux en Europe people in Europe are living longer and longer. -3. [quelqu'un] someone; ~ vous a appelé au téléphone ce matin there was a telephone call for you this morning. -4. faut [nous] we; ~ s'en va we're off, we're going. onanisme [onanism] /;/// onanism. once [5sj ///: une ~ (de) an ounce (of). oncle [5kl] ///// uncle. onction [5ksj3] ///unction. onctueux, -euse [5ktqo, oz^ adj smooth. onctuosité [nktqozite] ///smoothness. onde [xi] nf -1. FHYS wave. -2. littéraire [eau]: l'~ the waters (/>/). ♦ ondes nf/d [radio] air (sg). ondée [5de] ///shower (of rain). on-dit [5di] ///// inv rumor Am, rumour Br, hearsay ((_/). ondoyant, -e [5dwajù. ât] adj [ondulant] rippling; [démarche] swaying. ondoyer [5dwajej [13] vi to ripple. ondulant, -e [5dylû, ât] adj [ondoyant] undulating, wavy; [démarche] swaying.

ondulation [5dylasj5] nf -1. [mouvement] rippling; [de sol. terrain] undulation. -2. [de coitlure] wave. ondulé, -e [rSdyle] adj [surface] undulating; (chevelure] wavy; [tôle, carton] corrugated. onduler [Sdyle] [3] vi [drapeau] to ripple, to wave; [cheveux] to be wavy. one-man-show [wanmanJ"o] ///// inv oneman show. onéreux, -euse [onero, oz] adj costly. ONF {abr de Office national des forêts) ///// French national forestry agency, — National Forestry Service Am, — Forestry Commission Br. ONG {abr de organisation non gouvernementale) /// NGO. ongle [5gl] nm -1. [de personne] fingernail, nail; se faire les ~s to do one's nails; se ronger les —s to bite one's nails. -2. [d'animal] claw. onglée [ôgle] nf: j'ai l'~ my fingers are numb with cold. onglet [5gle] nm -1. [de reliure] tab. -2. [de lame] thumbnail groove. -3. CULIN top skirt. onguent [5gû] nm ointment. onirique [rmirik] adj [relatif au rêve] dream {avant //); [semblable au rêve] dreamlike. onomastique [nnnmastik] O /// onomastics {sg). c> adj onomastic. onomatopée [nnnmatope] /// onomatopoeia. ont —> avoir. ONU, Onu [.tny] {abr de Organisation des Nations unies) ///'UN, UNO. ONUDI, Onudi [nnydi] {abr de Organisation des Nations unies pour le développement industriel) /// UNIDO. onyx [nniks] ///// onyx. onze [5z] O adj num eleven; voir aussi six. o ///// [chiffre & SPORT] eleven; voir aussi six. onzième [5zjcm] o adj num, nm & nmf eleventh; voir aussi sixième. O /// [classe] = first grade Am, — second year CM i form {at primary school) Br; voir aussi sixième. OP {abr de ouvrier professionnel) ///// skilled worker. OPA {abr de offre publique d'achat) nf takeover bid. opacité [npasite] nf opacity. opale [:>pal] nf & adj inv opal. opaline [npalin] ///"opaline. opaque [opak] adj: ~ (à) opaque (to). op. cit. {abr de opère citato) op. cit.

359 optimiser OPE (abr de offre publique d'échange) nf take-over bid where bidder offers to exchange shares. OPEP, Opep (abr de Organisation des pays exportateurs de pétrole) wf OPEC. opérai [opera] nm -1. MUS opera. -2. [théâtre] opera house; l'Opéra Bastille opera house built on the site of the Bastille; l'Opéra de Paris the Paris Opera (House). opérable [operabl] adj operable. opéra-bouffe [operabuf] (pi opérasbouffes) nm comic opera. opéra-comique [operakomik] (pi opérascomiques) nm light opera. opérateur, -trice [operator, tris] nm, f operator; ~ de saisie keyboarder. opération [operasjô] nf -1. [gén] operation. -2. COMM deal, transaction. opérationnel, -elle [operasjonel] adj operational. opératoire [operatwar] adj MÉD operating (avant n); choc ~ post-operative shock. opérer [opère] [18] o vt -1. MÉD to operate on. -2. [exécuter] to carry out, to implement; [choix, tri] to make. O vi [agir] to take effect; [personne] to operate, to proceed. ♦ s'opérer vp to come about, to take place. opérette [operet] nf operetta. ophtalmique [oftalmik] adj ophthalmic. ophtalmologiste [oftalmolo3ist] nmf ophthalmologist. Opinel® [spinel] nm folding knife used especially for outdoor activities, scouting etc. opiner [spine] [3] vi sout: ~ à qqch to give one's consent to sthg. opiniâtre [opinjatr] adj -1. [caractère, personne] stubborn, obstinate. -2. [effort] dogged; [travail] unrelenting; [fièvre, toux] persistent. opiniâtreté [opinjatrate] nf [de caractère, personne] stubbornness, obstinacy. opinion [opinjS] nf opinion; conforter OU renforcer qqn dans son ~ to confirm sb's opinion; avoir (une) bonne/mauvaise ~ de to have a good/bad opinion of; l'~ publique public opinion. opium [opjom] nm opium. opportun, -e [oportœ, yn] adj opportune, timely. opportunément [oportynemâ] adv opportunely. opportunisme [oportynism] nm opportunism. opportuniste [oportynist] o nmf opportunist. O adj opportunistic. opportunité [oportynite] nf -1. [à-propos]

opportuneness, timeliness. -2. [occasion] opportunity. opposant, -e [oposà, àt] o adj opposing. o nm, f. ~ (à) opponent (of). opposé, -e [opoze] adj -1. [direction, côté, angle] opposite. -2. [intérêts, opinions] conflicting; [forces] opposing. -3. [hostile]: ~ à opposed to. ♦ opposé nm: l'~ the opposite; à l'~ de in the opposite direction from; fig unlike, contrary to. opposer [spoze] [3] vt -1. [mettre en opposition - choses, notions]: ~ qqch (à) to contrast sthg (with). -2. [mettre en présence personnes, armées] to oppose; ~ deux équipes to bring two teams together; ~ qqn à qqn to pit OU set sb against sb. -3. [refus, protestation, objection] to put forward; ~ une objection à qqn to raise an objection with sb, to put forward an objection to sb. -4. [diviser] to divide. ♦ s'opposer vp -1. [contraster] to contrast. -2. [entrer en conflit] to clash. -3. s'~ à [se dresser contre] to oppose, to be opposed to; s'~ à ce que qqn fasse qqch to be opposed to sb's doing sthg. opposition [opozisj5] nf -1. [gén] opposition; faire ~ à [décision, manage] to oppose; [chèque] to stop; entrer en ~ avec to come into conflict with. -2. JUR: ~ (à) objection (to). -3. [contraste] contrast; par ~ à in contrast with, as opposed to. oppressant, -e [opresâ, ût] adj oppressive. oppresser [oprese] [4] vt -1. [étouffer] to suffocate, to stifle. -2. fig [tourmenter] to oppress. oppresseur [opresœr] o nm oppressor. O adj oppressive. oppressif, -ive [opresif, iv] adj oppressive. oppression [opresj5] nf -1. [asservissem*nt] oppression. -2. [malaise] tightness of the chest. opprimé, -e [oprime] O adj oppressed. O nm, f oppressed person. opprimer [oprime] [3] vt -1. [asservir] to oppress. -2. [étouffer] to stifle. opprobre [oprobr] nm: jeter l'~ sur qqn to cast opprobrium on sb. opter [opte] [3] vi: ~ pour to opt for. opticien, -ienne [optisjè, jen] nm, f optician. optimal, -e, -aux [optimal, o] adj optimal. optimiser [optimize], optimaliser [optimalize] [3] vt to optimize.

optimisme 360 optimisme [optimism] nm optimism. optimiste [optimist] o nmf optimist. O adj optimistic. optimum [optimum] (j?l optimums OU optima [optima]) nm 62 ad\ optimum. option [opsj5] nf -1. [gén] option; prendre une ~ sur FIN to take (out) an option on. -2. [accessoire] optional extra. optionnel, -elle [opsjond] adj optional. optique [optik] o nf-t. [science, technique] optics (U). -2. [perspective] viewpoint; dans l'~ de faire qqch with a mind OU view to doing sthg. O adj [nerf] optic; [verre] optical. opulence [opylàs] nf -1. [richesse] opulence; vivre OU nager dans l'~ to live a life of luxury. -2. [ampleur] fullness, ampleness. opulent, -e [apylâ, ât] adj -1. [riche] rich. -2. [gros] ample. OQ (ahr de ouvrier qualifié) nm skilled worker. or1 [or] nm -1. [métal, couleur] gold; en ~ [objet] gold (avant n); une occasion en ~ a golden opportunity; une affaire en ~ [achat] an excellent bargain; [commerce] a lucrative line of business; j'ai une femme en ~ I've a wonderful wife; — blanc white gold; ~ massif solid gold; — noir fig black gold; pour tout l'~ du monde fig for all the tea in China; rouler sur P~ fig to be rolling in it. -2. [dorure] gilding. or2 [or] conj [au début d'une phrase] now; [pour introduire un contraste] well, but. oracle [orakl] nm oracle. orage [ora3] nm -1. [tempête] storm; il y a de l'~ dans l'air fig there's a storm brewing. -2. fig [tumulte, revers] turmoil. orageux, -euse [ora30, oz] adj stormy. oraison [orezô] nf prayer; ~ funèbre funeral oration. oral, -e, -aux [oral, o] adj oral. ♦ oral nm oral (examination); ~ de rattrapage oral examination taken after failing written exams. oralement [oralmù] adv orally. orange [DrÔ3] o nf orange; ~ pressée freshly squeezed orange juice. O nm & adj inv [couleur] orange. orangé, -e [orÔ3e] adj orangey. ♦ orangé nm orangey color Am OU colour Br. orangeade [orÔ3ad] nf orange squash. oranger [DrÔ3e] nm orange tree. orangeraie [orÛ3re] «/"orange grove. orang-outan(g) {pi orangs-outan(g)s) [orâutâ] nm orangutang. orateur, -trice [oratœr, tris] nm, f -\. [conférencier] speaker. -2. [personne éloquente]

orator. orbital, -e, -aux [orbital, o] adj [mouvement] orbital; [station] orbiting. orbite [orbit] nf -1. ANAT (eye) socket. -2. ASTRON & fig orbit; mettre sur ~ AÉRON to put into orbit; fig to launch. Orcades [orkad] nfpl: les ~ the Orkney Islands, the Orkneys. orchestral, -e, -aux [orkestral, o] adj orchestral. orchestration [orkestrasjô] «/"orchestration. orchestre [orkcstr] nm -1. MUS orchestra. -2. CIN & THEATRE orchestra Am, stalls (pf) Br; fauteuil d' ~ orchestra seat Am, seat in the stalls Br. orchestrer [orkestre] [3] vt lift & fig to orchestrate. orchidée [orkide] nf orchid. ordinaire [ordiner] o adj -1. [usuel, standard] ordinary, normal. -2. péj [commun] ordinary, common. O nm -1. [moyenne]: l'~ the ordinary. -2. [alimentation] usual diet. ♦ d'ordinaire loc adv normally, usually. ordinal, -e, -aux [ordinal, o] adj ordinal. ♦ ordinal, -aux nm ordinal (number). ordinateur [ordinatoer] nm computer; ~ personnel personal computer, PC. ordonnance [ordonâs] O nf -1. MÉD prescription. -2. [de gouvernement, juge] order. O nm ou nf Mil orderly. ordonnateur, -trice [ordonatœr, tris] nm, f organizer. ordonné, -e [ordone] adj [maison, élève] tidy. ordonner [ordone] [3] vt -1. [ranger] to organize, to put in order. -2. [enjoindre] to order, to tell; ~ à qqn de faire qqch to order sb to do sthg. -3. MÉD: ~ qqch à qqn to prescribe sb sthg. -4. RELIC to ordain. -5. MATHS to arrange in order. ♦ s'ordonner vp to be arranged OU put in order. ordre [ordr] nm -1. [gén, MIL & RELIC] order; par ~ alphabétique/chronologique/décroissant in alphabetical/chronological/ descending order; par ~ d'entrée en scène in order of appearance; procéder par ~ to take one thing at a time; rétablir P~ to restore order; rappeler qqn à l'~ to call sb to order; dormer un ~ à qqn to give sb an order; être aux ~s de qqn to be at sb's disposal; intimer à qqn l'~ de faire qqch to order sb to do sthg; jusqu'à nouvel ~ until further notice; entrer dans les ~s RELIG to take holy orders; l'~ établi the established

361 orienter order; — de mission MIL orders (j?l) (for a particular mission); l'~ public law and order; troubler l'~ public to disturb the peace. -2. [bonne organisation] tidiness, orderliness; en ~ orderly, tidy; avoir de P~ to be orderly OU tidy; mettre en ~ to put in order, to tidy (up); mettre bon ~ à to sort out. -3. [catégorie]: de premier second ~ firsts/second-rate; d'~ privé/pratique of a private/ practical nature; dans un tout autre ~ d'idées in a quite different connection; pouvez-vous me donner un ~ de grandeur £ can you give me some idea of the size/amount etct- -4. [corporation] professional association; l'Ordre des médecins — the American Medical Association Am, — the British Medical Association Br. -5. FIN: à l'~ de payable to. ♦ ordre du jour nm -1. [de réunion] agenda; à l'~ du jour [de réunion] on the agenda; fig topical. -2. MIL order of the day. ordure [ordyr] nf -1. fig [grossièreté] filth (U). -2. péj [personne] scum (U), bastard. ♦ ordures nfpl [déchets] garbage (U) Am, rubbish (U) Br. ordurier, -ière [ordyrje, jer] adj filthy, obscene. orée [ore] nf edge. oreille [orej] nf-1. ANAT ear. -2. [ouïe] hearing; avoir de l'~ to have a good ear (for music); être dur d'~ to be hard of hearing. -3. [de fauteuil, écrou] wing; [de marmite, tasse] handle. -4. loc: se boucher les —s to close one's ears; dormir sur ses deux ~s to rest easy; dresser OU tendre l'~ to prick up one's ears; écorcher les —s to grate on the ear; écouter d'une ~ distraite, n'écouter que d'une ~ to only half-listen; il ne l'entend pas de cette ~ he's dead (set) against it; faire la sourde ~ to turn a deaf ear; se faire tirer P~ to need talking round; prêter l'~ (à qqch) to lend an ear (to sthg); rebattre les —s à qqn fam to go on at sb. oreiller [oreje] nm pillow. oreillette [orejet] nf -1. [du cœur] auricle. -2. [de casquette] earflap. oreillons [orejô] nmpl mumps (sg). ores [or] ♦ d'ores et déjà loc adv from now on. orfèvre [orfevr] nm goldsmith; [d'argent] silversmith; être ~ en la matière fig to be (an) expert on the subject. orfèvrerie [orfevrori] nf-1. [art] goldsmith's art; [d'argent] silversmith's art. -2. [commerce] goldsmith's trade; [d'argent] silversmith's trade.

orfraie [orfre] nf sea eagle. organdi [orgâdi] nm organdie. organe [organ] nm -1. ANAT organ. -2. [institution] organ, body. -3. [mécanisme] mechanism, system; ~s de commande controls. -4. littéraire [voix] voice. -5. fig [porte-parole] representative. organigramme [organigram] nm -1. [hiérarchique] organization chart. -2. INFORM flow chart. organique [Drganik] adj organic. organisateur, -trice [organizatœr, tris] O adj organizing (avant n). o nm, /"organizer. organisation [organizasj5] nf organization; avoir le sens de l'~ to be well-organized. organisé, -e [organize] adj organized; ~ en qqch organized in sthg. organiser [organize] [3] vt to organize. ♦ s'organiser vp -1. [personne] to be OU get organized. -2. [prendre forme] to take shape. organisme [organism] nm -1. BIOL & ZOOL organism. -2. [institution] body, organization. organiste [organist] nmf organist. org*sme [org*sm] nm org*sm. orge [or3] «f barley. orgeat [or3a] nm: sirop d'~ barley water. orgelet [o^ole] nm stye. orgie [or3i] «/"orgy. orgue [org] nm organ. ♦ orgues nfpl -1. MUS organ (sg). -2. GÉOL columns. orgueil [orgœj] nm pride. orgueilleux, -euse [orgoejo, oz] o adj proud. O nm, f proud person. orient [orjâ] nm east. ♦ Orient nm: l'Orient the Orient, the East. orientable [orjâtabl] adj adjustable. oriental, -e, -aux [orjôtal, o] adj [région, frontière] eastern; [d'Extrême-Orient] oriental. ♦ Oriental, -e, -aux nm, f Oriental. orientation [orjôtasjô] nf -1. [direction] orientation; avoir le sens de l'~ to have a good sense of direction. -2. SCOL career; ~ professionnelle careers advice, vocational guidance. -3. [de maison] aspect. -4. fig [de politique, recherche] direction, trend. orienté, -e [orjâte] adj [tendancieux] biased. orienter [orjâte] [3] vt -1. [disposer] to position. -2. [voyageur, élève, recherches] to guide, to direct. -3. [navire] to steer; [voile] to trim. ♦ s'orienter vp -1. [se repérer] to find OU

orifice 362 get one's bearings. -2. fig [se diriger]: s'~ vers to move toward Am OU towards Br. orifice [Drifts] nm orifice. oriflamme [oriflam] «/"banner. origan [nrigâ] nm oregano. originaire [an^iner] adj -1. [natif]: être ~ de to originate from; [personne] to be a native of. -2. [premier] original. original, -e, -aux [anginal, o] o adj -1. [premier, inédit] original. -2. [singulier] eccentric, o nm, f [personne] (outlandish) character. ♦ original, -aux nm [oeuvre, document] original originalité [Dri3inalite] nf -1. [nouveauté] originality; [caractéristique] original feature. -2. [excentricité] eccentricity. origine [3ri3in] nf-1. [gén] origin; d'~ [originel] original; [de départ] of origin; pays d'~ country of origin; d'~ anglaise of English origin; à l'~ originally. -2. [souche] origins (pi). -3. [provenance] source. originel, -eue [Dri3inel] adj original. orignal, -aux [annal, o] nm moose. oripeaux [oripo] nmpl rags. ORL nmf (ahr de oto-rhino-laryngologiste) ENT specialist. orme [arm] nm elm. ormeau, -x [:>rmo] nm young elm. ornement [amomâ] nm -1. [gén & MUS] ornament; d'~ [plante, arbre] ornamental. -2. ARCH1T embellishment. ornemental, -e, -aux [arnsmâtal, o] adj ornamental. ornementation [DmamûtasjS] nf ornamentation. ornementer [omamâte] [3] vt to ornament. orner [Drne] [3] vt -1. [décorer]: ~ (de) to decorate (with). -2. [agrémenter] to adorn. ornière [orrijer] nf rut. ornithologie [ornitDb3i] nf ornithology. orphelin, -e [orfalê, in] o adj orphan (avant n), orphaned; ~ de père fatherless; ~ de mère motherless, o nm, f orphan. orphelinat [orfalina] nm orphanage. Orsay [arse] n: le musée d'~ art museum in Paris. MUSÉE D'ORSAY: This museum, a converted railway station on the banks of the Seine, houses works of art from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century des secours) adj: le plan ~ disaster contingency plan. LE PLAN ORSEC: This plan is set in motion whenever there is a major disaster in France, such as flooding

or forest fires ORSECRAD, Orsecrad [nrsekrad] (ahr de Orsec en cas d'accident nucléaire) adj: plan ~ disaster contingency plan in case of nuclear accident. orteil [nrtej] nm toe; gros ~ big toe. orthodontiste [ortDdStist] «/«/"orthodontist. orthodoxe [nrtDdoks] o adj -1. RELIG Orthodox. -2. [conformiste] orthodox. O nmf -1. RELIC Orthodox Christian. -2. POLIT conformist. orthodoxie [artadaksi] nf orthodoxy. orthogonal, -e, -aux [DrtDgonal, o] adj orthogonal. orthographe [ortngraf] nf spelling. orthographier [ortDgrafje] [9] vt to spell; mal ~ to misspell. orthographique [DrtDgrafik] adj orthographic. orthopédique [ortopedik] adj orthopaedic. orthopédiste [nrtspedist] nmf orthopaedist. orthophoniste [ortofonist] nmf speech therapist. ortie [orti] nf nettle. ortolan [Drtnlu] ««/ ortolan. orvet [orve] nm slowworm. os [ds, pi o] nm -1. [gén] bone; ~ à moelle marrowbone; ~ de seiche cuttlebone. -2. fam fig [difficulté] snag, hitch. OS (ahr de ouvrier spécialisé) nm semiskilled worker. oscillation [nsilasjS] nf oscillation; [de navire] rocking. oscillatoire [osilatwar] adj swinging, oscillatory. osciller [asile] [3] vi -1. [se balancer] to swing; [navire] to rock. -2. [vaciller, hésiter] to waver. osé, -e [oze] adj daring, audacious. oseille [ozej] nf -1. BOT sorrel. -2. fam [argent] bread. oser [oze] [3] vt to dare; ~ faire qqch to dare (to) do sthg; si j'ose dire if I may say so. osier [ozje] «/« -1. BOT osier. -2. [fibre] wicker. ORSEC, Orsec [nrsek] (ahr de Organisation Oslo [oslo] « Oslo.

363 Oulan-Bator osmose [osmoz] nf osmosis; en ~ by osmosis. ossature [osatyr] nf -1. AN AT skeleton. -2. fig [structure] framework. osselet [3sle] nm -1. ANAT ossicle. -2. [élément de jeu] jack; jouer aux —s to play jacks. ossem*nts [nsmù] nm/d bones. osseux, -euse [osa, oz] adj -1. ANAT z< MED bone {avant n). -2. [maigre] bony. ossification [r>sifikasj5] ///"ossification. ossuaire [Dsqer] nm ossuary. ostensible [nstâsibl] adj conspicuous. ostensiblement [nstàsibbmâ] adv conspicuously. ostensoir [nstâswar] nm monstrance. ostentation [Dstâtasj5] «/"ostentation. ostentatoire [ostâtatwar] adj ostentatious. ostéopathe [nstenpat] nmf osteopath. ostracisme [ostrasism] nm ostracism. otage [3ta3] nm hostage; prendre qqn en ~ to take sb hostage. OTAN, Otan [otâ] (ahr de Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) nf NATO. otarie [otari] nf sea lion. OTASE [Dtaz] (ahr de Organisation du traité de l'Asie du sud-est) nf SEATO. ôter [ote] [3] vt -1. [enlever] to take off. -2. [soustraire] to take away. -3. [retirer, prendre]: ~ qqch à qqn to take sthg away from sb. ♦ s'ôter vp> fam: ôte-toi de là! get out of the way! otite [atit] nf ear infection. oto-rhino-laryngologie [otorinnlarëgol^i] ///"ear, nose and throat medicine, ENT. Ottawa [otawa] // Ottawa. ou [u] conj -1. [indique une alternative, une approximation] or. -2. [sinon]: ~ (bien) or (else). ♦ ou (bien) ... ou (bien) loc corrélative either ... or; ~ c'est elle, ~ c'est moi! it's either her or me! où [u] O f?ron rel -1. [spatial] where; le village ~ j'habite the village where I live, the village I live in; pose-le là ~ tu l'as trouvé put it back where you found it; partout ~ vous irez wherever you go. -2. [temporel] that; le jour ~ je suis venu the day (that) I came. 0 adv where; je vais ~ je veux I go where 1 please; ~ que vous alliez wherever you O adv interrogatif where£; ~ vas-tu^ where are you going£; ~ est la voiture^ where's the car£; dites-moi ~ il est allé tell me where he's gone. ♦ d'où loc adv [conséquence] hence; d'~ on conclut que ... from which it may be

concluded that .... OUA (abr de Organisation de l'unité africaine) nfOAV. ouailles [waj] nfyl flock (sg). ouais [we] inter/ fam yeah! ouananiche [wananif] nf Can ouananiche (type of freshwater salmon). ouaouaron [wawarS] nm Can bullfrog. ouate [wat] nf -\. [pansem*nt] cotton Am, cotton wool Br. -2. [rembourrage] (cotton) wadding. ouaté, -e [wate] adj -1. [garni d'ouate] cotton Am (avant n), cotton wool Br (avant n); [vêtement] quilted. -2. fig [feutré] muffled. oubli [ubli] nm -1. [acte d'oublier] forgetting. -2. [négligence] omission; [étourderie] oversight. -3. [abnégation]: ~ de soi selfeffacement. -4. [général] oblivion; tomber dans l'~ to sink into oblivion. oublier [ublije] [10] vt to forget; ~ de faire qqch to forget to do sthg. ♦ s'oublier vp -1. [emploi passif] to be forgotten. -2. [emploi réfléchi] to forget o.s. -3. euphémisme [chat, enfant] to have an accident. oubliettes [ubliet] nfpl dungeon (sg); jeter qqch aux ~ fam fig to shelve sthg. oublieux, -ieuse [ublijo, joz] adj forgetful. ouest [west] o nm west; un vent d'~ a westerly wind; le vent d'~ the west wind; à l'~ in the west; à l'~ (de) to the west (of), o ad/ inv [gén] west; [province, région] western. ouest-allemand, -e [westalmâ, âd] adj West German. ouf [uf] inter) phew! Ouganda [ugàda] nm: l'~ Uganda. ougandais, -e [ugûde, ez] adj Ugandan. ♦ Ougandais, -e nm, f Ugandan. oui [wi] O adv yes; tu viens"? - ~ are you coming^ - yes (I am); tu viens, ~ ou nont are you coming or noté, are you coming or aren't youf; je crois que — I think so; faire signe que ~ to nod; mais ~, bien sûr que ~ yes, of course, o nm inv yes; pour un ~ pour un non for no apparent reason. ouï-dire [widir] nm inv: par ~ by OU from hearsay. ouïe [wi] nf hearing; avoir P~ fine to have excellent hearing. ♦ ouïes nfpl [de poisson] gills. ouistiti [wistiti] nm -1. ZOOL marmoset. -2. fam [type] guy, bloke Br. Oulan-Bator [ulanbator] n Ulan Bator.

ouragan 364 ouragan [uragâ] nm -1. MKTEOR hurricane. -2. fig [tempête] storm. ourdir [urdir] [32] vt fig & littéraire [complot] to hatch. ourler [urle] [3] vt -1. COiTi'RE to hem. -2. littéraire [border] to edge. ourlet [uric] nm -1. COUTURE hem; faire un ~ à to hem. -2. [de l'oreille] helix. ours [urs] nm bear; ~ (en peluche) teddy (bear); ~ polaire polar bear. ourse [urs] nf she-bear. ♦ Ourse nf. la Grande/Petite Ourse the Great/Little Bear. oursin [ursê] nm sea urchin. ourson [urs5] nm bear cub. oust, ouste [ust] inter/ fam [dehors!] clear off!; [vite!] get a move on! outarde [utard] «/"bustard. outil [uti] nm tool. outillage [utija3] nm [équipement] tools {pi), equipment. outrage [utra3] nm -1. sout [insulte] insuit; faire subir les derniers ~s à qqn littéraire to ravish sb. -2. JUR: ~ aux bonnes mœurs affront to public decency; ~ à magistrat contempt of court; ~ à la pudeur indecent behavior (U) Am OU behaviour (U) Br. outrageant, -e [utra3ù, ùt] adj insulting, offensive. outrager [utra3e] [17] vt -1. [offenser] to insult. -2. [contrevenir] to offend. outrageusem*nt [utra3ozmu] adv outrageously. outrance [utrùs] nf excess; à ~ excessively. outrancier, -ière [utrâsje, jer] adj extravagant. outre1 [utr] «/wineskin. outre2 [utr] O prép besides, as well as. O adv. passer ~ to go on, to proceed further; passer ~ à qqch to disregard sthg. ♦ en outre loc adv moreover, besides. ♦ outre que loc con] apart from the fact that. outre-Atlantique [utratlâtik] loc adv across the Atlantic. outrecuidance [utrakqidâs] nf littéraire presumptuousness. outrecuidant, -e [utrakqidâ, ât] adj littéraire presumptuous. outre-Manche [utramâj] loc adv across the Channel. outremer [utramer] O nm [pierre] lapis lazuli; [couleur] ultramarine. O adj inv ultramarine. outre-mer [utramer] loc adv overseas; d'~ overseas. outrepasser [utropase] [3] vt to exceed.

outrer [utre] [3] vt [personne] to outrage. outre-Rhin [utrarè] loc adv across the Rhine. outsider [awtsajdœr] nm outsider. ouvert, -e [uver, ert] O pp —► ouvrir. O adj -1. [gén] open; grand ~ wide open. -2. [robinet] on, running. ouvertement [uvcrtomâ] adv openly. ouverture [uvertyr] nf -1. [gén] opening; [d'hostilités] outbreak; l'~ de la chasse the start of the hunting season; ~ d'esprit open-mindedness. -2. MUS overture. -3. PHOT aperture. ♦ ouvertures nfpl [propositions] overtures. ouvrable [uvrabl] adj working; heures —s hours of business. ouvrage [uvra3] nm -1. [travail] work (U), task; se mettre à l'~ to start work. -2. [objet produit] (piece of) work; COUTURE work (U). -3. [livre, écrit] work; ~ de reference reference work. ouvragé, -e [uvra3e] adj elaborate. ouvrant, -e [uvrâ, ât] adj: toit ~ sunroof. ouvré, -e [uvre] adj: jour ~ working day. ouvre-boîtes [uvrabwat] nm inv can opener, tin opener Br. ouvre-bouteilles [uvrabutq] nm inv bottle opener. ouvreuse [uvroz] «/usherette. ouvrier, -ière [uvrije, jer] O adj [quartier, enfance] working-class; [conflit] industrial; [questions, statut] labor {avant n) Am, labour (avant n) Br; classe ouvrière working class. o nm, f worker; ~ agricole farm worker; ~ qualifié skilled worker; ~ specialise semiskilled worker. ♦ ouvrière nfzooi worker. ouvrir [uvrir] [34] O vt -1. [gén] to open; ~ qqch à qqn to open sthg to sb. -2. [chemin, voie] to open up. -3. [gaz] to turn on. O vi to open; ~ par qqch to open with sthg; ~ sur qqch to open onto sthg. ♦ s'ouvrir vp -1. [porte, fleur] to open. -2. [route, perspectives] to open up. -3. [personne]: s'~ (à qqn) to confide (in sb), to open up (to sb). -4. [se blesser]: s'~ le genou to cut one's knee open; s'~ les veines to slash OU cut one's wrists. -5. [se sensibiliser]: s'~ à qqch to start to take an interest in sthg. ovaire [nver] nm ovary. ovale [nval] adj & nm oval.

365 paillard ovation |pvasj5] nf ovation; faire une ~ à qqn to give sb an ovation. ovationner [avasjone] [3] vt to give an ovation to. overdose [ovoerdoz] «/"overdose. ovin, -e [avê, in] adj ovine. ♦ ovin nm sheep. OVNI, Ovni [Dvni] (ahr de objet volant non identifié) nm UFO. ovoïde [avaid] adj egg-shaped. ovuler [avyle] [3] vi to ovulate. oxydable [oksidabl] adj liable to rust. oxydation [nksidasj5] «f oxidation, oxidization. oxyde [nksid] nm oxide; ~ de carbone carbon monoxide. oxyder [nkside] [3] vt to oxidize. ♦ s'oxyder vp to become oxidized. oxygène [nksi3en] nm oxygen; ballon d'~ oxygen cylinder. oxygéné, -e [nksi3ene] adj -1. CH1M oxygenated; —► eau. -2. [cheveux] peroxideblond, bleached. oxygéner [Dksi3ene] [18] vt -1. CHIM to oxygenate. -2. [cheveux] to bleach, to peroxide. ♦ s'oxygéner vp fam to get some fresh air. ozone [Dzon] nm ozone. p1, P [pe] nm inv p, P. p2 -1. (ahr de pico) p. -2. (ahr de page) p. -3. (ahr de passable) fair grade (as assessment of schoolwork), — C. -4. ahr de pièce. Pa (ahr de pascal) Pa. PA (ahr de petites annonces) nfpl small ads. PAC, Pac [pak] (ahr de politique agricole commune) nfCAP. pacage [paka3] nm pasture. pacemaker [pesmekœr] ///// pacemaker. pacha [paja] nm pasha; mener une vie de ~ fa m fig to live a life of ease. pachyderme [pajiderm] nm pachyderm. pacificateur, -trice [pasifikatoer, tris] O adj pacifying. O nm, f peacemaker. pacification [pasifikasj5] ///pacification. pacifier [pasifje] [9] vt to pacify. pacifique [pasifik] adj peaceful. Pacifique [pasifik] —► océan. pacifiquement [pasifikmâ] adv peacefully. pacifiste [pasifist] nmf & adj pacifist. pack [pak] nm pack. package [pakad3] tint INFORM package. packaging [pakad3iji] nm packaging. pacotille [pakntij] nf shoddy goods (pi), rubbish; de ~ cheap. pacte [pakt] nm pact. pactiser [paktize] [3] vi: ~ avec [faire un pacte avec] to make a pact with; [transiger

avec] to come to terms with. pactole [paktnl] nm gold mine fig. paddock [padsk] nm -1. [d'un hippodrome] paddock. -2. tfatn [lit]: se mettre au ~ to hit the sack. paddy [padi] nm paddy (rice). paella [paela] «/"paella. paf [paf] O interj wham! O adj inv fam [ivre] plastered. PAF [paf] O nf (ahr de Police de l'air et des frontières) police authority responsihle for civil aviation etc. O nm (ahr de paysage audiovisuel français) French radio and television. pagaie [page] nf paddle. pagaille, pagaye, pagaïe [pagaj] nf fam mess; en ~ [en désordre] in a mess; des fruits en ~ loads of fruit. paganisme [paganism] nm paganism. pagaye = pagaille. pagayer [pageje] [11] vi to paddle. pagayeur, -euse [pagqoer, oz] nm, f paddler. page [pa3] nf -\. [feuillet] page; ~ blanche blank page; mettre en —s IYPO to make up (into pages); ~ d'accueil INFORM home page; ~ de garde flyleaf. -2. fig [passage] passage; [événement] episode, page. -3. he. être à la — to be up-to-date; tourner la ~ to turn the page, o nm page (boy). pagination [pa3inasj5] «/"pagination. pagne [paji] nm loincloth. pagode [pagsd] nf pagoda. paie1, paies etc —» payer. paie2, paye [pe] nfpay (U), wages (pi). paiement, payement [pemâ] nm payment; ~ anticipé advance payment. païen, -ïenne [pajè, jen] adj 61 nm, f pagan, heathen. paierai, paieras etc —> payer. paillard, -e [pajar, ard] O adj bawdy. O nm, /rake (/"slu*t).

paillasse 366 paillasse [pajas] o nf -1. [matelas] straw mattress. -2. [d'évier] draining board. O nm clown. paillasson [pajasô] nm -1. [tapis] doormat. -2. AGRIC (roll of) matting. paille [paj] nf -1. ROT straw; être sur la ~ fam fig to be down and out. -2. [pour boire] straw. ♦ paille de fer nf steel wool. pailleté, -e [pajte] adj sequined. paillette [pajet] nf(gén pï) -1. [sur vêtements] sequin, spangle. -2. [dor] grain of gold dust. -3. [de lessive, savon] flake; savon en —s soap flakes (pt). pain [pê] nm -1. [aliment] bread; un ~ a loaf; petit ~ (bread) roll; ~ azyme unleavened bread; ~ de campagne farmhouse loaf; ~ au chocolat sweet roll with chocolate filling; ~ complet wholemeal bread; ~ d'épice = gingerbread; ~ au lait sweet roll, bun; ~ de mie sandwich loaf; ~ perdu — French toast; ~ de seigle rye bread; ~ au son wholemeal bread; avoir du ~ sur la planche fam fig to have a lot on one's plate; ôter le ~ de la bouche de qqn fig to take the bread out of sb's mouth. -2. [de savon, cire] bar. -3. tfam [coup] punch. pair, -e [per] adj even. ♦ pair nm peer. ♦ paire nf pair; une ~e de [lunettes, ciseaux, chaussures] a pair of; c'est une autre ~e de manches fig that's another story. ♦ au pair he adv for one's keep; jeune fille au ~ au pair (girl). ♦ de pair loc adv: aller de ~ avec to go hand in hand with. ♦ hors pair loc adj unrivaled Am, unrivalled Br. paisible [pezibl] adj peaceful. paisiblement [pezibtamâ] adv peacefully. paître [petr] [91] o vi to graze, o vt to feed on. paix [pe] nf peace; en ~ [en harmonie] at peace; [tranquillement] in peace; avoir la ~ to have peace and quiet; faire la ~ avec qqn to make peace with sb: ficher la ~ à qqn fam to stop hassling sb; laisser qqn en ~ to leave sb alone OU in peace. Pakistan [pakistâ] nm: le ~ Pakistan; au ~ in Pakistan. pakistanais, -e [pakistane, ez] adj Pakistani. ♦ Pakistanais, -e nm, f Pakistani. PAL, Pal [pal] {abr de Phase Alternation Line) adj PAL. palabrer [palabre] [3] vi to have interminable discussions.

palabres [palabr] nmpl ou nfpl interminable discussions. palace [palas] nm luxury hotel. palais [pale] nm -1. [château] palace. -2. [grand édifice] center Am, centre Br; ~ des expositions exhibition center Am OU centre Br; le ~ Gamier the (old) Paris opera house; ~ de justice JUR law courts {pi); le ~ du Luxembourg palace in Paris where the French Senate is situated; ~ omnisports (multipurpose) sports center Am OU centre Br; le ~ des Papes the Papal Palace in Avignon. -3. AN AT palate. palan [palâ] nm block and tackle, hoist. pale [pal] «/"[de rame, d'hélice] blade. pâle [pal] adj pale. palefrenier [palfronje] nm groom. paléographie [paleografi] «/"paleography. paléolithique [paleolitik] O nm: le ~ the Paleolithic (age), o adj paleolithic. paléontologie [pale5tob3i] «f paleontology. Païenne [palerm] n Palermo. Palestine [palestin] nf: la ~ Palestine. palestinien, -ienne [palestinjê, jen] adj Palestinian. ♦ Palestinien, -ienne nm, /"Palestinian. palet [pale] nm HOCKEY puck. paletot [palto] nm (short) overcoat. palette [palet] nf-1. [de peintre] palette. -2. CULIN shoulder. -3. [de chariot élévateur] pallet. palétuvier [paletyvje] nm mangrove. pâleur [paloer] nf [de visage] pallor. pâlichon, -onne [pali/5, on] adj fam pale, sickly-looking. palier [palje] nm -1. [d'escalier] landing. -2. [étape] level. -3. TECHNOL bearing. pâlir [pâlir] [32] o vt to turn pale, o vi [couleur, lumière] to fade; [personne] to turn OU go pale; ~ de [angoisse] to turn OU go pale with; [jalousie] to turn OU go green with. palissade [palisad] nf [clôture] fence; [de verdure] hedge. palissandre [palisâdr] nm rosewood. palliatif, -ive [paljatif, iv] adj palliative. ♦ palliatif nm -1. MET) palliative. -2. fig stopgap measure. pallier [palje] [9] vt to make up for. Palma [palma] n: ~ (de Majorque) Palma (de Majorca). palmarès [palmares] nm -1. [de lauréats] list of (medal) winners; SCOL list of prizewinners. -2. [de succès] record (of achievements).

367 panorama palme [palm] nf -1. [de palmier] palm-leaf. -2. [de nageur] flipper. -3. [décoration, distinction]: avec ~ MIL — with bar; la ~ d'or award given to best film at the Cannes Film Festival; ~s académiques decoration awarded for services to education. palmé, -e [palme] adj -1. ROT palmate. -2. ZOOL web-footed; [patte] webbed. palmeraie [palmare] nf palm grove. palmier [palmje] nm -1. ROT palm tree. -2. CULIN sweet pastry shaped like a palm leaf. palmipède [palmiped] O nm web-footed oird. o adj web-footed. palombe [pal5b] nf woodpigeon. pâlot, -otte [palo, Dt] adj pale; sicklylooking. palourde [palurd] «/"clam. palpable [palpabl] adj palpable, tangible. palper [palpe] [3] vt -1. [toucher] to feel, to finger; MÉD to palpate. -2. fam [de l'argent] to get. palpitant, -e [palpita, àt] adj exciting, thrilling. palpitation [palpitasjS] nf palpitation. palpiter [palpite] [3] vi -1. [paupières] to flutter; [cceur] to pound. -2. [personne]: ~ de to tremble OU quiver with. -3. littéraire [flamme] to tremble, to quiver. palu [paly] nm fam malaria. paludisme [palydism] nm malaria. pâmer [pâme] [3] ♦ se pâmer vp -1. littéraire [s'évanouir] to swoon (away). -2. fig: se ~ de to be overcome with. pâmoison [pamwaz5] nf littéraire swoon. pampa [papa] ///pampas (pi). pamphlet [pufie] nm satirical tract. pamplemousse [pùptamus] nm grapefruit. pan [pâ] o nm -1. [de vêtement] tail. -2. [d'affiche] piece, bit; ~ de mur section of wall. -3. [d'écrou] side. O interj bang! panacée [panase] «/"panacea. panachage [panafa3] nm -1. [mélange] mix. -2. POLIT splitting one's vote. panache [panaJ] nm -1. [de plumes, fumée] plume. -2. [éclat] panache. panaché, -e [panaJe] adj -1. [de plusieurs couleurs] multicolored Am, multicoloured Br. -2. [mélangé] mixed. ♦ panaché nm shandy. panacher [panaJe] [3] vt -1. [mélanger] to mix. -2. POLIT: ~ une liste électorale to split one's vote among several candidates. panafricanisme [panafrikanism] nm PanAfricanism. panama [panama] nm panama (hat). Panama [panama] nm -1. [pays]: le ~

Panama; au ~ in Panama. -2. [ville] Panama City. panaméen, -enne [panameê, en], panamien, -ienne [panamjê, jen] adj Panamanian. ♦ Panaméen, -enne, Panamien, -ienne nm, f Panamanian. panard [panar] nm fam foot. panaris [panari] nm whitlow. pancarte [pâkart] nf -1. [de manifestant] placard. -2. [de signalisation] sign. pancréas [pâkreas] nm pancreas. panda [pûda] nm panda. pané, -e [pane] adj breaded, in breadcrumbs. panégyrique [pane3irik] nm panegyric. panel [panel] nm [groupe] sample (group); [jury] panel. paner [pane] [3] vt to coat with breadcrumbs. panier [panje] nm basket; ~ à provisions shopping basket; c'est un ~ de crabes fig they're always at each other's throats; ~ à salade CULIN salad shaker; fig police van; mettre au ~ fig to throw out. panier-repas [panjerapa] {pi paniers-repas) nm packed lunch. panique [panik] O nf panic. O adj panicky; être pris d'une peur ~ to be panicstricken. paniquer [panike] [3] vt & vi to panic. ♦ se paniquer vp fam to panic. panne [pan] nf [arrêt] breakdown; tomber en ~ to break down; ~ de courant OU d'électricité power failure; tomber en ~ d'essence OU en ~ sèche to run out of gas Am OU petrol Br; ~ de secteur ÉLECTR mains failure. panneau, -x [pano] nm -1. [pancarte] sign; ~ d'affichage bulletin board Am, noticeboard Br; [pour publicité] billboard Am, (advertising) hoarding Br; ~ indicateur signpost; ~ publicitaire billboard Am, (advertising) hoarding Br; ~ de signalisation road sign. -2. [élément] panel; ~ de commande INFORM control panel. panonceau, -x [pan5so] nm -1. [plaque] plaque. -2. [enseigne] sign. panoplie [panopli] nf -1. [jouet] outfit. -2. [d'armes] display. -3. fig [de mesures] package. panorama [panorama] nm [vue] view, panorama; fig overview.

panoramique 368 panoramique [panDramik] o adj panoramic. O nm CIN pan, panning shot. panse [pas] nf -1. [d'estomac] first stomach, rumen. -2. fam [gros ventre] belly, paunch; se remplir OU s'en mettre plein la ~ to stuff o.s. -3. [partie arrondie] bulge. pansem*nt [pûsmâ] nm dressing, bandage; ~ (adhésif) Bandaid® Am, (sticking) plaster Br. panser [pùse] [3] \>t -1. [plaie] to dress, to bandage; [jambe] to put a dressing on, to bandage; [avec pansem*nt adhésif] to put a Bandaid ® Am OU plaster Br on. -2. [cheval] to groom. pantagruélique [pâtagryelik] adj gargantuan. pantalon [pâtalS] nm pants {pi) Am, trousers {pi) Br, pair of pants Am OU trousers Br. pantelant, -e [pâtlâ, ât] adj panting, gasping. panthéisme [pâteism] nm pantheism. panthéiste [pâteist] O nmf pantheist. O adj pantheistic. panthéon [pâte5] nm: le Panthéon the Pantheon {where famous Frenchmen and Frenchwomen are buried). panthère [pâter] wf panther; ~ noire black panther. pantin [pâte] nm -1. [jouet] jumping jack. -2. péj [personne] puppet. pantois, -e [pâtwa, az] adj astounded, dumbstruck; rester ~ to be astounded OU dumbstruck. pantomime [pâtnmim] nf -1. [art, pièce] mime. -2. fig & péj [manège ridicule]: qu'est-ce que c'est que cette —£ what are you playing at£ pantouflard, -e [pâtuflar, ard] fam adj & nm, f stay-at-home. pantoufle [pâtufl] «/"slipper. panure [panyr] nf breadcrumbs (pi), coating of breadcrumbs. PAO (ahr de publication assistée par ordinateur) nf DTP. paon [pâ] nm peaco*ck; fier comme un ~ (as) proud as a peaco*ck. papa [papa] nm dad, daddy; ~ gâteau indulgent father. papal, -e, -aux [papal, o] adj papal. papauté [papote] ///"papacy. papaye [papaj] nf papaya, pawpaw. pape [pap] nm -1. RELIC pope; sérieux comme un ~ deadly serious. -2. fig [de mouvement] leading light. papelard [paplar] nm fam [papier] bit of paper. paperasse [papras] nf péj -1. [papier sans

importance] papers {pi), bumf {[)) Br. -2. [papiers administratifs] paperwork {U). paperasserie [paprasri] nf péj paperwork. papeterie [papetri] nf [magasin] stationer's; [fabrique] paper mill. papetier, -ière [paptje, jer] nm, f [commerçant] stationer; [fabricant] paper manufacturer. papi, papy [papi] nm grandpa, grandad. papier [papje] nm -1. [matière, écrit] paper; noircir du ~ to scribble; ~ alu OU aluminium aluminum Am OU aluminium Br foil, tinfoil; ~ carbone carbon paper; ~ continu continuous stationery; ~ crépon crêpe paper; ~ d'emballage wrapping paper; ~ à en-tête headed notepaper; ~ glacé glazed paper; ~ hygiénique toilet paper; ~ journal newsprint; [vieux journaux] newspaper; ~ à lettres writing paper, notepaper; ~ mâché papier-mâché; ~ machine typing paper; ~ millimétré graph paper; ~ peint wallpaper; ~ de soie tissue paper; ~ thermique thermal paper; ~ tue-mouches fly paper; ~ de verre glasspaper, sandpaper. -2. [article de journal] article. ♦ papiers nmpi. —s (d'identité) (identity) papers. papier-calque [papjekalk] {pi papierscalque) nm tracing paper. papier-filtre [papjefiltr] {pi papiers-filtres) nm filter paper. papier-monnaie [papjemDne] {pi papiersmonnaies) nm paper money. papille [papij] nf ~s gustatives taste buds. papillon [papij5] nm -1. ZOOL butterfly; ~ de nuit moth. -2. [contravention] (parking) ticket. -3. [écrou] wing nut. -4. [nage] butterfly (stroke). papillonner [papijone] [3] vi to flit about OU around. papillote [papijnt] nf-1. [de bonbon] candy paper Am, sweet paper OU wrapper Br. -2. [de cheveux] curl paper. -3. CULIN: en ~s baked in tinfoil or greaseproof paper. papilloter [papijote] [3] vi [lumière] to twinkle; [yeux] to blink. papoter [papote] [3] vi fam to chatter. papou, -e [papu] adj Papuan. ♦ papou nm [langue] Papuan. ♦ Papou, -e nm, f Papuan. Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée [papwazinyvelgine] nf. la ~ Papua New Guinea. paprika [paprika] nm paprika. papy = papi papyrus [papirys] nm papyrus.

369 paramédical Pâque [pak] nf: la ~ Passover; voir aussi Pâques. paquebot [pakbo] nm liner. pâquerette [pakret] ///"daisy. Pâques [pak] n\\A Easter (sg); joyeuses ~ Happy Easter; île de ~ Easter Island. PÂQUES: In France, Easter is symbolized not only by eggs but also by bells; according to legend, church bells fly to Rome at Easter paquet [pake] nm -1. [colis] parcel. -2. [emballage] packet; —-cadeau gift-wrapped parcel. -3. be: mettre le ~ fam to pull out all the stops, to give it all one's got. paquetage [pakta3] nm MIL kit. par [par] prép -1. [spatial] through, by (way of); passer ~ la Suède et le Danemark to go via Sweden and Denmark; regarder ~ la fenêtre to look out of the window; ~ endroits in places; ~ ici/là this/that way; mon cousin habite ~ ici my cousin lives round here. -2. [temporel] on; ~ un beau jour d'été on a lovely summer's day; ~ le passé in the past. -3. [moyen, manière, cause] by; ~ bateau/train/avion by boat/train/ plane; ~ pitié out of OU from pity; ~ accident by accident, by chance. -4. [introduit le complément d'agent] by; faire faire qqch ~ qqn to have sthg done by sb. -5. [sens distribuai] per, a; une heure ~ jour one hour a OU per day; deux ~ deux two at a time; marcher deux ~ deux to walk in twos. ♦ par-ci par-là be adv here and there. para [para] (abr de parachutiste) nm para. parabole [parabnl] nf-1. [récit] parable. -2. MATHS parabola. parabolique [parabMik] ad] parabolic; antenne ~ dish OU parabolic aerial. parachever [paraJVe] [19] vt to put the finishing touches to. parachutage [parajytas] nm parachuting, dropping by parachute. parachute [para/yt] nm parachute; ~ ascensionnel parachute (for parascending); faire du ~ ascensionnel to go parascending. parachuter [parajyte] [3] vt to parachute, to drop by parachute; ils l'ont parachuté directeur fig he was unexpectedly given the job of manager. parachutisme [parajytism] nm parachuting. parachutiste [parajytist] nmf parachutist; MIL paratrooper. parade [parad] nf-1. [spectacle] parade. -2. [défense] parry; fig riposte. -3. [étalage] show. parader [parade] [3] vi to show off.

paradis [paradi] nm paradise; le Paradis terrestre BIBLE the Garden of Eden; fig heaven on earth. paradisiaque [paradizjak] adj heavenly. paradoxal, -e, -aux [paradDksal, o] adj paradoxical. paradoxalement [paradoksalmo] adv paradoxically. paradoxe [paradnks] nm paradox. parafe, paraphe [paraf] nm initials (yl). parafer, parapher [parafe] [3] vt to initial. paraffine [parafin] nf kerosene Am, paraffin Br; [solide] paraffin wax. parages [para3] nmpl NAVIG waters; être OU se trouver dans les ~ fig to be in the area ou vicinity. paragraphe [paragraf] nm paragraph. Paraguay [paragwe] nm: le ~ Paraguay; au ~ in Paraguay. paraguayen, -enne [paragwejè, en] adj Paraguayan. ♦ Paraguayen, -enne nm, f Paraguayan. paraissais, paraissions etc —> paraître. paraître [paretr] [91] O v attr to look, to seem, to appear. O vi -1. [se montrer] to appear. -2. [être publié] to come out, to be published. -3. [se manifester] to show (through); laisser ~ to show; ne rien laisser ~ to let nothing show. -4. [briller] to be noticed. O v impers: il paraît/paraîtrait que it appears/would appear that; paraît-il apparently, it seems. parallèle [paralcl] o nm parallel; mettre en ~ fig to compare; établir un ~ entre fig to draw a parallel between. O nf parallel (line). O adj -1. [action, en maths] parallel. -2. [marché] unofficial; [médecine, énergie] alternative. parallèlement [paralelmù] adv in parallel; fig at the same time. parallélépipède [paralelepiped] nm parallelepiped. parallélisme [paralelism] nm parallelism; [de roues] alignment. parallélogramme [paralebgram] nm parallelogram. paralysant, -e [paralizâ, ât] adj paralysing. paralyser [paralize] [3] vt to paralyse. paralysie [paralizi] nf paralysis. paralytique [paralitik] adj & «/«/"paralytic. paramédical, -e, -aux [paramedikal, o] adj paramedical.

paramètre 370 paramètre [parametr] nm parameter. paramilitaire [paramiliter] adj paramilitary. parangon [parâg5] nm littéraire paragon. parano [parano] adj fam paranoid. paranoïa [paranDja] «f paranoia. paranoïaque [paranojak] o adj paranoid. O nmf paranoiac. paranormal, -e, -aux [paranormal, o] adj paranormal. parapente [parapât] nm paragliding. parapet [parape] nm parapet. paraphe = parafe. parapher = parafer. paraphrase [parafraz] nf paraphrase. paraphraser [parafraze] [3] vt to paraphrase. paraplégique [paraple3ik] nmf & adj paraplegic. parapluie [paraplqi] nm umbrella; ~ atomique OU nucléaire nuclear umbrella. parapsychologie [parapsikobji] nf parapsychology. parascolaire [paraskoler] adj extracurricular. parasite [parazit] O nm parasite. O adj parasitic; bruits —s RADIO & TÉLÉ interference (U). ♦ parasites nmyl RADIO & TÉLÉ interference (U). parasiter [parazite] [3] vt -1. [suj: ver, insecte] to live parasitically on, to parasitize. -2. [suj: personne] to leech OU live off. -3. RADIO ci TÉLÉ to cause interference on. parasol [parasol] nm parasol, sunshade. paratonnerre [paratDner] nm lightning rod Am OU conductor Br. paravent [paravâ] nm screen. parbleu [parblo] interj (but) of course! parc [park] nm -1. [jardin] park; [de château] grounds (/?/); ~ d'attractions amusem*nt park; ~ national national park. -2. [pour l'élevage] pen; ~ à huîtres oyster bed. -3. [de bébé] playpen. -4. [de voitures] fleet; le ~ automobile the number of cars on the roads. parcelle [parsel] nf -1. [petite partie] fragment, particle. -2. [terrain] parcel of land. parce que [parsk(a)] be conj because. parchemin [parfamê] nm parchment. parcheminé, -e [parfamine] adj wrinkled. parcimonie [parsimDni] nf parsimoniousness; avec ~ sparingly, parsimoniously. parcimonieusem*nt [parsimDnjozmâ] adv parsimoniously. parcimonieux, -ieuse [parsimDnjo, joz] adj parsimonious. parcmètre [parkmetr] nm parking meter.

parcourir [parkurir] [45] vt -1. [région, route] to cover. -2. [journal, dossier] to skim OU glance through, to scan. parcourrai, parcourras etc —> parcourir. parcours1, parcourt etc — parcourir. parcours2 [parkur] nm -1. [trajet, voyage] journey; [itinéraire] route; ~ du combattant assault course. -2. GOLF [terrain] course; [trajet] round. parcouru, -e [parkury] pp —> parcourir. par-delà [pardala] préy beyond. par-derrière [parderjer] adv -1. [par le côté arrière] round the back. -2. [en cachette] behind one's back. par-dessous [pardasu] prép & adv under, underneath. pardessus [pardasy] nm inv overcoat. par-dessus [pardasy] O prép over, over the top of; ~ tout above all. o adv over, over the top. par-devant [pardavâ] O prép> in front of. O adv in front. pardi [pardi] interj fam of course! pardon [pard5] O nm forgiveness; demander ~ to say (one is) sorry, o interj [excuses] (I'm) sorry!; [pour attirer l'attention] excuse me!; ~z] o adj -1. [fainéant] lazy. -2. MED sluggish. O nm, f [personne] lazy OU idle person. ♦ paresseux nm [animal] sloth. parfaire [parfer] [109] vt to complete, to perfect. parfait, -e [parfe, et] adj perfect. ♦ parfait nm -1. CULIN parfait. -2. CRAM perfect (tense). parfaitement [parfetmâ] adv -1. [admirablement, très] perfectly. -2. [marque l'assentiment] absolutely. parfois [parfwa] adv sometimes. parfum [parfœ] nm -1. [de fleur] scent, fragrance. -2. [à base d'essences] perfume, scent. -3. [de glace] flavour. -4. loc. être/ mettre qqn au ~ to be/put sb in the know. parfumé, -e [parfyme] adj -1. [fleur] fragrant. -2. [mouchoir] perfumed. -3. [femme]:

elle est trop ~e she's wearing too much perfume. parfumer [parfyme] [3] vt -1. [suj: fleurs] to perfume. -2. [mouchoir] to perfume, to scent. -3. CULIN to flavour. ♦ se parfumer vp to put perfume on. parfumerie [parfymri] ///"perfumery. parfumeur, -euse [parfymoer, oz] nm, f perfumer. pari [pari] nm -1. [entre personnes] bet; faire un ~ to make OU lay a bet; gagner/perdre son ~ to win/lose one's bet. -2. [jeu] betting (U). paria [parja] nm pariah. parier [parje] [9] vt: ~ (sur) to bet (on); je l'aurais parié! fig I thought as much! parieur [parjoer] nm punter. parigot, -ote [parigo, ot] adj fam Parisian. ♦ Parigot, -ote nm, f fam Parisian. Paris [pari] n Paris. PARIS: The name 'Paris' followed by a number or Roman numeral refers to a Paris university: 'Paris VII' (the science faculty at Jussieu), 'Paris IV (the Sorbonne), 'Paris X' (Nanterre university) etc. When 'Paris' is followed by an ordinal number, this refers to an 'arrondissem*nt': 'Paris quinzième', 'Paris quatrième', etc paris-brest [paribrest] nm inv choux pastry ring with cream and almonds. parisianisme [panzjanism] nm [expression] Parisian idiom; [habitude] Parisian custom. parisien, -ienne [parizjë, jcn] adj [vie, société] Parisian; [métro, banlieue, région] Paris (avant n). ♦ Parisien, -ienne nm, f Parisian. paritaire [pariter] adj: commission ~ joint commission (with both sides equally represented). parité [parité] «/"parity. parjure [par3yr] O nmf [personne] perjurer. O nm [faux serment] perjury. parjurer Jparçyre] [3] ♦ se parjurer vp to perjure o.s. parka [parka] nm ou «/"parka. parking [parkirj] nm [parc] parking lot Am, car park Br. parlant, -e [parla, ât] adj -1. [qui parle]: le cinéma ~ talking pictures; l'horloge ~e

parlement 372 TÉLÉCOM the speaking clock. -2. fig [chiffres, données] eloquent; [portrait] vivid. parlement [partamâ] nm parliament; le Parlement européen the European Parliament. parlementaire [parlamâter] o nmf [député] member of parliament; [négociateur] negotiator. O adj parliamentary. parlementarisme [partamâtarism] nm (system of) parliamentary government. parlementer [partemâte] [3] vi -1. [négocier] to negotiate, to parley. -2. [parler longtemps] to talk at length. parler [parle] [3] O vi -1. [gén] to talk, to speak; les faits parlent d'eux-mêmes the facts speak for themselves; ~ à/avec qqn to speak to/with sb, to talk to/with sb; ~ de qqch à qqn to speak OU talk to sb about sthg; ~ de qqn qqch to talk about sb/sthg; ~ de faire qqch to talk about doing sthg; ~ en français to speak in French; ~ tout seul to talk to o.s.; sans ~ de apart from, not to mention; à proprement ~ strictly speaking; ~ pour ne rien dire to talk for the sake of talking; tu parles! fatti you can say that again!; n'en parlons plus we'll say no more about it. -2. [avouer] to talk. O vt [langue] to speak; ~ (le) français to speak French; ~ politique affaires to talk politics/business. O mn -1. [manière de parler] speech. -2. [patois] dialect. ♦ se parler vy: ils ne se parlent pas they're not on speaking terms. parleur [parlœr] nm: beau ~ péj fine talker. parloir [parlwar] nm parlor Am, parlour Br. parlo(t)te [parbt] «/"chat. parme [parm] nm 61 adj inv violet. parmesan [parmazô] nm Parmesan (cheese). parmi [parmi] yréy among. parodie [parodi] «/"parody. parodier [parDdje] [9] vt to parody. paroi [parwa] nf-1. [mur] wall; [cloison] partition; ~ rocheuse rock face. -2. [de récipient] inner side. paroisse [parwas] «/"parish. paroissial, -e, -iaux [parwasjal, jo] adj parish (avant «). paroissien, -ienne [parwasjè, jen] nm, f parishioner. parole [parol] «/"-l. [faculté de parler]: la ~ speech. -2. [propos, discours]: adresser la ~ à qqn to speak to sb; couper la ~ à qqn to cut sb off; prendre la ~ to speak; donner OU passer la ~ à qqn to hand over to sb. -3. [promesse, mot] word; tenir — to keep one's word; donner sa ~ (d'honneur) to give one's word (of honor Am OU honour Br); croire qqn sur ~ to take sb's word for

it; libérer qqn sur ~ to free sb on parole. ♦ paroles nfyl MUS words, lyrics. parolier, -ière [parolje, jer] hm, f [de chanson] lyricist; [d'opéra] librettist. paroxysme [paroksism] nm height. parpaing [parpê] nm breeze block. parquer [parke] [3] vt -1. [animaux] to pen in OU up. -2. [prisonniers] to shut up OU in. -3. [voiture] to park. parquet [parke] nm -1. [plancher] parquet floor. -2. JUR — District Attorney's office Am, — Crown Prosecution Service Br. parrain [pare] nm -1. [d'enfant] godfather. -2. [de festival, sportif] sponsor. parrainage [parena3] nm sponsorship. parrainer [parene] [4] vt to sponsor, to back. parricide [parisid] O nm [crime] parricide. o adj parricidal. pars, part —» partir. parsemer [parsame] [19] vt: ~ (de) to strew (with). part [par] nf-1. [de tarte, gâteau] portion; [de bonheur, héritage] share; [partie] part; réclamer sa ~ to claim one's share; ~ de marché ÉCON market share; se tailler la ~ du lion fig to take the lion's share. -2. [participation]: prendre ~ à qqch to take part in sthg. -3. loc: c'est de la ~ de qute [au téléphone] who's speaking OU calling^; dites-lui de ma ~ que ... tell him from me that ...; ce serait bien aimable de votre ~ it would be very kind of you; pour ma ~ as far as I'm concerned; faire ~ à qqn de qqch to inform sb of sthg; faire la ~ des choses to make allowances. ♦ à part o loc adv aside, separately, o loc adj exceptional, o loc yréy apart from. ♦ autre part loc adv someplace Am OU somewhere Br else. ♦ d'autre part loc adv besides, moreover. ♦ de part en part loc adv right through. ♦ de part et d'autre loc adv on both sides. ♦ d'une part ..., d'autre part loc correlative on the one hand ..., on the other hand. ♦ nulle part loc adv no-place Am, nowhere Br. ♦ quelque part loc adv someplace Am, somewhere Br. part, abr de particulier. partage [parta3] nm -1. [action] sharing (out). -2. JUR distribution. partager [partie] [17] vt -1. [morceler] to divide (up); être partagé fig to be divided. -2. [mettre en commun]: ~ qqch avec qqn to

373 parviendrai share sthg with sb. -3. [prendre part à] to share (in). ♦ se partager vp -1. [se diviser] to be divided. -2. [partager son temps] to divide one's time. -3. [se répartir]: se ~ qqch to share sthg between themselves/ourselves etc. partance [partus] nf: en ~ outward bound; en ~ pour bound for. partant, -e [partâ, ùt] adj: être ~ pour to be ready for. ♦ partant nm starter. partenaire [partontr] ww/partner; —s sociaux labor Am OU labour Br and management. partenariat [partanarja] nm partnership. parterre [partcr] nm -1. [de fleurs] (flower) bed. -2. THEATRE orchestra Am, stalls (/?/) Br. parti, -e [parti] O pp —> partir. O adj fam [ivre] tipsy. ♦ parti nm -1. POUT party; ~ d'opposition opposition party. -2. [choix, décision] course of action; prendre ~ to make up one's mind; prendre le ~ de faire qqch to make up one's mind to do sthg: en prendre son ~ to be resigned; être de ~ pris to be prejudiced OU biased; tirer ~ de to make (good) use of. -3. [personne à marier] match; un beau ~ a good match. ♦ partie nf -1. [élément, portion] part; en grande ~e largely; en majeure ~e for the most part; faire ~e (intégrante) de qqch to be (an integral) part of sthg. -2. [domaine d'activité] field, subject. -3. SPORT game. -4. JUR party; la ~e adverse the opposing party. -5. loc: prendre qqn à ~e to attack sb. ♦ parties nfpl fam private parts, privates. ♦ en partie loc adv partly, in part. partial, -e, -iaux [parsjal, jo] adj biased. partialement [parsjalmû] adv in a biased way, with bias. partialité [parsjalite] ///partiality, bias. participant, -e [partisipâ, at] o adj participating. O nm, / -1. [à réunion] participant. -2. SPORT competitor. -3. [à concours] entrant. participatif, -ive [partisipatif, iv] adj: prêt ~ participating capital loan. participation [partisipasjô] nf-1. [collaboration] participation. -2. ECON interest; ~ aux frais (financial) contribution; ~ aux benefices profit-sharing: ~ majoritaire minoritaire majority/minority interest. participe [partisip] nm participle: ~ passé/ présent past/present participle. participer [partisipe] [3] vi: ~ à [réunion, concours] to take part in; [frais] to contribute to; [bénéfices] to share in; ~ de

littéraire to have some of the characteristics of. particularisme [partikylarism] nm (sense of) identity. particularité [partikylarite] nf distinctive feature. particule [partikyl] «/"-l. [gén & LING] particle. -2. [nobiliaire] nobiliary particle. particulier, -ière [partikylje, jcr] adj -1. [personnel, privé] private. -2. [spécial] particular, special; [propre] peculiar, characteristic; ~ à peculiar to, characteristic of. -3. [remarquable] unusual, exceptional; cas ~ special case. -4. [assez bizarre] peculiar. ♦ particulier nm [personne] private individual. ♦ en particulier loc adv -1. [seul à seul] in private. -2. [surtout] in particular, particularly. -3. [à part] separately. particulièrement [partikyljermâ] adv particularly; tout ~ especially. partie —> parti. partiel, -ielle [parsjel] adj partial. ♦ partiel nm UNIV = end-of-term exam. partiellement [parsjelmà] adv partially, partly. partir [partir] [43] vi -1. [personne] to go, to leave; ~ à to go to; ~ pour to leave for; ~ de [bureau] to leave; [aéroport, gare] to leave from; [hypothèse, route] to start from; [date] to run from. -2. [voiture] to start; c'est bien/mal parti fig it got off on the right/ wrong foot. -3. [coup de feu] to go off; [bouchon] to pop. -4. [tache] to come out. ♦ à partir de loc prép from. partisan, -e [partizù, an] adj [partial] partisan; être ~ de to be in favor Am OU favour Br of. ♦ partisan nm -1. [adepte] supporter, advocate. -2. MIL partisan. partitif, -ive [partitif, iv] adj partitive. ♦ partitif nm partitive. partition [partisjô] nf -1. [séparation] partition. -2. mus score. partout [partu] adv everywhere; ~ ailleurs everywhere else. paru, -e [pary] pp —» paraître. parure [paryr] nf (matching) set. parution [parysjô] ///publication. parvenir [parvanir] [40] vi: ~ à [atteindre] to reach; [obtenir] to achieve; ~ à faire qqch to manage to do sthg; faire ~ qqch à qqn to send sthg to sb. parvenu, -e [parvany] o pp —> parvenir. O nm, f péj parvenu, upstart. parviendrai, parviendras etc —» parvenir.

parvis 374 parvis [parvi] nm square (in front of church). pas1 [pa] nm -1. [gén] step; allonger le ~ to quicken one's pace; marquer le ~ to mark time; revenir sur ses ~ to retrace one's steps; ~ à ~ step by step; au ~ cadencé in quick time; à ~ de loup fig stealthily; à ~ feutrés fig with muffled footsteps. -2. TECH NOL thread. -3. loc: c'est à deux ~ (d'ici) it's very near (here); emboîter le ~ à qqn to fall into step with sb; faire les cent — to pace up and down; faire un faux — to slip; fig to make a faux pas; faire le premier ~ to make the first move; franchir OU sauter le ~ to take the plunge; (rouler) au — (to move) at a snail's pace; sur le ~ de la porte on the doorstep; tirer qqn d'un mauvais ~ to get sb out of a tight spot. pas2 [pa] adv -1. [avec ne] not; elle ne vient ~ she's not OU she isn't coming; elle n'a ~ mangé she hasn't eaten; je ne le connais ~ I don't know him; il n'y a ~ de vin there's no wine, there isn't any wine; je préférerais ne ~ le rencontrer I would prefer not to meet him, I would rather not meet him. -2. [sans ne] not; l'as-tu vu ou ~£ have you seen him or noté; il est très satisfait, moi ~ he's very pleased, but I'm not; sincère ou ~ (whether) sincere or not; une histoire ~ drôle a story which isn't funny; ~ encore not yet; ~ du tout not at all. -3. [avec pron indét]: ~ un [aucun] none, not one; ~ un d'eux n'est venu none of them OU not one of them came. pascal, -e [paskal] (pi pascals OU pascaux) adj Easter (avant n). ♦ pascal nm -1. INFORM Pascal. -2. THYS pascal. pas-de-porte [padport] nm inv key money. passable [pasabl] adj passable, fair. passablement [pasablamù] adv -1. [assez bien] fairly well. -2. [beaucoup] quite a bit. passage [pasa3] nm -1. [action - de passer] going past; [- de traverser] crossing; être de ~ to be passing through; au ~ [en passant] as he/she etc goes by; fig in passing. -2. [endroit] passage, way; se frayer un ~ à travers OU dans to force a way through; «~ interdit» "no entry"; ~ clouté pedestrian crossing; ~ à niveau grade crossing Am, level crossing Br; ~ protégé priority given to traffic on the main road; ~ souterrain subway Am, underpass Br. -3. [changement d'état]: ~ de qqch à qqch change OU transition from sthg to sthg; ~ à vide dizzy spell; fig bad patch. -4. [extrait] passage. passager, -ère [pasa3e, er] o adj -1. [bonheur] fleeting, short-lived. -2. [hôte] short-

stay (avant n); oiseau ~ bird of passage. O nm, f passenger; ~ clandestin stowaway. passant, -e [pasû, ât] O adj busy. O nm, f passer-by. ♦ passant nm [de ceinture] (belt) loop. passation [pasasjS] nf -1. [conclusion] signing. -2. [transmission] hand-over; ~ des pouvoirs transfer of power. passe [pas] o nm passkey, o nf -1. [au sport] pass. -2. NAVic; channel. -3. pun [prostitution]: maison de ~ — brothel. -4. loc: être en ~ de faire qqch to be on the way to doing sthg; être dans une mauvaise ~ to be in a fix. passé, -e [pase] adj -1. [qui n'est plus] past; [précédent]: la semaine ~e last week; au cours de la semaine ~e in the last week; il est trois heures —es it's after three, it's gone three Br. -2. [fané] faded. ♦ passé O nm past; ~ composé perfect tense; ~ simple past historic, o prép after. passe-droit [pasdrwa] (pi passe-droits) nm privilege. passem*nterie [pasmâtri] nf notions (pi) Am, haberdashery Br. passe-montagne [pasmStaji] (pi passemontagnes) nm Balaclava (helmet). passe-partout [paspartu] nm inv -1. [clé] passkey. -2. (en apposition) [tenue] allpurpose; [phrase] stock (avant n). passe-passe [paspas] nm inv: tour de ~ [prestidigitation] conjuring trick; fig [tromperie] trick. passe-plat [paspla] (pi passe-plats) nm serving hatch. passeport [paspnr] nm passport. passer [pase] [3] O vi (aux: être) -l. [se frayer un chemin] to pass, to get past. -2. [défiler] to go by OU past. -3. [aller] to go; ~ à oy au travers OU par to come OU pass through; ~ chez qqn to call on sb, to drop in on sb; ~ de qqch à qqch [changer d'état] to go from sthg to sthg; [changer d'activité] to change from sthg to sthg; ~ devant [bâtiment] to pass; [juge] to come before; en passant in passing; ne faire que — to stay only a short while. -4. [venir - facteur] to come, to call. -5. SCOL to pass, to be admitted; ~ dans la classe supérieure to move up, to be moved up (a class). -6. [être accepté] to be accepted; qu'il soit toujours en retard, passe encore, mais ... it's one thing OU it's all very well to be late all the time but .... -7. [fermer les yeux]: ~ sur qqch to pass over sthg. -8. [temps] to pass, to go by. -9. [disparaître - souvenir, couleur] to fade; [- douleur] to pass, to go away.

375 pâte -10. CIN, TÉLÉ 2^ THÉÂTRE to be on; ~ à la radio/télévision to be on the radio/ television. -11. CARTES to pass. -12. [devenir]: ~ président/directeur to become president/director, to be appointed president/director. -13. loc: ~ inaperçu to pass OU go unnoticed; passons ... let's move on ...; ~ pour to be regarded as; se faire ~ pour qqn to pass o.s. off as sb; il y est passé fam [mort] he kicked the bucket; tout son argent y passe fam all his money goes on that. O vt (aux: avoir) -1. [franchir - frontière, rivière] to cross; [- douane] to go through. -2. [soirée, vacances] to spend. -3. [sauter - ligne, tour] to miss. -4. [défauts]: ~ qqch à qqn to overlook sthg in sb. -5. [faire aller bras] to pass, to put. -6. [peinture] to lay on; to spread. -7. [filtrer - huile] to strain; [- café] to filter. -8. [film, disque] to put on. -9. [vêtement] to slip on. -10. [vitesses] to change; ~ la OU en troisième to change into third (gear). -11. [donner]: ~ qqch à qqn to pass sb sthg; MED to give sb sthg. -12. [accord]: ~ un contrat avec qqn to have an agreement with sb. -13. SCOL o< UNiv [examen] to sit, to take. -14. [au téléphone]: je vous passe Mme Ledoux [transmettre] I'll put you through to Mme Ledoux; [donner l'écouteur à] I'll hand you Mme Ledoux. ♦ se passer vp -1. [événement] to happen, to take place; comment ça s'est passée how did it gof; ça ne se passera pas comme ça! I'm not putting up with that! -2. [s'enduire - crème] to put on. -3. [s'abstenir]: se ~ de qqch/de faire qqch to do without sthg/doing sthg. passereau [pasro] nm sparrow. passerelle [pasrel] nf -\. [pont] footbridge. -2. [passage mobile] gangway. passe-temps [pastû] nm inv pastime. passe-thé [paste] nm inv tea strainer. passible [pasibl] adj: ~ de JUR liable to. passif, -ive [pasif, iv] adj passive. ♦ passif nm -1. GRAM passive. -2. FIN liabilities (/?/). passion [pasj5] nf passion; avoir la ~ de qqch to have a passion for sthg. ♦ Passion «/"mus & relic; Passion. passionnant, -e [paspnâ, at] adj exciting, fascinating. passionné, -e [paspne] O adj -1. [personne] passionate. -2. [récit, débat] impassioned, o nm, f passionate person; ~ de ski/d'échecs etc skiing/chess etc fanatic. passionnel, -elle [paspnel] adj [crime] of passion.

passionnément [paspnemâ] adv passionately. passionner [paspne] [3] vt [personne] to grip, to fascinate. ♦ se passionner vp: se ~ pour to have a passion for. passivement [pasivmâ] adv passively. passivité [pasivite] nf passivity. passoire [paswar] nf[h liquide] sieve; [à légumes] colander. pastel [pastel] O nm pastel. O adj inv [couleur] pastel (avant n). pastèque [pastek] nf watermelon. pasteur [pastoer] nm -1. littéraire [berger] shepherd. -2. RELIC pastor, minister. pasteurisation [pastoerizasj5] «/"pasteurization. pasteuriser [pastœrize] [3] vt to pasteurize. pastiche [pastij] nm pastiche. pastille [pastij] «/"[bonbon] pastille, lozenge. pastis [pastis] nm aniseed-flavoured aperitif. pastoral, -e, -aux [pastoral, o] adj littéraire pastoral. ♦ pastorale nf ART & LITTÉRATURE pastoral; MILS pastorale. patagon, -one [patag5, on] adj Patagonian. ♦ Patagon, -one nm, f Patagonian. Patagonie [patagrmi] nf la ~ Patagonia. patapouf [patapuf] nm fam fatty. patate [patat] nf -1. fam [pomme de terre] spud. -2. fam [imbécile] fathead. ♦ patate douce nf sweet potato. patati [patati] interj: et ~ et patata fam and so on and so forth. patatras [patatra] interj crash! pataud, -e [pato, od] o adj clumsy, o nm, f clumsy person. pataugeoire [pato3war] nf paddling pool. patauger [patose] [17] vi -1. [barboter] to splash about. -2. fam fig [s'embrouiller] to flounder. patchouli [patjuli] nm patchouli. patchwork [patfwoerk] nm patchwork. pâte [pat] nf -1. [à tarte] pastry; [à pain] dough; ~ brisée shorterust pastry; ~ feuilletée puff pastry; ~ à frire batter; ~ à pain bread dough; ~ à tarte pastry. -2. [mélange] paste; ~ d'amandes almond paste; ~ de fruits jelly made from fruit paste; une ~ de fruits a fruit jelly (sweet); ~ à modeler modelling clay; ~ à papier paper pulp. -3. loc: être bonne ~ to be easy-going. ♦ pâtes nfpl pasta (sg).

pate 376 pâté [pate] nm -1. CULIN pâté; ~ de campagne farmhouse pâté; ~ en croûte pâté baked in a pastry case; ~ de foie liver pâté; ~ impérial spring roll. -2. [tache] ink blot. -3. [bloc]: ~ de maisons block (of houses). pâtée [pate] nf mash, feed. patelin [patie] nm fam village, place. patène [paten] «/"paten. patente [patât] «/"licence fee {for traders and professionals). patenté, -e [patate] adj -1. [commerçant] licensed. -2. fam [voleur, menteur] habitual. patère [pater] nf [portemanteau] coat hook. paternalisme [paternalism] nm paternalism. paternaliste [paternalist] o nmf paternalist. o adj paternalistic. paternel, -elle [paternel] adj [devoir, autorité] paternal; [amour, ton] fatherly. ♦ paternel nm fam old man. paternité [paternité] nf paternity, fatherhood; fig authorship, paternity. pâteux, -euse [pato, oz] adj -1. [aliment] doughy; [encre] thick. -2. [style] leaden. pathétique [patetik] o nm littéraire pathos. O adj moving, pathetic. pathologie [patolr^i] «f pathology. pathologique [patDb3ik] adj pathological. pathos [patos] nm littéraire & péj pathos. patibulaire [patibyler] adj péj sinister. patiemment [pasjamâ] adv patiently. patience [pasjâs] nf -1. [gén] patience; s'armer de ~ to be patient, to have patience; perdre ~ to lose patience. -2. [jeu de cartes] solitaire Am, patience Br. patient, -e [pasjâ, ât] O adj patient, o nm, f-1. [qui a de la patience] patient person. -2. MED patient. patienter [pasjâte] [3] vi to wait; «veuillez patienter» "please wait". patin [patê] nm -1. SPORT skate; ~ à glace/à roulettes ice/roller skate; faire du ~ à glace/à roulettes to go ice-/roller-skating. -2. [de feutre] cloth pad used under shoes to protect wooden floor. patinage [patina3] nm SPORT skating; ~ artistique de vitesse figure/speed skating. patine [patin] «/"patina. patiner [patine] [3] O vj -1. SPORT to skate. -2. [véhicule] to skid. O vt [objet] to give a patina to; [avec vernis] to varnish. ♦ se patiner vp to take on a patina. patineur, -euse [patinœr, oz] nm, /"skater. patinoire [patinwar] nf ice OU skating rink. patio [patjo, pasjo] nm patio. pâtir [patir] [32] vi: ~ de to suffer the consequences of. pâtisserie [patisri] nf-1. [gâteau] pastry. -2.

[art. métier] pastry-making. -3.* [commerce] — cake shop. pâtissier, -ière [patisje, jer] O adj: crème pâtissière confectioner's custard, o nm, f pastrycook. patois, -e [patwa, az] adj patois (avant n). ♦ patois nm patois. patraque [patrak] adj fam [personne] out of sorts. patriarcal, -e, -aux [patrijarkal, o] adj patriarchal. patriarcat [patrijarka] nm -1. RELIG patriarchate. -2. SOCIOL patriarchy. patriarche [patrijarf] nm patriarch. patrie [patri] nf country, homeland; ~ d'adoption country of adoption. patrimoine [patrimwan] nm [familial] inheritance; [collectif] heritage. patriote [patrijDt] O nmf patriot. O adj patriotic. patriotique [patrijDtik] adj patriotic. patriotisme [patrijDtism] nm patriotism. patron, -onne [patr5, on] nm, f-1. [d'entreprise] head. -2. [chef] boss. -3. RELIG patron saint. ♦ patron nm [modèle] pattern. patronage [patrona3] nm -1. [protection] patronage; [de saint] protection. -2. [organisation] youth club. patronal, -e, -aux [patrDnal, o] adj [organisation, intérêts] employers' (avant «). patronat [patrrma] nm employers. patronnesse [patrnnes] nf: (dame) ~ iron patroness. patronyme [patronim] nm patronymic. patronymique [patronimik] adj patronymic. patrouille [patruj] «/"patrol. patrouiller [patruje] [3] vi to patrol. parte [pat] nf -1. [d'animal] paw; [d'oiseau] foot; montrer ~ blanche fig to give the password; à quatre —s four-legged; fig on all fours, on one's hands and knees; retomber sur ses —s fig to land on one's feet. -2. fam [jambe] leg; [pied] foot; [main] hand, paw; graisser la ~ à qqn to grease sb's palm. -3. [favori] sideburn. -4. [de poche, de portefeuille] fastening. patte-d'oie [patdwa] (pi pattes-d'oie) nf crow's foot. pattemouille [patmuj] «/"damping cloth. pâturage [patyra3] nm [lieu] pasture land.

377 PEA pâture [patyr] nf [nourriture] food, fodder; fig intellectual nourishment; donner qqn/ qqch en ~ à, offrir qqn/qqch en ~ à to feed sb/sthg to. paume [pom] nf -1. [de main] palm. -2. SPORT real tennis. paumé, -e [pome] fam o adj lost. O nm, f down and out. paumer [pome] [3] fam vt to lose. ♦ se paumer vp to get lost. paupérisadon [poperizasj5] nf pauperization. paupière [popjer] nf eyelid. paupiette [popjct] nf thin slice of meat or fish stuffed and rolled; —s de veau — veal olives. pause [poz] nf -1. [arrêt] break; —café coffee-break. -2. MUS pause. pauvre [povr] o nmf poor person; le/la ~! the poor thing! O adj poor; ~ en low in; ~ d'esprit feeble-minded. pauvrement [povramâ] adv poorly. pauvreté [povrate] «/"poverty. pavage [pava3] nm paving. pavaner [pavane] [3] ♦ se pavaner vp to strut. pavé, -e [pave] adj cobbled. ♦ pavé nm -1. [chaussée]: être sur le ~ fig to be out on the streets; battre le ~ fig to walk the streets. -2. [de pierre] cobblestone, paving stone. -3. fam [livre] tome. -4. [de viande] slab. -5. INFORM: ~ numérique numeric keypad. paver [pave] [3] vt to pave. pavilion [pavij5] nm -1. [bâument] detached house; ~ de banlieue = bungalow; ~ de chasse hunting lodge. -2. [de trompette] bell. -3. [d'oreille] pinna, auricle. -4. [drapeau] flag. ^ pavoiser [pavwaze] [3] o vt to decorate with flags, o vi fam to crow. pavot [pavo] nm poppy. payable [pejabl] adj payable. payant, -e [pejà, ât] adj -1. [hôte] paying (avant n). -2. [spectacle] with an admission charge. -3. fam [affaire] profitable. paye = paie. payement = paiement. payer [peje] [11] O vt -1. [gén] to pay; [achat] to pay for; ~ qqch à qqn to buy sthg for sb, to buy sb sthg, to treat sb to sthg; ~ qqn de qqch fig [efforts, peine] to reward sb for sthg. -2. [expier - crime, faute] to pay for; il me le paiera! ne'11 pay for this! O vi: ~ (pour) to pay (for); ~ de sa poche to pay out of one's own pocket; ~ de sa personne [s'exposer au danger] to put o.s. on the line; [se donner du mal] to put in a lot of

effort; ~ d'audace to risk one's all. ♦ se payer vp [s'offrir]: se ~ qqch to buy o.s. sthg, to treat o.s. to sthg. payeur, -euse [pejoer, 0z] adj payments (avant n). ♦ payeur nm payer; mauvais ~ bad debtor. pays [pei] nm -1. [gén] country; ~ d'adoption country of adoption; ~ de cocagne fig land of plenty; les ~ de l'Est the Eastern bloc (countries); ~ natal native land, native country; comme en ~ conquis like the lord of the manor. -2. [région, province] region; être du ~ to be a local. -3. [village] village. ♦ pays de Galles nm: le ~ de Galles Wales; au ~ de Galles in Wales. paysage [peiza3] nm -1. [site, vue] landscape, scenery. -2. [tableau] landscape. -3. fig [contexte] scene. paysager, -ère [peiza3e, er] adj landscaped. paysagiste [peiza3ist] O nmf -1. [peintre] landscape artist. -2. [concepteur de parcs] landscape gardener. O adj landscape (avant n). paysan, -anne [peizâ, an] O adj [vie, coutume] country (avant n), rural; [organisation, revendication] farmers' (avant n); pcj peasant (avant n). o nm, f -1. [agriculteur] (small) farmer. -2. péj [rustre] peasant. paysannat [peizana] nm peasantry. paysannerie [peizanri] nf peasantry, peasant class. Pays-Bas [peiba] nmpl: les ~ the Netherlands; aux ~ in the Netherlands. PC nm -1. (ahr de Parti communiste) Communist Party. -2. (ahr de personal computer) PC. -3. (ahr de prêt conventionné) special loan for house purchase. -4. (ahr de permis de construire) planning permission. -5. (ahr de poste de commandement) HQ. -6. (ahr de Petite Ceinture) bus following the inner ring road in Paris. pec (ahr de pour copie conforme) certified accurate. PCF (ahr de Parti communiste français) nm French Communist Party. PCV (ahr de à percevoir) nm reverse charge call. P-DG (ahr de président-directeur général) nm Chairman and President Am, Chairman and Managing Director Br. p.-ê. ahr de peut-être. PEA (ahr de plan d'épargne en actions) nm savings scheme.

péage 378 péage [pea3] nm toll. peau [po] nf -\. [gén] skin; ~ de banane banana skin; ~ d'orange orange peel; MÉD — cellulite; n'avoir que la ~ sur les os to be just skin and bones; être bien/mal dans sa ~ [en général] to feel great/terrible; risquer sa ~ to risk one's neck; sauver sa ~ to save one's skin. -2. [cuir] hide, leather (I/); ~ de vache fam fig [homme] bastard; [femme] bitch. peaufiner [pofine] [3] vt lift & fig to polish up. peccadille [pekadij] «/"peccadillo. péché [pe/e] ««/ sin; les sept ~s capitaux the seven deadly sins; le ~ originel original sin; un ~ mignon a weakness. pêche [pej*] nf -1. [fruit] peach; ~ Melba peach Melba. -2. [activité] fishing; [poissons] catch; aller à la ~ to go fishing; ~ à la dandinette jigging; ~ sous la glace ice fishing; ~ à la ligne angling; ~ sous-marine underwater fishing. -3. he: avoir la ~ fam to feel great. pécher [peje] [18] vi to sin; ~ par omission fig to commit the sin of omission; cet expose pèche par manque d'exemples fig this report falls down because it lacks examples. pêcher1 [pe/ej [4] vt -1. [poisson] to catch. -2. fam [trouver] to dig up. pêcher2 [peje] nm peach tree. pêcherie [pejri] nf fishery, fishing ground. pécheur, -eresse [pejœr, pejïes] o adj sinful. O nm, f sinner. pêcheur, -euse [pefoer, oz] nm, f fisherman ( f fisherwoman). pecnot = péquenot. pectine [pektin] «/"pectin. pectoral, -e, -aux [pektoral, o] adj -1. [muscle] pectoral. -2. [sirop] cough {avant n). ♦ pectoraux nmpl pectorals. pécule [pekyl] nm [économies] savings (j?l). pécuniaire [pekynjer] adj financial. pédagogie [pedag:>3i] nf-1. [science] education, pedagogy. -2. [qualité] teaching abilitypédagogique [pedagr^ik] adj educational; [méthode] teaching {avant n). pédagogue [pedagDg] o nmf teacher. O adj: être ~ to be a good teacher. pédale [pedal] nf ~\. [gen] pedal; perdre les ~s fam fig to lose one's head. -2. fam inj [hom*osexuel] queer. pédaler [pédale] [3] vi [à bicyclette] to pedal; ~ dans la choucroute fam fig to be all at sea. pédalier [pedalje] nm -1. [de vélo] (bicycle)

drive. -2. [d'orgue] pedals (j?l). pédalo [pédalo] nm pedal boat. pédant, -e [pedû, àt] o adj pedantic, o nm, /pedant. pédé [pede] nm tfam péj queer. pédéraste [pederast] nm hom*osexual, pederast. pédérastie [pederasti] nf hom*osexuality. pédestre [pedestr] adj: randonnée ~ hike, ramble; chemin ~ footpath. pédiatre [pedjatr] nmf pediatrician. pédiatrie [pedjatri] «/"pediatrics {U). pédicule [pedikyl] nm BOT peduncle. pédicure [pedikyr] ««//chiropodist. pedigree [pedigre] nm pedigree. pédophile [pedr>fil] o ««; pedophile. O adj pedophiliac. peeling [pilirj] ««/ face scrub. pègre [pegr] «/underworld. peignais, peignions etc — peindre. peigne [peji] nm -1. [démêloir, barrette] comb; se donner un coup de ~ to run a comb through one's hair; passer qqch au ~ fin fig to go through sthg with a fine-tooth comb; sale comme un ~ fig filthy dirty. -2. [de tissage] card. peigner [pejie] [4] vt -1. [cheveux] to comb. -2. [fibres] to card. ♦ se peigner vp to comb one's hair. peignoir [pejiwarl nm robe Am, bathrobe Am, dressing gown Br; ~ de bain bathrobe. peinard, -e, pénard, -e [penar, ard] adj fam [emploi] cushy; [personne] comfortable. peindre [pêdr] [81] vt to paint; fig [décrire] to depict. ♦ se peindre vp [émotion] fig: se ~ sur to be written on. peine [pen] nf -1. [châtiment] punishment, penalty; JUR sentence; sous ~ de qqch on pain of sthg; — capitale OU de mort capital punishment, death sentence; ~ incompressible sentence without remission. -2. [cha grin] sorrow, sadness {U); avoir de la ~ to be sad; faire de la ~ à qqn to upset sb, to distress sb. -3. [effort] trouble; se donner de la ~ to go to a lot of trouble; c'est ~ perdue it's a waste of effort; prendre la ~ de faire qqch to go to the trouble of doing sthg; ça ne vaut pas OU ce n'est pas la ~ it's not worth it. -4. [difficulté] difficulty; avoir de la ~ à faire qqch to have difficulty OU trouble doing sthg; à grand-— with great difficulty; sans ~ without difficulty, easily.

379 pendre ♦ à peine loc adv scarcely, hardly; à ~ ... que hardly ... than; c'est à ~ si on se parle we hardly speak (to each other). peiner [pene] [4] o vt [affliger] to distress, to sadden, o vi -1. [travailler] to work hard. -2. [se fatiguer] to struggle, to labor Am, to labour Br. peint, -e [pê, pêt] pp —*■ peindre. peintre [pêtr] nm painter; ~ en bâtiment painter and decorator. peinture [pêtyr] nf -1. [gén] painting. -2. [produit] paint; «~ fraîche » "wet paint". peinturlurer [pëtyrlyre] [3] vt péj to daub. ♦ se peinturlurer vp péj to plaster one's face with make-up. péjoratif, -ive [pe3Dratif, iv] adj pejorative. Pékin [pekê] « Peking, Beijing. pékinois, -e [pekinwa, az] adj of/from Peking.^ ♦ pékinois nm -1. [langue] Mandarin. -2. [chien] pekinese. ♦ Pékinois, -e nm, f native OU inhabitant of Peking; les Pékinois the people of Peking. PEL, Pel [pel] (abr de plan d'épargne logement) nm savings scheme offering low-interest mortgages. pelage [pala3] nm coat, fur. pelé, -e [pale] adj -1. [crâne] bald. -2. fig [colline, paysage] bare. pêle-mêle [pelmel] adv pell-mell. peler [pale] [25] vt 62 vi to peel. pèlerin [pelrë] nm pilgrim. pèlerinage [pelrina3] nm -1. [voyage] pilgrimage; en ~ on a pilgrimage. -2. [lieu] place of pilgrimage. pèlerine [pelrin] nf cape. pélican [pelikâ] nm pelican. pelisse [palis] «/"pelisse. pelle [pel] nf -1. [instrument] shovel; ~ à tarte pie server; à la ~ fam fig by the bucketful. -2. [machine] digger. pelletée [pelte] «f shovelful. pelleter [pelte] [27] vt to shovel. pelleteuse [peltoz] nf mechanical digger. pellicule [pelikyl] «/"film. ♦ pellicules nfpl dandruff (U). pelote [pabt] «/"-l. [de laine, ficelle] ball. -2. COUTURE pin cushion. ♦ pelote basque nf pelota. peloter [pbte] [3] vt fam to paw. peloton [pbt5] nm -1. [de ficelle] small ball. -2. [de soldats] squad; ~ d'exécution firing squad. -3. [de concurrents] pack; le ~ de tête SPORT the leading group; fig the top few. pelotonner [pabtane] [3] ♦ se pelotonner vp to curl up; se ~

contre to snuggle up to. pelouse [paluz] nf-1. [de jardin] lawn. -2. [de champ de courses] public enclosure. -3. FOOTBALL Ei RUGBY field. peluche [palyJ] nf -1. [jouet] soft toy. -2. [tissu] plush. -3. [d'étoffe] piece of fluff. pelucheux, -euse [palyjo, oz] adj fluffy. pelure [palyr] nf -1. [fruit] peel. -2. fam péj [habit] coat. pénal, -e, -aux [penal, o] adj penal. pénalisation [penalizasjà] «/"penalty. pénaliser [penalize] [3] vt to penalize. pénalité [pénalité] «/"penalty. penalty [penalti] {pi penaltys OU penalties) nm penalty. pénard = peinard. pénates [penat] nmpl: regagner ses ~ fam to go home. penaud, -e [pano, od] adj sheepish. penchant [pâ/â] nm -1. [inclination] tendency. -2. [sympathie]: ~ pour liking for. pencher [pâje] [3] O vi to lean; ~ vers fig to incline toward Am OU towards Br; se ~ pour to incline in favor Am OU favour Br of. O vt to bend. ♦ se pencher vp [s'incliner] to lean over; [se baisser] to bend down; se ~ sur qqn/ qqch to lean over sb/sthg; se ~ sur qqch fig [problème, cas] to look into sthg. pendable [pûdabl] adj: tour ~ dirty trick; ce n'est pas un cas ~ it's not a hanging matter. pendaison [pûdezà] nf hanging; ~ de crémaillère house-warming. pendant1, -e [pâdâ, ût] adj -1. [bras] hanging, dangling. -2. [question] pending. ♦ pendant nm -1. [bijou]: ~ d'oreilles (drop) earring. -2. [de paire] counterpart; se faire ~ fig to make a pair. pendant2 [pâdù] prép during. ♦ pendant que loc conj while, whilst; ~ que j'y suis, ... while I'm at it, .... pendeloque [pâdbk] nf-1. [bijou] pendant. -2. [de lustre] crystal. pendentif [pôdôtif] nm pendant. penderie [pâdri] «/"wardrobe. pendouiller [pûduje] [3] vi fam to dangle. pendre [pâdr] [73] O vi -1. [être fixé en haut]: ~ (à) to hang (from). -2. [descendre trop bas] to hang down. O vt -1. [rideaux, tableau] to hang (up), to put up. -2. [personne] to hang. ♦ se pendre vp -1. [s'accrocher]: se ~ à to hang from. -2. [se suicider] to hang o.s.

pendu 380 pendu, -e [pûdy] o py —* pendre. O adj -1. [objet] hung up, hanging up; fig: il est toujours ~ au téléphone he's never off the phone. -2. [personne] hanged. O nm, f hanged person. pendule [pûdyl] o nm pendulum. O nf clock. pendulette [pùdylet] «/small clock. pêne [pen] nm bolt. pénétrant, -e [penetrû, ùt] adj penetrating; [odeur] pervasive. pénétration [penetrasj5] nf-1. [de projectile, d'idée] penetration. -2. [sagacité] shrewdness. pénétré, -e [pénètre] adj earnest; elle est ~e de son importance she's full of her own importance. pénétrer [pénètre] [18] O vi to enter. O vt -1. [mur, vêtement] to penetrate. -2. fig [mystère, secret] to fathom out. ♦ se pénétrer vp [s'imprégner]: se ~ d'une idée to let an idea sink in. pénible [penibl] adj -1. [travail] laborious. -2. [nouvelle, maladie] painful. -3. fam [personne] tiresome. péniblement [peniblamù] adv -1. [avec difficulté] with difficulty, laboriously. -2. [cruellement] painfully. -3. [à peine] just about. péniche [penij] «/"barge. pénicilline [penisilin] nf penicillin. péninsule [penêsyl] nf peninsula; la ~ d'Arabie the Arabian Peninsula; la ~ Ibérique the Iberian peninsula. pénis [penis] nm penis. pénitence [penitùs] /// -1. [repentir] penitence. -2. [peine, punition] penance. pénitencier [penitûsje] nm prison, penitentiary Am. pénitent, -e [penitâ, ùt] o adj penitent, o nm, f penitent. pénitentiaire [penitûsjer] adj prison {avant n). penne [pen] nf ZOOl quill. pénombre [pen5br] nf half-light. pensable [pàsabl] adj: ce n'est pas ~ it's unthinkable. pensant, -e [pùsù, ùt] adj thinking. pense-bête [pûsbet] {pi pense-bêtes) nm reminder. pensée [pûse] nf -\. [idée, faculté] thought. -2. [esprit] mind, thoughts (/?/); en/par la ~ in one's mind OU thoughts. -3. [opinion] thoughts (/?/), feelings {pi). -4. [doctrine] thought, thinking. -5. ROT pansy. penser [pose] [3] O vi to think; ~ à qqn/ qqch [avoir à l'esprit] to think of sb/sthg, to think about sb/sthg; [se rappeler] to

remember sb/sthg; ~ à faire qqch [avoir à l'esprit] to think of doing sthg; [se rappeler] to remember to do sthg; qu'est-ce que tu en penses^ what do you think (of it)£; faire ~ à qqn qqch to make one think of sb/sthg; faire ~ à qqn à faire qqch to remind sb to do sthg; sans ~ à mal without meaning any harm; n'y pensons plus! let's forget it!; laisser OU donner à ~ (que) to make one think (that); même s'il ne dit rien, il n'en pense pas moins even if he doesn't say anything, he's thinking it nonetheless. O vt to think; ~ que ... to think (that) ...; je pense que oui I think so; je pense que non I don't think so; ~ faire qqch to be planning to do sthg; pensez-vous! don't be silly! penseur [pùsoer] nm thinker. pensif, -ive [pùsif, iv] adj pensive, thoughtful. pension [pùsj5] nf -1. [allocation] pension; ~ alimentaire [dans un divorce] alimony. -2. [hébergement] board and lodgings; ~ complète full board; demi— half board. -3. [hôtel] guesthouse; ~ de famille guesthouse, boarding house. -4. [prix de l'hébergement] — rent, keep. -5. [internat] boarding school. pensionnaire [pùsjonér] nmf -1. [élève] boarder. -2. [hôte payant] lodger. pensionnat [pùsjona] nm -1. [internat] boarding school. -2. [élèves] boarders (/?/). pensivement [pâsivmô] adv pensively, thoughtfully. pensum [pêsnm] nm -1. [travail ennuyeux] chore. -2. vieilli [punition] imposition. pentagone [pëtagsn] nm pentagon. ♦ Pentagone nm: le Pentagone the Pentagon. pentathlon [pêtatB] nm pentathlon. pente [put] nf slope; en ~ sloping, inclined; être sur une mauvaise ~ fig to be on a downward path; remonter la ~ fig to claw one's way back again. pentecôte [pûtkot] nf [juive] Pentecost; [chrétienne] Whitsun. pénurie [penyri] «/"shortage. PEP, Pep [pep] {abr de plan d'épargne populaire) nm personal pension plan. pépé [pepe] nm fam -1. [grand-père] grandad, grandpa. -2. [homme âgé] old man. pépère [peper] fam O nm [grand-père] grandad, grandpa. O adj cushy. pépier [pepje] [9] vi to chirp.

381 perfectionnisme pépin [pepê] nm -1. [graine] pip. -2. fam [ennui] hitch. -3. fam [parapluie] umbrella, brolly Br. pépinière [pepinjer] nf tree nursery; fig [école, établissem*nt] nursery. pépite [pepit] «/"nugget. péquenot [pekno] nm, pecnot [pekno] nm, péquenaud, -e [pekno, od] nm, f fam péj country bumpkin. percale [perkal] «/"percale. perçant, -e [persâ, ât] adj -1. [regard, son] piercing. -2. [froid] bitter, biting. percée [perse] nf -1. [trouée] opening. -2. MIL, SPORT & fig breakthrough. percement [persomâ] nm opening (up); [d'oreilles] piercing. perce-neige [pers9ne3] nm inv ou nf inv snowdrop. perce-oreille [persorej] (yl perce-oreilles) nm earwig. percepteur [perseptœr] nm tax collector. perceptible [perseptibl] adj perceptible. perception [persepsj5] «/"-l. [d'impôts] collection. -2. [bureau] tax office. -3. [sensation] perception. percer [perse] [16] O vt -1. [mur, roche] to make a hole in; [coffre-fort] to crack. -2. [trou] to make; [avec perceuse] to drill. -3. [silence, oreille] to pierce. -4. [foule] to make one's way through. -5. fig [mystère] to penetrate. O vi -1. [soleil] to break through. -2. [abcès] to burst, avoir une dent qui perce to be cutting a tooth. -3. [réussir] to make a name for o.s., to break through. perceuse [persoz] «/"drill. percevoir [persavwar] [52] vt -1. [intention, nuance] to perceive. -2. [retraite, indemnité] to receive. -3. [impôts] to collect. perchaude [perfod] nf Can yellow OU lake perch. perche [perf] nf-1. [poisson] perch. -2. [de bois, métal] pole; tendre la ~ à qqn fig to throw sb a line. percher [perfe] [3] o vi -1. [oiseau] to perch. -2. fam [personne] to live, o vt to perch. ♦ se percher vp to perch. perchiste [perfist] nmf -1. SPORT pole vaulter. -2. CIN & TELE boom operator. perchoir [perfwar] nm perch. perclus, -e [perkly, yz] adj: ~ de [rhumatismes] crippled with. perçois, perçoit etc —» percevoir. percolateur [perkDlatoer] nm percolator. perçu, -e [persy] pp —> percevoir. percussion [perkysj5] «/"percussion. percussionniste [perkysjonist] nmf

percussionist. percutant, -e [perkyta, ât] adj -1. [obus] explosive. -2. fig [argument] forceful. percuter [perkyte] [3] O vt to strike, to smash into. O vi to explode. perdant, -e [perdà, ât] o adj losing, o nm, /loser. perdition [perdisj5] nf-1. [ruine morale] perdition. -2. [détresse]: en ~ in distress. perdre [perdr] [77] O vt -1. [gén] to lose. -2. [temps] to waste; [occasion] to miss, to waste. -3. [sup bonté, propos] to be the ruin of. -4. he: vous ne perdez, rien pour attendre! just wait until I get my hands on you! O vi to lose. ♦ se perdre vp -1. [coutume] to die out, to become lost. -2. [personne] to get lost, to lose one's way; se ~ dans les détails fig to get bogged down in details. perdreau, -x [perdro] nm young partridge. perdrix [perdri] «/"partridge. perdu, -e [perdy] O pp —> perdre. O adj -1. [égaré] lost. -2. [endroit] out-ofthe-way. -3. [balle] stray. -4. [emballage] non-returnable. -5. [temps, occasion] wasted. -6. [malade] dying. -7. [récolte, robe] spoilt, ruined. perdurer [perdyre] [3] vi littéraire to endure. père [per] nm -1. [gén] father; mon ~ RELIG Father; ~ de famille father; de ~ en fils from father to son. -2. [d'animal] sire. -3. fam [homme mûr]: le ~ Martin old Martin. ♦ pères ntnpl [ancêtres] forefathers, ancestors. ♦ père Noël nm: le ~ Noël Father Christmas, Santa Claus. pérégrination [peregrinasj5] nf (gén pi) wanderings (/;>/). péremption [perâpsj5] nf time limit; date de ~ best-before date. péremptoire [perâptwar] adj peremptory. pérennité [perenite] «/"durability. péréquation [perekwasj5] «f equalization. perfectible [perfektibl] adj perfectible. perfection [perfeksj5] nf-1. [qualité] perfection; à la ~ to perfection. -2. [chose parfaite] jewel, gem. perfectionnement [perfeksJDnmâ] nm improvement. perfectionner [perfeksjone] [3] vt to perfect. ♦ se perfectionner vp to improve. perfectionnisme [perfeksjonism] nm perfectionism.

perfectionniste 382 perfectionniste [perfekspnist] nmf &> adj perfectionist. perfide [perfid] adj perfidious. perfidement [perfidmû] adv perfidiously. perfidie [perfidi] «/"perfidy. perforateur, -trice [perforatœr, tris] adj perforating. ♦ perforateur nm punch card operator. ♦ perforatrice nf [perceuse] drill; [de bureau] hole punch. perforation [perforasj5] «/perforation. perforer [perfore] [3] vt to perforate. performance [performâs] nf performance; les —s d'une voiture a car's performance. performant, -e [performâ, àt] adj -1. [personne] efficient. -2. [machine] high-performance (avant n). perfusion [perfyzj5] «/"perfusion. pergola [pergola] ///"pergola. péricl*ter [periklite] [3] vi to collapse. peridural, -e, -aux [peridyral, o] adj epidural. ♦ péridurale nf epidural. péril [peril] nm peril; au ~ de ma vie at the risk of my life. périlleux, -euse [perijo, oz] adj perilous. périmé, -e [périme] adj out-of-date; fig [idées] outdated. périmètre [perimetr] «/« -1. [contour] perimeter. -2. [contenu] area. périnatal, -e, -aux [perinatal, o] adj perinatal. périnée [perine] nm perineum. période [perpd] «/"period. périodique [perpdik] O nm periodical. O adj periodic. périodiquement [perpdikmâ] adv periodically. péripatéticienne [peripatetisjen] nf streetwalker. péripétie [peripesi] «/"event. périphérie [periferi] nf -1. [de ville] outskirts (/?/). -2. [bord] periphery; [de cercle] circumference. périphérique [periferik] O «/« -1. [route] beltway Am, ring road Br. -2. INFORM peripheral device. O adj peripheral; boulevard ~ beltway Am, ring road Br. périphrase [perifraz] «/periphrasis. périple [peripl] ««/ -1. NAV1G voyage. -2. [voyage] trip. périr [périr] [32] vi to perish. périscolaire [peristoler] adj extracurricular. périscope [perisknp] nm periscope. périssable [perisabl] adj -1. [denrée] perishable. -2. littéraire [sentiment] transient. péristyle [peristil] ««/ peristyle.

péritonite [peritnnit] nf peritonitis. perle [perl] nf -1. [de nacre] pearl. -2. [de bois, verre] bead. -3. [de sang, d'eau] drop. -4. [personne] gem. -5. fam [erreur] howler. perlé, -e [perle] adj beaded; grève ~e slowdown Am, go-slow Br. perler [perle] [3] vi to form beads. perlimpinpin [perlèpêpè] ««/: poudre de ~ miracle cure. permanence [permanàs] nf -1. [continuité] permanence; en ~ constantly. -2. [service]: être de ~ to be on duty. -3. SCOL: (salle de) ~ study room. permanent, -e [permanû, àt] O adj permanent; [cinéma] with continuous showings; [comité] standing (avant n). O nm, /"officiai. ♦ permanente nf perm. perméable [permeabl] adj: ~ (à) permeable (to); fig open (to), receptive (to). permets —► permettre. permettais, permettions —> permettre. permettre [permetr] [84] vt to permit, to allow; vous permettez'? may K; ~ qqch à qqn to allow sb sthg; ~ à qqn de faire qqch to permit OU allow sb to do sthg. ♦ se permettre vp\ se ~ qqch to allow o.s sthg; [avoir les moyens de] to be able to afford sthg; se ~ de faire qqch to take the liberty of doing sthg. permis, -e [permi, iz] pp —> permettre. ♦ permis ««; license Ant, licence Br, permit; ~ de conduire driver's license Am, driving licence Br; ~ de construire building permit Am, planning permission Br; ~ de séjour residence permit; ~ de travail work permit. permissif, -ive [permisif, iv] adj permissive. permission [permisj5] nf -1. [autorisation] permission. -2. MIL leave. permutable [permytabl] adj which can be changed round. permutation [permytasj5] nf [de mots, figures] transposition; MATHS permutation. permuter [permyte] [3] O vt to change round; [mots, figures] to transpose. O vi to change, to switch. pernicieux, -ieuse [pemisjo, joz] adj -1. MB) pernicious. -2. [conseil, habitude] harmful. péroné [pernne] nm fibula. péroraison [perorez5] «f peroration. pérorer [perdre] [3] vi p>éj to hold forth. Pérou [peru] nm: le ~ Peru; au ~ in Peru.

383 perte perpendiculaire [perpâdikyler] O nf perpendicular. O adj: ~ (à) perpendicular (to). perpendiculairement [perpâdikylermâ] adv perpendicularly; ~ à perpendicular to. perpete, perpette [perpet] ♦ à perpète loc adv fam [loin] miles away; [longtemps] for ever. perpétrer [perpètre] [18] vt to perpetrate. perpette = perpète. perpétuel, -elle [perpetqel] adj -1. [fréquent, continu] perpetual. -2. [rente] life {avant n); [secrétaire] permanent. perpétuellement [perpetqelmâ] adv perpetually. perpétuer [perpetqe] [7] vt to perpetuate. ♦ se perpétuer vp to continue; [espèce] to perpetuate itself. perpétuité [perpetqite] nf perpetuity; à ~ for life; être condamné à ~ to be sentenced to life imprisonment. perplexe [perpleks] adj perplexed. perplexité [perpleksite] «/"perplexity. perquisition [perkizisj5] «/"search. perquisitionner [perkizisjone] [3] o vi to make a search, o vt to search, to make a search of. perron [per5] tun steps (pt) {at entrance to building). perroquet [peroke] nm [animal] parrot. perruche [peryj] nf budgerigar. perruque [peryk] «f wig. pers [per(s)] adj littéraire blue-green. persan, -e [persâ, an] adj Persian. ♦ persan tun -1. [langue] Persian. -2. [chat] Persian (cat). ♦ Persan, -e nm, /"Persian. persécuter [persekyte] [3] vt -1. [martyriser] to persecute. -2. [harceler] to harass. persécuteur, -trice [persekytoer, tris] O adj persecuting. O nm, f persecutor. persécution [persekysj5] «/"persecution. persévérance [persévéras] «f perseverance. persévérant, -e [persévéra, ât] adj persevering. persévérer [persevere] [18] vi: ~ (dans) to persevere (in). persienne [persjen] «/"shutter. persiflage [persifla3] nm mockery. persifler [persifle] [3] vt littéraire to mock. persifleur, -euse [persifloer, oz] O adj mocking. O nm, f mocker. persil [persi] nm parsley. persillé, -e [persije] adj -1. [plat] with parsley. -2. [viande] marbled; [fromage] veined, blue-veined. Persique [persik] —» golfe. persistance [persistas] «f persistence.

persistant, -e [persista, ât] adj persistent; arbre à feuillage ~ evergreen (tree). persister [persiste] [3] vi to persist; ~ à faire qqch to persist in doing sthg; ~ dans qqch to persist in sthg. personnage [persnna3] ««/ -1. [dignitaire] figure. -2. THÉÂTRE character; ART figure. -3. [personnalité] image. -4. péj [individu] character, individual. personnaliser [personalize] [3] vt to personalize. personnalité [perssnalite] nf -1. [gén] personality. -2. JUR status. personne [person] o «/"person; ~s people; en ~ in person, personally; ~ âgée elderly person; ~ morale legal entity. O prott indéf -1. [quelqu'un] anybody, anyone; je me demande si ~ arrivera un jour à le convaincre I wonder if anyone will ever convince him. -2. [aucune personne] nobody, no one; ~ ne viendra nobody will come; il n'y a jamais ~ there's never anybody there, nobody is ever there; ~ d'autre nobody OU no one else. personnel, -elle [persDnel] adj -1. [gén] personal. -2. [égoïste] self-centred. ♦ personnel nm staff, personnel; ~ navigant flight crew. personnellement [persDnelmâ] adv personally. personnification [persDnihkasj5] nf personification. personnifier [persrmifje] [9] vt to personify. perspective [perspektiv] nf -\. [ART & point de vue] perspective. -2. [panorama] view. -3. [éventualité] prospect. perspicace [perspikas] adj perspicacious. perspicacité [perspikasite] «/"perspicacity. persuader [persqade] [3] vt: ~ qqn de qqch de faire qqch to persuade sb of sthg/ to do sthg, to convince sb of sthg/to do sthg. ♦ se persuader vp: se ~ que to persuade OU convince o.s. (that); se ~ de to persuade OU convince o.s. of. persuasif, -ive [persqazif, iv] adj persuasive. persuasion [persqazj5] nf persuasion. perte [pert] «/"-I. [gén] loss; à ~ COMM at a loss; ~ sèche dead loss. -2. [gaspillage - de temps] waste; en pure ~ for absolutely nothing. -3. [ruine, déchéance] ruin; courir/ aller à sa — to be on the road to ruin. ♦ pertes nfpl [morts] losses.

pertinemment 384 ♦ à perte de vue loc adv as far as the eye can see. pertinemment [pertinamû] adv pertinently. pertinence [pertinâs] nf pertinence, relevance. pertinent, -e [pertinâ, ât] adj pertinent, relevant. perturbateur, -trice [pertyrbatoer, tris] O ^/disruptive. O nm, ftroublemaker. perturbation [pertyrbasj5] «/"disruption; ASTRON s^ MÉTÉOR disturbance. perturber [pertyrbe] [3] vt to disrupt; ~ l'ordre public to disturb the peace. péruvien, -ienne [peryvjê, jen] adj Peruvian. ♦ Péruvien, -ienne nm, f Peruvian. pervenche [pervâj-] O nf -\. ROT periwinkle. -2. fam [contractuelle] meter maid Am, traffic warden Br. o adj inv (periwinkle) blue. pervers, -e [perver, ers] O adj -1. [vicieux] perverted. -2. [effet] unwanted, o nm, f pervert. perversion [perversj5] «/"perversion. perversité [perversité] «f perversity. pervertir [pervertir] [32] vt to pervert. ♦ se pervertir v\? to become perverted. pesage [paza3] nm -1. [pesée] weighing. -2. [de jockey] weigh-in. pesamment [pazamâ] adv heavily. pesant, -e [pasâ, ât] adj -1. [lourd] heavy. -2. [style, architecture] ponderous. ♦ pesant nm: valoir son ~ d'or fig to be worth its/one's weight in gold. pesanteur [pazâtoer] nf-1. PHYS gravity. -2. [lourdeur] heaviness. pesée [paze] nf-1. [opération] weighing. -2. [quantité] weight. -3. [pression] pressure, force. pèse-lettre [pezletr] {pi inv OU pèse-lettres) nm letter-scales. pèse-personne [pezperson] (j?l inv OU pèse-personnes) nm scales (j?t). peser [paze] [19] o vt to weigh; tout bien pesé fig all things considered, o vi -1. [avoir un certain poids] to weigh. -2. [être lourd] to be heavy; ~ à qqn fig to weigh on sb; ~ sur fig [accabler] to weigh heavy on; fig [influer sur] to influence. -3. [appuyer]: ~ sur qqch to press (down) on sthg. ♦ se peser vp to weigh o.s. peseta [pezeta] «/"peseta. pessimisme [pesimism] nm pessimism. pessimiste [pesimist] O nmf pessimist. O adj pessimistic. peste [pest] nf -1. MÉD plague; craindre qqn/qqch comme la ~ fig to be terrified of

sb/sthg; fuir qqn/qqch comme la ~ fig to avoid sb/sthg like the plague. -2. [personne] pest. pester [peste] [3] vi: ~ (contre qqn/qqch) to curse (sb/sthg). pesticide [pestisid] O nm pesticide. O adj pesticidal. pestiféré, -e [pestiféré] o adj plaguestricken, o nm, /plague victim. pestilentiel, -ielle [pestilâsjel] adj pestilential. pet [pe] nm fam fart. pétale [petal] nm petal. pétanque [petâk] nf — bowls (I/). pétant, -e [petâ, ât] adj fam on the dot. pétarader [pétarade] [3] vi to backfire. pétard [petar] nm -1. [petit explosif] firecracker, banger Br. -2. fam [revolver] gun. -3. fam [postérieur] butt Am, bum Br. -4. fam [haschich] joint. pet-de-nonne [pednon] {pi pets-de-nonne) nm very light fritter. péter [pete] [18] O vi -1. tfam [personne] to fart. -2. fam [câble, élastique] to snap. O vt fam to bust. pète-sec [petsek] adj inv fam bossy. pétillant, -e [petijâ, ât] adj litt & fig sparkling. pétiller [petije] [3] vi -1. [vin, eau] to sparkle, to bubble. -2. [feu] to crackle. -3. fig [yeux] to sparkle; ~ de [personne] to bubble with; [yeux] to sparkle with. petiot, -e [patjo, at] o adj teeny, o nm, f little one. petit, -e [pad, it] O adj -1. [de taille, jeune] small, little; ~ frère little OU younger brother; ~e sœur little OU younger sister. -2. [voyage, visite] short, little. -3. [faible, infime - somme d'argent] small; [- bruit] faint, slight; c'est une ~e nature he/she is slightly built. -4. [de peu d'importance, de peu de valeur] minor. -5. [médiocre, mesquin] petty. -6. [de rang modeste - commerçant, propriétaire, pays] small; [- fonctionnaire] minor; les —es gens people of modest means. O nm, f -1. [personne de petite taille] small man (/ woman). -2. [enfant] little one, child; bonjour, mon ~/ma ~e good morning, my dear; pauvre ~! poor little thing!; la classe des —s SCOL the infant class. O nm -1. [jeune animal] young (U); faire des ~s to have puppies/kittens etc. -2. (gén pi) [personne modeste] little man.

385 peur ♦ petit à petit loc adv little by little, gradually. petit-beurre [p(a)tibcer] (/?/ petit*-beurre) nm small biscuit. petit-bourgeois, petite-bourgeoise [p(3)tibur3wa, p(a)titbur3waz] (mpl petit*bourgeois, fpl petites-bourgeoises) péj O adj lower middle-class, o nm, f lower middle-class person. petit déjeuner [p(3)tide30ne] (pi petit* déjeuners) nm breakfast. petit-déjeuner [p(3)tide30ne] [5] vi to have breakfast, to breakfast. petite-fille [p(a)titfij] (j?l petites-filles) nf granddaughter. petitement [p(3)titmû] adv -1. [être logé] in cramped conditions. -2. [chichement - vivre] poorly. -3. [mesquinement] pettily. petitesse [petites] nf -1. [de personne, de revenu] smallness. -2. [d'esprit] pettiness. petit-fils [p(a)tifis] (jd petit*-fils) nm grandson. petit-four [p(a)tifur] (pi petit*-fours) nm petit-four. pétition [petisj5] ///"petition. pétitionner [petispne] [3] vi to petition. petit-lait [p(a)tile] (pi petit*-laits) ///// whey. petit-nègre [p(a)tinegr] ///// inv fam pidgin French. petit*-enfants [p(3)tizùfâ] nmpl grandchildren. petit-suisse [p(9)tisqis] (/?/ petit*-suisses) ///// fresh soft cheese, eaten with sugar. peton [pat5] nm fam foot. pétrifier [petrifje] [9] vt litt & fig to petrify. ♦ se pétrifier vp to become petrified. pétrin [petrê] ///// -1. [de boulanger] kneading machine. -2. fam [embarras] pickle; se fourrer/être dans le ~ to get into/to be in a pickle. pétrir [pétrir] [32] vt -1. [pâte, muscle] to knead. -2. fig & littéraire [personne] to mould; pétri d'orgueil filled with pride. pétrochimie [petrDjimi] ///"petrochemistry. pétrochimique [petrnjimik] adj petrochemical. pétrodollar [petrDdDlar] ///// petrodollar. pétrole [petrol] nm oil, petroleum; ~ lampant kerosene Am, paraffin (oil) Br. pétrolier, -ière [petrolje, jer] adj oil {avant n), petroleum (avant //). ♦ pétrolier nm -1. [navire] oil tanker. -2. [personne] oil magnate. pétrolifere [petrDlifer] adj oil-bearing. pétulant, -e [petylâ, ât] adj exuberant. pétunia [petynja] nm petunia. peu [po] o adv -1. (avec verbe, adjectif

adverbe): il a ~ dormi he didn't sleep much, he slept little; c'est un livre ~ intéressant it's not a very interesting book; ~ souvent not very often, rarely; très ~ very little. -2. ~ de (+ nom sg) little, not much; (+ nom pi) few, not many; il a ~ de travail he hasn't got much work, he has little work; c'est (bien) ~ de chose it's not much; il reste ~ de jours there aren't many days left; ~ d'élèves l'ont compris few OU not many students understood him; ~ de gens le connaissent few OU not many know him. O ///// -1. [petite quantité]: le ~ de (+ nom sg) the little; (+ nom pi) the few; avec mon ~ de moyens with the little I possess. -2. un ~ a little, a bit; je le connais un ~ I know him slightly OU a little; un (tout) petit ~ a little bit; elle est un ~ sotte she's a bit stupid; tu parles un ~ fort you're talking a little too loudly; un ~ de a little; un ~ de vin/patience a little wine/patience. ♦ avant peu loc adv soon, before long. ♦ depuis peu loc adv recently. ♦ peu à peu loc adv gradually, little by little. ♦ pour peu que loc conj (+ subjonctif) if ever, if only. ♦ pour un peu loc adv nearly, almost. ♦ si peu que loc conj (+ subjonctif) however little. ♦ sous peu loc adv soon, shortly. peul, -e [pol] adj Fulani. ♦ peul nm [langue] Fulani. ♦ Peul, -e nm, f Fulani. peuplade [pceplad] ///"tribe. peuple [pee pi] ///// -1. [gén] people; le ~ the (common) people. -2. fam [multitude]: quel ~! what a crowd! peuplé, -e [pceple] adj populated. peuplement [pcepbmù] nm -1. [action] populating. -2. [population] population. peupler [pceple] [5] vt -1. [pourvoir d'habitants - région] to populate; [- bois, étang] to stock. -2. [habiter, occuper] to inhabit. -3. fig [remplir] to fill. ♦ se peupler vp -1. [région] to become populated. -2. [rue. salle] to be filled. peuplier [peplije] nm poplar. peur [peer] nf fear; avoir ~ de qqn/qqch to be afraid of sb/sthg; avoir ~ de faire qqch to be afraid of doing sthg; avoir ~ que (+ subjonctif) to be afraid that; j'ai ~ qu'il ne vienne pas I'm afraid he won't come; faire ~ à qqn to frighten sb; par OU de ~

peureux 386 de qqch for fear of sthg; par OU de ~ de faire qqch for fear of doing sthg; il n'a pas ~ du ridicule he doesn't mind making a fool of himself; avoir une ~ bleue de to be scared stiff of; avoir plus de ~ que de mal to be more frightened than hurt; laid à faire ~ horribly ugly; mourir de ~ to die of fright; prendre ~ to take fright. peureux, -euse [pcero, oz] o adj fearful, timid. O nm, f fearful OU timid person. peut —» pouvoir. peut-être [potctr] adv perhaps, maybe; ~ qu'ils ne viendront pas, ils ne viendront ~ pas perhaps OU maybe they won't come; ~ pas perhaps OU maybe not. peux —* pouvoir. p. ex. (ahr de par exemple) e.g. pH {abr de potential of hydrogen) nm pH. phalange [falâ3] nf -1. anat phalanx. -2. POLIT falange. phallique [falik] adj phallic. phallocrate [fabkrat] o nm male chauvinist. O adj male chauvinist {avant //); [milieu] male-dominated. phallus [falys] nm phallus. pharaon [fara5] nm pharaoh. phare [far] O nm -1. [tour] lighthouse. -2. AUTOM headlight; ~ antibrouillard fog lamp, o adj landmark {avant n); une industrie ~ flagship ou pioneering industry. pharmaceutique [farmasotik] adj pharmaceutical. pharmacie [farmasi] nf -1. [science] pharmacology. -2. [magasin] drugstore Am, chemist's Br. -3. [meuble]: (armoire à) ~ medicine cupboard. pharmacien, -ienne [farmasjê, jen] nm, f druggist Am, chemist Br. pharmacologie [farmakob3i] nf pharmacology. pharyngite [farê3it] «/"pharyngitis ((./). pharynx [farêks] nm pharynx. phase [faz] nf phase; être en ~ avec qqn to be on the same wavelength as sb. phénix [feniks] nm -1. MYTH phoenix. -2. [personne] paragon. phénoménal, -e, -aux [fenomenal, o] adj phenomenal. phénomène [fennmcn] ///// -1. [fait] phenomenon. -2. [être anormal] freak. -3. fam [excentrique] character. philanthropie [filâtropi] «/philanthropy. philanthropique [filûtrr>pik] adj philanthropic. philatélie [filateli] nf philately, stampcollecting. philatéliste [filatelist] nmf philatelist,

stamp-collector. philharmonique [filarmnnik] adj philharmonic. philippin, -e [filipe, in] adj Filipino. ♦ Philippin, -e nm, f Filipino. Philippines [filipin] ////>/: les ~ the Philippines; aux ~ in the Philippines. philistin [filistê] ///// philistine. philodendron [fibdêdr5] nm philodendron. philologie [fiblrvji] ///"philology. philosophe [fibzof] O ///wf philosopher. O adj philosophical. philosopher [fibznfe] [3] vi to philosophize. philosophie [fibzafi] //f philosophy. philosophique [fibzofik] adj philosophical. philosophiquement [fibzoEkma] adv philosophically. philtre [filtr] nm love potion. phlébite [flebit] ///"phlebitis. Phnom Penh [pnompen] n Phnom Penh. phobie [fobi] ///"phobia. phobique [fobik] nmf SI adj phobic. phonème [fonem] nm phoneme. phonétique [bnetik] O nf phonetics {U). o adj phonetic. phonétiquement [fonetikmù] adv phonetically. phono [fonol nm fam vieilli phonograph Am, gramophone Br. phonographe [fonograf] nm vieilli phonograph Am, gramophone